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Institution

Stanford University

EducationStanford, California, United States
About: Stanford University is a(n) education organization based out in Stanford, California, United States. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Transplantation. The organization has 125751 authors who have published 320347 publication(s) receiving 21892059 citation(s). The organization is also known as: Leland Stanford Junior University & University of Stanford.
Topics: Population, Transplantation, Cancer, Gene, Health care
Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper considers the relation between the exploration of new possibilities and the exploitation of old certainties in organizational learning. It examines some complications in allocating resources between the two, particularly those introduced by the distribution of costs and benefits across time and space, and the effects of ecological interaction. Two general situations involving the development and use of knowledge in organizations are modeled. The first is the case of mutual learning between members of an organization and an organizational code. The second is the case of learning and competitive advantage in competition for primacy. The paper develops an argument that adaptive processes, by refining exploitation more rapidly than exploration, are likely to become effective in the short run but self-destructive in the long run. The possibility that certain common organizational practices ameliorate that tendency is assessed.

14,959 citations


Book
23 May 2011-
TL;DR: It is argued that the alternating direction method of multipliers is well suited to distributed convex optimization, and in particular to large-scale problems arising in statistics, machine learning, and related areas.
Abstract: Many problems of recent interest in statistics and machine learning can be posed in the framework of convex optimization. Due to the explosion in size and complexity of modern datasets, it is increasingly important to be able to solve problems with a very large number of features or training examples. As a result, both the decentralized collection or storage of these datasets as well as accompanying distributed solution methods are either necessary or at least highly desirable. In this review, we argue that the alternating direction method of multipliers is well suited to distributed convex optimization, and in particular to large-scale problems arising in statistics, machine learning, and related areas. The method was developed in the 1970s, with roots in the 1950s, and is equivalent or closely related to many other algorithms, such as dual decomposition, the method of multipliers, Douglas–Rachford splitting, Spingarn's method of partial inverses, Dykstra's alternating projections, Bregman iterative algorithms for l1 problems, proximal methods, and others. After briefly surveying the theory and history of the algorithm, we discuss applications to a wide variety of statistical and machine learning problems of recent interest, including the lasso, sparse logistic regression, basis pursuit, covariance selection, support vector machines, and many others. We also discuss general distributed optimization, extensions to the nonconvex setting, and efficient implementation, including some details on distributed MPI and Hadoop MapReduce implementations.

14,958 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
30 Jan 1981-Science
TL;DR: The psychological principles that govern the perception of decision problems and the evaluation of probabilities and outcomes produce predictable shifts of preference when the same problem is framed in different ways.
Abstract: The psychological principles that govern the perception of decision problems and the evaluation of probabilities and outcomes produce predictable shifts of preference when the same problem is framed in different ways. Reversals of preference are demonstrated in choices regarding monetary outcomes, both hypothetical and real, and in questions pertaining to the loss of human lives. The effects of frames on preferences are compared to the effects of perspectives on perceptual appearance. The dependence of preferences on the formulation of decision problems is a significant concern for the theory of rational choice.

14,525 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Este articulo fue un discurso presidencial en la reunion de America Educational Research Association de Chicago el ano 1985. -- Curioso sobre el por que el publico a menudo tiene una baja opinion sobre el conocimiento de los profesores, Shulman observa la historia de evaluaciones docentes. En la segunda mitad del 1800, las evaluaciones para quienes deseaban ensenar se basaban casi por completo en contenido. Para el ano en que el autor escribe el articulo, en 1985, la evaluacion era completamente distinta. En lugar de enfocarse en contenido, se enfocaba en topicos como planificacion de clases, sensibilizacion cultural, y otros aspectos de la conducta docente. Mientras los topicos usualmente tenian raices en la investigacion, claramente no representan el amplio espectro de habilidades y conocimientos que un docente necesita para ser efectivo. Mas especificamente, para los anos 80', la evaluacion docente parecia preocuparse tanto por los conocimientos, como el siglo anterior se preocupaba por la pedagogia.

14,426 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper suggests ways to solve currently open problems in cryptography, and discusses how the theories of communication and computation are beginning to provide the tools to solve cryptographic problems of long standing.
Abstract: Two kinds of contemporary developments in cryptography are examined. Widening applications of teleprocessing have given rise to a need for new types of cryptographic systems, which minimize the need for secure key distribution channels and supply the equivalent of a written signature. This paper suggests ways to solve these currently open problems. It also discusses how the theories of communication and computation are beginning to provide the tools to solve cryptographic problems of long standing.

14,068 citations


Authors

Showing all 125751 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Eric S. Lander301826525976
George M. Whitesides2401739269833
Yi Cui2201015199725
Yi Chen2174342293080
David Miller2032573204840
David Baltimore203876162955
Edward Witten202602204199
Irving L. Weissman2011141172504
Hongjie Dai197570182579
Robert M. Califf1961561167961
Frank E. Speizer193636135891
Thomas C. Südhof191653118007
Gad Getz189520247560
Mark Hallett1861170123741
John P. A. Ioannidis1851311193612
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
2022177
202117,830
202018,226
201916,189
201814,684
201714,653

Top Attributes

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Institution's top 5 most impactful journals

Social Science Research Network

6.8K papers, 333.2K citations

bioRxiv

3.6K papers, 19.5K citations

Science

2.5K papers, 719.5K citations

Nature

2.2K papers, 787.1K citations