Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
About: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Gene & Escherichia coli. It has an ISSN identifier of 1464-1801. Over the lifetime, 937 publications have been published receiving 37725 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Evidence is presented substantiating the proposal that an internal tandem gene duplication event gave rise to a primordial MFS protein before divergence of the family members.
Abstract: In 1998 we updated earlier descriptions of the largest family of secondary transport carriers found in living organisms, the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). Seventeen families of transport proteins were shown to comprise this superfamily. We here report expansion of the MFS to include 29 established families as well as five probable families. Structural, functional, and mechanistic features of the constituent permeases are described, and each newly identified family is shown to exhibit specificity for a single class of substrates. Phylogenetic analyses define the evolutionary relationships of the members of each family to each other, and multiple alignments allow definition of family-specific signature sequences as well as all wellconserved sequence motifs. The work described serves to update previous publications and allows extrapolation of structural, functional and mechanistic information obtained with any one member of the superfamily to other members with limitations determined by the degrees of sequence divergence.
TL;DR: The highly promising results of these studies underline the important role that functional, bacteriocinogenic LAB strains may play in the food industry as starter cultures, co-cultures, or bioprotective cultures, to improve food quality and safety.
Abstract: In fermented foods, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) display numerous antimicrobial activities. This is mainly due to the production of organic acids, but also of other compounds, such as bacteriocins and antifungal peptides. Several bacteriocins with industrial potential have been purified and characterized. The kinetics of bacteriocin production by LAB in relation to process factors have been studied in detail through mathematical modeling and positive predictive microbiology. Application of bacteriocin-producing starter cultures in sourdough (to increase competitiveness), in fermented sausage (anti-listerial effect), and in cheese (anti-listerial and anti-clostridial effects), have been studied during in vitro laboratory fermentations as well as on pilot-scale level. The highly promising results of these studies underline the important role that functional, bacteriocinogenic LAB strains may play in the food industry as starter cultures, co-cultures, or bioprotective cultures, to improve food quality and safety. In addition, antimicrobial production by probiotic LAB might play a role during in vivo interactions occurring in the human gastrointestinal tract, hence contributing to gut health.
TL;DR: It is shown that this family of gram-negative bacterial drug and heavy metal efflux permeases, now commonly referred to as the RND family, is actually a ubiquitous superfamily with representation in all major kingdoms.
Abstract: A previous report identified and classified a small family of Gram-negative bacterial drug and heavy metal efflux permeases, now commonly referred to as the RND family (TC no. 2.6). We here show that this family is actually a ubiquitous superfamily with representation in all major kingdoms. We report phylogenetic analyses that define seven families within the RND superfamily as follows: (1) the heavy metal efflux (HME) family (Gram negative bacteria), (2) the hydrophobe/amphiphile efflux-1 (HAE1) family (Gram negative bacteria), (3) the nodulation factor exporter (NFE) family (Gram negative bacteria), (4) the SecDF protein-secretion accessory protein (SecDF) family (Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria as well as archaea), (5) the hydrophobe/amphiphile efflux-2 (HAE2) family (Gram positive bacteria), (6) the eukaryotic sterol homeostasis (ESH) family, and (7) the hydrophobe/amphiphile efflux-3 (HAE3) family (archaea and spirochetes). Functionally uncharacterized proteins were identified that are members of the RND superfamily but fall outside of these seven families. Some of the eukaryotic homologues function as enzymes and receptors instead of (or in addition to) transporters. The sizes and topological patterns exhibited by members of all seven families are shown to be strikingly similar, and statistical analyses establish common descent. Multiple alignments of proteins within each family allow derivation of familyspecific signature sequences. Structural, functional, mechanistic and evolutionary implication of the reported results are discussed.
TL;DR: Although the natural function of these multidrug efflux systems is largely unknown, their contribution to antibiotic resistance and their conservation in a number of important human pathogens makes them logical targets for therapeutic intervention.
Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen characterized by an innate resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents. A major contribution to this intrinsic multidrug resistance is provided by a number of broadly-specific multidrug efflux systems, including MexAB-OprM and MexXY-OprM. In addition, these and two additional tripartite efflux systems, MexCD-OprJ and MexEF-OprN, promote acquired multidrug resistance as a result of mutational hyperexpression of the efflux genes. In addition to antibiotics, these pumps promote export of numerous dyes, detergents, inhibitors, disinfectants, organic solvents and homoserine lactones involved in quorum sensing. The efflux pump proteins are highly homologous and consist of a cytoplasmic membraneassociated drug-proton antiporter of the ResistanceNodulation-Division (RND) family, an outer membrane channel-forming protein [sometimes called outer membrane factor (OMF)] and a periplasmic membrane fusion protein (MFP). Homologues of these systems have been described in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Burkholderia cepacia, Burkholderia pseudomallei and the non-pathogen Pseudomonas putida, where they play a role in export of and resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents and/or organic solvents. Although the natural function of these multidrug efflux systems is largely unknown, their contribution to antibiotic resistance and their conservation in a number of important human pathogens makes them logical targets for therapeutic intervention.
TL;DR: Findings might indicate that lateral gene transfer has played an important evolutionary role in forging the physiology of this metabolically versatile methanogen.
Abstract: The Archaeon Methanosarcina mazei and related species are of great ecological importance as they are the only organisms fermenting acetate, methylamines and methanol to methane, carbon dioxide and ammonia (in case of methylamines). Since acetate is the precursor of 60% of the methane produced on earth these organisms contribute significantly to the production of this greenhouse gas, e.g. in rice paddies. The 4,096,345 base pairs circular chromosome of M. mazei is more than twice as large as the genomes of the methanogenic Archaea currently completely sequenced (Bult et al., 1996; Smith et al., 1997). 3,371 open reading frames (ORFs) were identified. Based on currently available sequence data 376 of these ORFs are Methanosarcina-specific and 1,043 ORFs find their closest homologue in the bacterial domain. 544 of these ORFs reach significant similarity values only in the bacterial domain. They include 56 of the 102 transposases, and proteins involved in gluconeogenesis, proline biosynthesis, transport processes, DNA-repair, environmental sensing, gene regulation, and stress response. Striking examples are the occurrence of the bacterial GroEL/GroES chaperone system and the presence of tetrahydrofolate-dependent enzymes. These findings might indicate that lateral gene transfer has played an important evolutionary role in forging the physiology of this metabolically versatile methanogen.