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Axel Scherer

Bio: Axel Scherer is an academic researcher from California Institute of Technology. The author has contributed to research in topics: Photonic crystal & Photonics. The author has an hindex of 90, co-authored 736 publications receiving 43939 citations. Previous affiliations of Axel Scherer include University of Southern California & Stanford University.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
07 Apr 2000-Science
TL;DR: An extension to the soft lithography paradigm, multilayersoft lithography, with which devices consisting of multiple layers may be fabricated from soft materials is described, to build active microfluidic systems containing on-off valves, switching valves, and pumps entirely out of elastomer.
Abstract: Soft lithography is an alternative to silicon-based micromachining that uses replica molding of nontraditional elastomeric materials to fabricate stamps and microfluidic channels. We describe here an extension to the soft lithography paradigm, multilayer soft lithography, with which devices consisting of multiple layers may be fabricated from soft materials. We used this technique to build active microfluidic systems containing on-off valves, switching valves, and pumps entirely out of elastomer. The softness of these materials allows the device areas to be reduced by more than two orders of magnitude compared with silicon-based devices. The other advantages of soft lithography, such as rapid prototyping, ease of fabrication, and biocompatibility, are retained.

4,218 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
11 Jun 1999-Science
TL;DR: A laser cavity formed from a single defect in a two-dimensional photonic crystal is demonstrated and pulsed lasing action has been observed at a wavelength of 1.5 micrometers from optically pumped devices with a substrate temperature of 143 kelvin.
Abstract: A laser cavity formed from a single defect in a two-dimensional photonic crystal is demonstrated. The optical microcavity consists of a half wavelength–thick waveguide for vertical confinement and a two-dimensional photonic crystal mirror for lateral localization. A defect in the photonic crystal is introduced to trap photons inside a volume of 2.5 cubic half-wavelengths, approximately 0.03 cubic micrometers. The laser is fabricated in the indium gallium arsenic phosphide material system, and optical gain is provided by strained quantum wells designed for a peak emission wavelength of 1.55 micrometers at room temperature. Pulsed lasing action has been observed at a wavelength of 1.5 micrometers from optically pumped devices with a substrate temperature of 143 kelvin.

2,310 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
11 Nov 2004-Nature
TL;DR: The experimental realization of a strongly coupled system in the solid state is reported: a single quantum dot embedded in the spacer of a nanocavity, showing vacuum-field Rabi splitting exceeding the decoherence linewidths of both the nanoc Cavity and the quantum dot.
Abstract: Cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) systems allow the study of a variety of fundamental quantum-optics phenomena, such as entanglement, quantum decoherence and the quantum–classical boundary. Such systems also provide test beds for quantum information science. Nearly all strongly coupled cavity QED experiments have used a single atom in a high-quality-factor (high-Q) cavity. Here we report the experimental realization of a strongly coupled system in the solid state: a single quantum dot embedded in the spacer of a nanocavity, showing vacuum-field Rabi splitting exceeding the decoherence linewidths of both the nanocavity and the quantum dot. This requires a small-volume cavity and an atomic-like two-level system. The photonic crystal slab nanocavity—which traps photons when a defect is introduced inside the two-dimensional photonic bandgap by leaving out one or more holes—has both high Q and small modal volume V, as required for strong light–matter interactions. The quantum dot has two discrete energy levels with a transition dipole moment much larger than that of an atom, and it is fixed in the nanocavity during growth.

2,135 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The relations for the dispersion and the group velocity of the photonic band of the CROW's are obtained and it is found that they are solely characterized by coupling factor k(1) .
Abstract: We propose a new type of optical waveguide that consists of a sequence of coupled high- Q resonators. Unlike other types of optical waveguide, waveguiding in the coupled-resonator optical waveguide (CROW) is achieved through weak coupling between otherwise localized high- Q optical cavities. Employing a formalism similar to the tight-binding method in solid-state physics, we obtain the relations for the dispersion and the group velocity of the photonic band of the CROW's and find that they are solely characterized by coupling factor k 1 . We also demonstrate the possibility of highly efficient nonlinear optical frequency conversion and perfect transmission through bends in CROW's.

1,671 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results indicate that the use of SPs would lead to a new class of very bright LEDs, and highly efficient solid-state light sources.
Abstract: Since 1993, InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been improved and commercialized, but these devices have not fulfilled their original promise as solid-state replacements for light bulbs as their light-emission efficiencies have been limited. Here we describe a method to enhance this efficiency through the energy transfer between quantum wells (QWs) and surface plasmons (SPs). SPs can increase the density of states and the spontaneous emission rate in the semiconductor, and lead to the enhancement of light emission by SP–QW coupling. Large enhancements of the internal quantum efficiencies (etaint) were measured when silver or aluminium layers were deposited 10 nm above an InGaN light-emitting layer, whereas no such enhancements were obtained from gold-coated samples. Our results indicate that the use of SPs would lead to a new class of very bright LEDs, and highly efficient solid-state light sources.

1,349 citations


Cited by
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28 Jul 2005
TL;DR: PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、树突状组胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作�ly.
Abstract: 抗原变异可使得多种致病微生物易于逃避宿主免疫应答。表达在感染红细胞表面的恶性疟原虫红细胞表面蛋白1(PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、内皮细胞、树突状细胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作用。每个单倍体基因组var基因家族编码约60种成员,通过启动转录不同的var基因变异体为抗原变异提供了分子基础。

18,940 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
10 Nov 2005-Nature
TL;DR: In this paper, an experimental investigation of magneto-transport in a high-mobility single layer of Graphene is presented, where an unusual half-integer quantum Hall effect for both electron and hole carriers in graphene is observed.
Abstract: When electrons are confined in two-dimensional materials, quantum-mechanically enhanced transport phenomena such as the quantum Hall effect can be observed. Graphene, consisting of an isolated single atomic layer of graphite, is an ideal realization of such a two-dimensional system. However, its behaviour is expected to differ markedly from the well-studied case of quantum wells in conventional semiconductor interfaces. This difference arises from the unique electronic properties of graphene, which exhibits electron–hole degeneracy and vanishing carrier mass near the point of charge neutrality1,2. Indeed, a distinctive half-integer quantum Hall effect has been predicted3,4,5 theoretically, as has the existence of a non-zero Berry's phase (a geometric quantum phase) of the electron wavefunction—a consequence of the exceptional topology of the graphene band structure6,7. Recent advances in micromechanical extraction and fabrication techniques for graphite structures8,9,10,11,12 now permit such exotic two-dimensional electron systems to be probed experimentally. Here we report an experimental investigation of magneto-transport in a high-mobility single layer of graphene. Adjusting the chemical potential with the use of the electric field effect, we observe an unusual half-integer quantum Hall effect for both electron and hole carriers in graphene. The relevance of Berry's phase to these experiments is confirmed by magneto-oscillations. In addition to their purely scientific interest, these unusual quantum transport phenomena may lead to new applications in carbon-based electronic and magneto-electronic devices.

11,122 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: An experimental investigation of magneto-transport in a high-mobility single layer of graphene observes an unusual half-integer quantum Hall effect for both electron and hole carriers in graphene.
Abstract: When electrons are confined in two-dimensional materials, quantum-mechanically enhanced transport phenomena such as the quantum Hall effect can be observed. Graphene, consisting of an isolated single atomic layer of graphite, is an ideal realization of such a two-dimensional system. However, its behaviour is expected to differ markedly from the well-studied case of quantum wells in conventional semiconductor interfaces. This difference arises from the unique electronic properties of graphene, which exhibits electron–hole degeneracy and vanishing carrier mass near the point of charge neutrality. Indeed, a distinctive half-integer quantum Hall effect has been predicted theoretically, as has the existence of a non-zero Berry's phase (a geometric quantum phase) of the electron wavefunction—a consequence of the exceptional topology of the graphene band structure. Recent advances in micromechanical extraction and fabrication techniques for graphite structures now permit such exotic two-dimensional electron systems to be probed experimentally. Here we report an experimental investigation of magneto-transport in a high-mobility single layer of graphene. Adjusting the chemical potential with the use of the electric field effect, we observe an unusual half-integer quantum Hall effect for both electron and hole carriers in graphene. The relevance of Berry's phase to these experiments is confirmed by magneto-oscillations. In addition to their purely scientific interest, these unusual quantum transport phenomena may lead to new applications in carbon-based electronic and magneto-electronic devices.

10,112 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Recent advances at the intersection of plasmonics and photovoltaics are surveyed and an outlook on the future of solar cells based on these principles is offered.
Abstract: The emerging field of plasmonics has yielded methods for guiding and localizing light at the nanoscale, well below the scale of the wavelength of light in free space. Now plasmonics researchers are turning their attention to photovoltaics, where design approaches based on plasmonics can be used to improve absorption in photovoltaic devices, permitting a considerable reduction in the physical thickness of solar photovoltaic absorber layers, and yielding new options for solar-cell design. In this review, we survey recent advances at the intersection of plasmonics and photovoltaics and offer an outlook on the future of solar cells based on these principles.

8,028 citations

Book
15 May 2007
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the role of surface plasmon polaritons at metal/insulator interfaces and their application in the propagation of surfaceplasmon waveguides.
Abstract: Fundamentals of Plasmonics.- Electromagnetics of Metals.- Surface Plasmon Polaritons at Metal / Insulator Interfaces.- Excitation of Surface Plasmon Polaritons at Planar Interfaces.- Imaging Surface Plasmon Polariton Propagation.- Localized Surface Plasmons.- Electromagnetic Surface Modes at Low Frequencies.- Applications.- Plasmon Waveguides.- Transmission of Radiation Through Apertures and Films.- Enhancement of Emissive Processes and Nonlinearities.- Spectroscopy and Sensing.- Metamaterials and Imaging with Surface Plasmon Polaritons.- Concluding Remarks.

7,238 citations