scispace - formally typeset


University of Göttingen

EducationGöttingen, Germany
About: University of Göttingen is a(n) education organization based out in Göttingen, Germany. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Species richness. The organization has 43851 authors who have published 86318 publication(s) receiving 3010295 citation(s). The organization is also known as: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen & Universität Göttingen.

More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper could serve as a general literature citation when one or more of the open-source SH ELX programs (and the Bruker AXS version SHELXTL) are employed in the course of a crystal-structure determination.
Abstract: An account is given of the development of the SHELX system of computer programs from SHELX-76 to the present day. In addition to identifying useful innovations that have come into general use through their implementation in SHELX, a critical analysis is presented of the less-successful features, missed opportunities and desirable improvements for future releases of the software. An attempt is made to understand how a program originally designed for photographic intensity data, punched cards and computers over 10000 times slower than an average modern personal computer has managed to survive for so long. SHELXL is the most widely used program for small-molecule refinement and SHELXS and SHELXD are often employed for structure solution despite the availability of objectively superior programs. SHELXL also finds a niche for the refinement of macromolecules against high-resolution or twinned data; SHELXPRO acts as an interface for macromolecular applications. SHELXC, SHELXD and SHELXE are proving useful for the experimental phasing of macromolecules, especially because they are fast and robust and so are often employed in pipelines for high-throughput phasing. This paper could serve as a general literature citation when one or more of the open-source SHELX programs (and the Bruker AXS version SHELXTL) are employed in the course of a crystal-structure determination.

77,177 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: New features added to the refinement program SHELXL since 2008 are described and explained.
Abstract: The improvements in the crystal structure refinement program SHELXL have been closely coupled with the development and increasing importance of the CIF (Crystallographic Information Framework) format for validating and archiving crystal structures. An important simplification is that now only one file in CIF format (for convenience, referred to simply as `a CIF') containing embedded reflection data and SHELXL instructions is needed for a complete structure archive; the program SHREDCIF can be used to extract the .hkl and .ins files required for further refinement with SHELXL. Recent developments in SHELXL facilitate refinement against neutron diffraction data, the treatment of H atoms, the determination of absolute structure, the input of partial structure factors and the refinement of twinned and disordered structures. SHELXL is available free to academics for the Windows, Linux and Mac OS X operating systems, and is particularly suitable for multiple-core processors.

21,137 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work automates routine small-molecule structure determination starting from single-crystal reflection data, the Laue group and a reasonable guess as to which elements might be present.
Abstract: The new computer program SHELXT employs a novel dual-space algorithm to solve the phase problem for single-crystal reflection data expanded to the space group P1. Missing data are taken into account and the resolution extended if necessary. All space groups in the specified Laue group are tested to find which are consistent with the P1 phases. After applying the resulting origin shifts and space-group symmetry, the solutions are subject to further dual-space recycling followed by a peak search and summation of the electron density around each peak. Elements are assigned to give the best fit to the integrated peak densities and if necessary additional elements are considered. An isotropic refinement is followed for non-centrosymmetric space groups by the calculation of a Flack parameter and, if appropriate, inversion of the structure. The structure is assembled to maximize its connectivity and centred optimally in the unit cell. SHELXT has already solved many thousand structures with a high success rate, and is optimized for multiprocessor computers. It is, however, unsuitable for severely disordered and twinned structures because it is based on the assumption that the structure consists of atoms.

11,698 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Claude Amsler1, Michael Doser2, Mario Antonelli, D. M. Asner3  +173 moreInstitutions (86)
TL;DR: This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics, using data from previous editions.
Abstract: This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions., plus 2778 new measurements from 645 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors., probability, and statistics. Among the 108 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on CKM quark-mixing matrix, V-ud & V-us, V-cb & V-ub, top quark, muon anomalous magnetic moment, extra dimensions, particle detectors, cosmic background radiation, dark matter, cosmological parameters, and big bang cosmology.

11,048 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Georges Aad1, T. Abajyan2, Brad Abbott3, Jalal Abdallah4  +2964 moreInstitutions (200)
Abstract: A search for the Standard Model Higgs boson in proton–proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC is presented. The datasets used correspond to integrated luminosities of approximately 4.8 fb−1 collected at View the MathML source in 2011 and 5.8 fb−1 at View the MathML source in 2012. Individual searches in the channels H→ZZ(⁎)→4l, H→γγ and H→WW(⁎)→eνμν in the 8 TeV data are combined with previously published results of searches for H→ZZ(⁎), WW(⁎), View the MathML source and τ+τ− in the 7 TeV data and results from improved analyses of the H→ZZ(⁎)→4l and H→γγ channels in the 7 TeV data. Clear evidence for the production of a neutral boson with a measured mass of View the MathML source is presented. This observation, which has a significance of 5.9 standard deviations, corresponding to a background fluctuation probability of 1.7×10−9, is compatible with the production and decay of the Standard Model Higgs boson.

8,774 citations


Showing all 43851 results

Yang Gao1682047146301
J. S. Lange1602083145919
Jens J. Holst1601536107858
Hans Lassmann15572479933
Walter Paulus14980986252
Arnulf Quadt1351409123441
Elizaveta Shabalina133142192273
Ernst Detlef Schulze13367069504
Mark Stitt13245660800
Meinrat O. Andreae13170072714
Teja Tscharntke13052070554
William C. Hahn13044872191
Vladimir Cindro129115782000
Dave Britton129109484187
Johannes Haller129117884813
Network Information
Related Institutions (5)
Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich

161.5K papers, 5.7M citations

97% related

Heidelberg University

119.1K papers, 4.6M citations

95% related

University of Zurich

124K papers, 5.3M citations

94% related

Technische Universität München

123.4K papers, 4M citations

93% related

University of Helsinki

113.1K papers, 4.6M citations

92% related

No. of papers from the Institution in previous years