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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1086/712638

The Impact of Peer Personality on Academic Achievement

02 Mar 2021-Journal of Political Economy (University of Chicago Press)-Vol. 129, Iss: 4, pp 1052-1099
Abstract: This paper provides evidence of a novel facet of peer effects by showing that peer personality influences academic achievement. We exploit random assignment of students to university sections and find that students perform better in the presence of persistent peers. The impact of peer persistence is enduring, as students exposed to persistent peers at the beginning of their studies continue to achieve higher grades in subsequent periods. The personality peer effects that we document are distinct from other observable peer characteristics and suggest that peer personality traits affect human capital accumulation.

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Topics: Peer group (64%), Personality (58%), Academic achievement (57%) ... read more

14 results found

Open access
01 Jan 2016-
Abstract: Thank you very much for reading handbook of psychological testing. As you may know, people have search hundreds times for their favorite readings like this handbook of psychological testing, but end up in infectious downloads. Rather than reading a good book with a cup of tea in the afternoon, instead they juggled with some infectious virus inside their laptop. handbook of psychological testing is available in our digital library an online access to it is set as public so you can download it instantly. Our digital library hosts in multiple countries, allowing you to get the most less latency time to download any of our books like this one. Kindly say, the handbook of psychological testing is universally compatible with any devices to read.

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Topics: Psychological testing (58%)

1,038 Citations

Open accessDatasetDOI: 10.3886/E112446V1
11 Oct 2019-
Abstract: To the extent that students benefit from high-achieving peers, tracking will help strong students and hurt weak ones. However, all students may benefit if tracking allows teachers to present material at a more appropriate level. Lower-achieving pupils are particularly likely to benefit from tracking if teachers would otherwise have incentives to teach to the top of the distribution. We propose a simple model nesting these effects. We compare 61 Kenyan schools in which students were randomly assigned to a first grade class with 60 in which students were assigned based on initial achievement. In non-tracking schools, students randomly assigned to academically stronger peers scored higher, consistent with a positive direct effect of academically strong peers. However, compared to their counterparts in non-tracking schools, students in tracking schools scored 0.14 standard deviations higher after 18 months, and this effect persisted one year after the program ended. Furthermore, students at all levels of the distribution benefited from tracking. Students near the median of the pre-test distribution benefited similarly whether assigned to the lower or upper section. A natural interpretation is that the direct effect of high-achieving peers is positive, but that tracking benefited lower-achieving pupils indirectly by allowing teachers to teach at a level more appropriate to them.

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Topics: Replication (computing) (55%)

319 Citations

Open accessPosted Content
Ulf Zölitz, Jan Feld1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Business degrees are popular and lead to high earnings Female business graduates, however, earn less than their male counterparts These gender differences can be traced back to university, where women shy away from majors like finance that lead to high earnings In this paper, we investigate how the gender composition of peers in business school affects women's and men's major choices and labor market outcomes We find that women who are randomly assigned to teaching sections with more female peers become less likely to choose male-dominated majors like finance and more likely to choose female-dominated majors like marketing After graduation, these women end up in jobs where their earnings grow more slowly Men, on the other hand, become more likely to choose male-dominated majors and less likely to choose female-dominated majors when they had more female peers in business school However, men's labor market outcomes are not significantly affected Taken together, our results show that studying with more female peers in business school increases gender segregation in educational choice and affects labor market outcomes

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Topics: Earnings (54%), Graduation (50%)

28 Citations

Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: The immense literature on discrimination treats outcomes as relative: One group suffers compared to another But does a difference arise because agents discriminate against others – are exophobic – or because they favor their own kind – are endophilic? This difference matters, as the relative importance of the types of discrimination and their inter-relation affect market outcomes Using a field experiment in which graders at one university were randomly assigned students' exams that did or did not contain the students' names, on average we find favoritism but no discrimination by nationality, and neither favoritism nor discrimination by gender, findings that are robust to a wide variety of potential concerns We observe heterogeneity in both discrimination and favoritism by nationality and by gender in the distributions of graders' preferences We show that a changing correlation between endophilia and exophobia can generate perverse predictions for observed market discrimination

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17 Citations

Open accessPosted Content
14 May 2020-
Abstract: Recent evidence has established that non-cognitive skills are key determinants of education and labor outcomes. However, little is known about the mechanisms producing these results. This paper tests a channel that could explain part of the association between some non-cognitive characteristics and educational attainment: teachers' assessment practices that unequally evaluate students on the basis of their classroom behavior rather than their scholastic competence. Evidence is drawn from unique data on middle- and high-school students in Brazilian private schools. Our main empirical strategy is based on the contrasting of teacher-assigned and blindly-assigned scores on achievement tests that are high-stakes and cover the same material. Using detailed data on student classroom behaviors and holding constant performance in exams graded blindly, evidence indicates that teachers inflate test scores of better-behaved students, and deduct points from worse-behaved ones. We also find that, conditional on end-of-year grade, teachers' decision to approve pupils that are bellow the passing cutoff grade is influenced by how these students behaved in class. Back of the envelope calculations suggest that this grading behavior may significantly change the proportion of students failing the school year depending on their classroom attitudes.

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Topics: Grading (education) (55%), Achievement test (54%)

6 Citations


36 results found

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.2517-6161.1995.TB02031.X
Abstract: SUMMARY The common approach to the multiplicity problem calls for controlling the familywise error rate (FWER). This approach, though, has faults, and we point out a few. A different approach to problems of multiple significance testing is presented. It calls for controlling the expected proportion of falsely rejected hypotheses -the false discovery rate. This error rate is equivalent to the FWER when all hypotheses are true but is smaller otherwise. Therefore, in problems where the control of the false discovery rate rather than that of the FWER is desired, there is potential for a gain in power. A simple sequential Bonferronitype procedure is proved to control the false discovery rate for independent test statistics, and a simulation study shows that the gain in power is substantial. The use of the new procedure and the appropriateness of the criterion are illustrated with examples.

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Topics: False discovery rate (72%), Per-comparison error rate (66%), False coverage rate (63%) ... read more

71,936 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2307/4615733
Abstract: This paper presents a simple and widely ap- plicable multiple test procedure of the sequentially rejective type, i.e. hypotheses are rejected one at a tine until no further rejections can be done. It is shown that the test has a prescribed level of significance protection against error of the first kind for any combination of true hypotheses. The power properties of the test and a number of possible applications are also discussed.

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18,821 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/001316446002000116
Abstract: more stodgy and less exciting application of computers to psychological problems. Let me warn you about how I am going to talk today. I have not conducted a survey of available computer programs for factor analytic computations, nor have I done an analysis of the problems of the application of computers to factor analysis in any way that could be considered scientific. I am saying that I shall ask you to listen to my opinions about the applications of computers to factor

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8,718 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.92.6.1087
Abstract: The importance of intellectual talent to achievement in all professional domains is well established, but less is known about other individual differences that predict success. The authors tested the importance of 1 noncognitive trait: grit. Defined as perseverance and passion for long-term goals, grit accounted for an average of 4% of the variance in success outcomes, including educational attainment among 2 samples of adults (N=1,545 and N=690), grade point average among Ivy League undergraduates (N=138), retention in 2 classes of United States Military Academy, West Point, cadets (N=1,218 and N=1,308), and ranking in the National Spelling Bee (N=175). Grit did not relate positively to IQ but was highly correlated with Big Five Conscientiousness. Grit nonetheless demonstrated incremental predictive validity of success measures over and beyond IQ and conscientiousness. Collectively, these findings suggest that the achievement of difficult goals entails not only talent but also the sustained and focused application of talent over time.

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Topics: Grit (66%), Academic achievement (54%), Conscientiousness (52%) ... read more

3,613 Citations

Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: We develop estimation methods that use the amount of selection on the observables in a model as a guide to the amount of selection on the unobservables. We show that if the observed variables are a random subset of a large number of factors that influence the endogenous variable and the outcome of interest, then the relationship between the index of observables that determines the endogenous variable and the index that determines the outcome will be the same as the relationship between the indices of unobservables that determine the two variables. In some circumstances this fact may be used to identify the effect of the endogenous variable. We also propose an informal way to assess selectivity bias based on measuring the ratio of selection on unobservables to selection on observables that would be required if one is to attribute the entire effect of the endogenous variable to selection bias. We use our methods to estimate the effect of attending a Catholic high school on a variety of outcomes. Our main conclusion is that Catholic high schools substantially increase the probability of graduating from high school and, more tentatively, college attendance. We do not find much evidence for an effect on test scores.

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2,229 Citations

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