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Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/ICETC.2010.5529269

Wireless hacking - a WiFi hack by cracking WEP

22 Jun 2010-Vol. 1
Abstract: Wireless Local Area Networks frequently referred to as WLANs or Wi-Fi networks are all the vehemence in recent times. People are installing these in houses, institutions, offices and hotels etc, without any vain. In search of fulfilling the wireless demands, Wi-Fi product vendors and service contributors are exploding up as quickly as possible. Wireless networks offer handiness, mobility, and can even be less expensive to put into practice than wired networks in many cases. With the consumer demand, vendor solutions and industry standards, wireless network technology is factual and is here to stay. But how far this technology is going provide a protected environment in terms of privacy is again an anonymous issue. Realizing the miscellaneous threats and vulnerabilities associated with 802.11-based wireless networks and ethically hacking them to make them more secure is what this paper is all about. On this segment, we'll seize a look at common threats, vulnerabilities related with wireless networks. And also we have discussed the entire process of cracking WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) encryption of WiFi, focusing the necessity to become familiar with scanning tools like Cain, NetStumbler, Kismet and MiniStumbler to help survey the area and tests we should run so as to strengthen our air signals.

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Topics: Wireless network (59%), Wi-Fi (58%), Wired Equivalent Privacy (56%) ...read more
Citations
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Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/LCNW.2015.7365922
26 Oct 2015-
Abstract: The popularity of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is increasing in critical infrastructure, smart metering, and home automation. Of the numerous protocols available, Z-Wave has significant potential for growth in WSNs. As a proprietary protocol, there are few research publications concerning Z-Wave, and thus little is known about the security implications of its use. Z-Wave networks use a gateway controller to manage and control all devices. Vulnerabilities have been discovered in Z-Wave gateways, all of which rely on the gateway to be consistently connected to the Internet. The work herein introduces a new vulnerability that allows the injection of a rogue controller into the network. Once injected, the rogue controller maintains a stealthy, persistent communication channel with all inadequately defended devices. The severity of this type of attack warrants mitigation steps, presented herein.

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30 Citations


Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: This paper discusses current threats in wireless networks and some academia research reviews regarding the matters. Significant and persistent threats discussed are sniffing, Man In the Middle Attack (MITM), Rogue Access Points (RAP), Denial Of Services (DoS) and social engineering attacks. Some current developments of wireless communication technology such as short range communication, cloud computing, bring your own device policy (BYOD), devices tethering and convergences of WiFi and cellular network technology are also presented. Some practical suggestion and advanced countermeasures are also reviewed in this paper. The findings from reviewing these research papers proved that the complexity of the attacks had increased by time and the attacks in WiFi network are passive and more dangerous to the end users.

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Topics: Rogue access point (55%), Wireless network (54%), Bring your own device (54%) ...read more

30 Citations


Book ChapterDOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-815032-0.00007-X
01 Jan 2019-
Abstract: E-government is an indispensable part of a Smart City. Information and communication technologies transform the relationship between citizens, businesses, and government departments, which enables the implementation of e-government, making operational processes efficient and speedy. This chapter investigates the current deployment strategies and the technological solutions of e-government in terms of security and privacy in a Smart City environment; it also identifies the challenges of adoption. In addition, this chapter proposes a decentralized framework based upon blockchain and artificial intelligence to provide a secure and privacy-preserving infrastructure. The proposed framework integrates technologies to provide mutual trust between individuals, businesses, and governments, leading to a greater transparency of activity and less operational overhead. The reduction in process overhead results in lower running costs (therefore increasing revenue) and improves the speed of cross-boundary transactions.

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30 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.14569/IJACSA.2014.050125
Abstract: Wireless LANs are everywhere these days from home to large enterprise corporate networks due to the ease of installation, employee convenience, avoiding wiring cost and constant mobility support. However, the greater availability of wireless LANs means increased danger from attacks and increased challenges to an organisation, IT staff and IT security professionals. This paper discusses the various security issues and vulnerabilities related to the IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN encryption standard and common threats/attacks pertaining to the home and enterprise Wireless LAN system and provide overall guidelines and recommendation to the home users and organizations.

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Topics: Certified Wireless Network Administrator (69%), IEEE 802.11e-2005 (60%), Service set (59%) ...read more

16 Citations


Open accessDissertation
01 Jan 2014-
Abstract: Computer networks are complex - they are a heterogeneous environment in which numerous services, such as electronic mail, web browsing, voice and multimedia data, traverse the globe daily. The needs and demands of end users continuously change, and to meet these, new technologies are being incorporated into this mega digital infrastructure at a phenomenal rate. In addition to ensuring that necessary functionalities are provided, it is vitally important to ensure that network performance is always at its optimum. Fundamentally, networks are an environment where data, mostly in the form of TCP and UDP, are being propagated end-to-end between the sending and receiving nodes. There are numerous avenues of network performance that can be exploited in order to improve its performance. Research in this area is multi-faceted, and in this thesis the focus is on evaluating the behaviour of TCP and UDP end-to-end on networks in three scenarios, namely, networks with transition mechanisms, wireless based networks, and in the context of using virtual private network technologies as security protocols. This thesis will give insights into the behaviour of common protocols on real networks. Therefore, performance metrics related to networks have been gathered from test-bed implementations. The collected data has been presented in graphs and heat maps, which have been evaluated to ascertain network related characteristics. In particular, key metrics have been identified, networking techniques within each context have been ranked, specific observations related to each network environment have been made, and finally, the impact of either version of the Internet Protocol or an operating system has been evaluated.

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Topics: Network performance (63%), TCP acceleration (59%), Zeta-TCP (57%) ...read more

12 Citations


References
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/65.806983
Lidong Zhou1, Zygmunt J. HaasInstitutions (1)
01 Nov 1999-IEEE Network
Abstract: Ad hoc networks are a new wireless networking paradigm for mobile hosts. Unlike traditional mobile wireless networks, ad hoc networks do not rely on any fixed infrastructure. Instead, hosts rely on each other to keep the network connected. Military tactical and other security-sensitive operations are still the main applications of ad hoc networks, although there is a trend to adopt ad hoc networks for commercial uses due to their unique properties. One main challenge in the design of these networks is their vulnerability to security attacks. In this article, we study the threats on ad hoc network faces and the security goals to be achieved. We identify the new challenges and opportunities posed by this new networking environment and explore new approaches to secure its communication. In particular, we take advantage of the inherent redundancy in ad hoc networks-multiple routes between nodes-to defend routing against denial-of-service attacks. We also use replication and new cryptographic schemes, such as threshold cryptography, to build a highly secure and highly available key management service, which terms the core of our security framework.

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  • Fig. 3: The RTS/CTS dialogue reduces the chances of collisions
    Fig. 3: The RTS/CTS dialogue reduces the chances of collisions

2,632 Citations


Open accessProceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1145/381677.381684
Jinyang Li1, Charles H. Blake1, Douglas S. J. De Couto1, Hu Imm Lee1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
16 Jul 2001-
Abstract: Early simulation experience with wireless ad hoc networks suggests that their capacity can be surprisingly low, due to the requirement that nodes forward each others' packets. The achievable capacity depends on network size, traffic patterns, and detailed local radio interactions. This paper examines these factors alone and in combination, using simulation and analysis from first principles. Our results include both specific constants and general scaling relationships helpful in understanding the limitations of wireless ad hoc networks.We examine interactions of the 802.11 MAC and ad hoc forwarding and the effect on capacity for several simple configurations and traffic patterns. While 802.11 discovers reasonably good schedules, we nonetheless observe capacities markedly less than optimal for very simple chain and lattice networks with very regular traffic patterns. We validate some simulation results with experiments.We also show that the traffic pattern determines whether an ad hoc network's per node capacity will scale to large networks. In particular, we show that for total capacity to scale up with network size the average distance between source and destination nodes must remain small as the network grows. Non-local traffic-patterns in which this average distance grows with the network size result in a rapid decrease of per node capacity. Thus the question “Are large ad hoc networks feasible?” reduces to a question about the likely locality of communication in such networks.

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  • Figure 10: Total one-hopthr oughput for lattice networks with just horizontal traffic, latticeswith both horizontal and vertical traffic, and networks with random node placement and random source-destinationpairs. The X axis indicatesthe network area; the number of nodesis proportional to the area. The axis indicates total one-hop thr oughput measured as the sum total of bits of data sentby all nodesper second,including forwarded bits. The simulations use1500-bytepackets. Note that the total one-hopcapacityscalessimilarly in all thr eesituations.
    Figure 10: Total one-hopthr oughput for lattice networks with just horizontal traffic, latticeswith both horizontal and vertical traffic, and networks with random node placement and random source-destinationpairs. The X axis indicatesthe network area; the number of nodesis proportional to the area. The axis indicates total one-hop thr oughput measured as the sum total of bits of data sentby all nodesper second,including forwarded bits. The simulations use1500-bytepackets. Note that the total one-hopcapacityscalessimilarly in all thr eesituations.
  • Figure 1: Total network thr oughput achieved as a function of the number of competingnodes.All nodesarewithin eachothers’ radio ranges,and all nodessendas fast as 802.11allows.
    Figure 1: Total network thr oughput achieved as a function of the number of competingnodes.All nodesarewithin eachothers’ radio ranges,and all nodessendas fast as 802.11allows.
  • Figure 11: Log scaleplot of simulated per nodecapacity with 1500-bytepackets,as the number of nodesgrows in a random network, and the fitted O 1 n .
    Figure 11: Log scaleplot of simulated per nodecapacity with 1500-bytepackets,as the number of nodesgrows in a random network, and the fitted O 1 n .
  • Figure 3: Thr oughput achieved along a chain of nodes,as a function of the chain length. The nodesare 200meters apart. The first nodeoriginates packetsasfast as802.11allows, to be forwarded along the chain to the last node. The thr oughputs for chainsof 20 and 50nodesare the sameasfor 10nodes.
    Figure 3: Thr oughput achieved along a chain of nodes,as a function of the chain length. The nodesare 200meters apart. The first nodeoriginates packetsasfast as802.11allows, to be forwarded along the chain to the last node. The thr oughputs for chainsof 20 and 50nodesare the sameasfor 10nodes.
  • Figure 2: MAC interfer ence among a chain of nodes. The solid-line circle denotesa node’svalid transmissionrange. The dotted-line circle denotesa node’s interfer encerange. Node4’s transmissionwill corrupt node1’s transmissionsat node2.
    Figure 2: MAC interfer ence among a chain of nodes. The solid-line circle denotesa node’svalid transmissionrange. The dotted-line circle denotesa node’s interfer encerange. Node4’s transmissionwill corrupt node1’s transmissionsat node2.
  • + 5

Topics: Wireless ad hoc network (73%), Vehicular ad hoc network (71%), Mobile ad hoc network (68%) ...read more

1,670 Citations


Open accessProceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1145/1514274.1514286
Erik Tews1, Martin Beck2Institutions (2)
16 Mar 2009-
Abstract: In this paper, we describe two attacks on IEEE 802.11 based wireless LANs. The first attack is an improved key recovery attack on WEP, which reduces the average number of packets an attacker has to intercept to recover the secret key. The second attack is (according to our knowledge) the first practical attack on WPA secured wireless networks, besides launching a dictionary attack when a weak pre-shared key (PSK) is used. The attack works if the network is using TKIP to encrypt the traffic. An attacker, who has about 12-15 minutes access to the network is then able to decrypt an ARP request or response and send 7 packets with custom content to network.

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209 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1145/997122.997132
V. Moen1, Håvard Raddum1, Kjell Hole1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This article describes some weaknesses in the key scheduling in Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) put forward to secure the IEEE standard 802.11-1999. Given a few RC4 packet keys in WPA it is possible to find the Temporal Key (TK) and the Message Integrity Check (MIC) key. This is not a practical attack on WPA, but it shows that parts of WPA are weak on their own. Using this attack it is possible to do a TK recovery attack on WPA with complexity O(2105) compared to a brute force attack with complexity O (2128).

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74 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Martin Beck, Erik Tews1Institutions (1)
Abstract: In this paper, we describe two attacks on IEEE 802.11 based wireless LANs[2]. The first attack is an improved key recovery attack on WEP, which reduces the average number of packets an attacker has to intercept to recover the secret key. The second attack is (according to our knowledge) the first practical attack on WPA secured wireless networks, besides launching a dictionary attack when a weak pre shared key (PSK) is used. The attack works if the network is using TKIP to encrypt the traffic. An attacker, who has about 12-15 minutes access to the network is then able to decrypt an ARP request or response and send 7 packets with custom content to network.

...read more

Topics: Key-recovery attack (67%), Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (65%), Dictionary attack (62%) ...read more

19 Citations

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