Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
About: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution is an academic journal published by Elsevier BV. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Phylogenetic tree & Monophyly. It has an ISSN identifier of 1055-7903. Over the lifetime, 7226 publications have been published receiving 376056 citations. The journal is also known as: Mol. Phyl. Evol. & Mol Phylogenet Evol.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The MITOS pipeline is designed to compute a consistent de novo annotation of the mitogenomic sequences and it is shown that the results of MITOS match RefSeq and MitoZoa in terms of annotation coverage and quality.
Abstract: About 2000 completely sequenced mitochondrial genomes are available from the NCBI RefSeq data base together with manually curated annotations of their protein-coding genes, rRNAs, and tRNAs. This annotation information, which has accumulated over two decades, has been obtained with a diverse set of computational tools and annotation strategies. Despite all efforts of manual curation it is still plagued by misassignments of reading directions, erroneous gene names, and missing as well as false positive annotations in particular for the RNA genes. Taken together, this causes substantial problems for fully automatic pipelines that aim to use these data comprehensively for studies of animal phylogenetics and the molecular evolution of mitogenomes. The MITOS pipeline is designed to compute a consistent de novo annotation of the mitogenomic sequences. We show that the results of MITOS match RefSeq and MitoZoa in terms of annotation coverage and quality. At the same time we avoid biases, inconsistencies of nomenclature, and typos originating from manual curation strategies. The MITOS pipeline is accessible online at http://mitos.bioinf.uni-leipzig.de.
TL;DR: The results suggest that the ancestral ITS2 types may have arisen following an ancient interspecific hybridization or gene duplication which occurred prior to the evolutionary radiation of the Gibberella fujikuroi complex and related species of Fusarium.
Abstract: The evolutionary history of the phytopathogenic Gibberella fujikuroi complex of Fusarium and related species was investigated by cladistic analysis of DNA sequences obtained from multiple unlinked loci. Gene phylogenies inferred from the mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) rDNA, nuclear 28S rDNA, and beta-tubulin gene were generally concordant, providing strong support for a fully resolved phylogeny of all biological and most morphological species. Discordance of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene tree is due to paralogous or xenologous ITS2 sequences. PCR and sequence analysis demonstrated that every strain of the ingroup species tested possesses two highly divergent nonorthologous ITS2 types designated type I and type II. Only the major ITS2 type, however, is discernable when PCR products are amplified and sequenced directly with conserved primers. The minor ITS2 type was recovered using ITS2 type-specific PCR primers. Distribution of the major ITS2 type within the species lineages exhibits a homoplastic pattern of evolution, thus obscuring true phylogenetic relationships. The results suggest that the ancestral ITS2 types may have arisen following an ancient interspecific hybridization or gene duplication which occurred prior to the evolutionary radiation of the Gibberella fujikuroi complex and related species of Fusarium. The results also indicate that current morphological-based taxonomic schemes for these fungi are unnatural and a new classification is required.
TL;DR: Despite the near-universal usage of ITS sequence data in plant phylogenetic studies, its complex and unpredictable evolutionary behavior reduce its utility for phylogenetic analysis, and it is suggested that more robust insights are likely to emerge from the use of single-copy or low-copy nuclear genes.
Abstract: One of the most popular sequences for phylogenetic inference at the generic and infrageneric levels in plants is the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the 18S-5.8S-26S nuclear ribosomal cistron. The prominence of this source of nuclear DNA sequence data is underscored by a survey of phylogenetic publications involving comparisons at the genus level or below, which reveals that of 244 papers published over the last five years, 66% included ITS sequence data. Perhaps even more striking is the fact that 34% of all published phylogenetic hypothesis have been based exclusively on ITS sequences. Notwithstanding the many important contributions of ITS sequence data to phylogenetic understanding and knowledge of genome relationships, a number of molecular genetic processes impact ITS sequences in ways that may mislead phylogenetic inference. These molecular genetic processes are reviewed here, drawing attention to both underlying mechanism and phylogenetic implications. Among the most prevalent complications for phylogenetic inference is the existence in many plant genomes of extensive sequence variation, arising from ancient or recent array duplication events, genomic harboring of pseudogenes in various states of decay, and/or incomplete intra- or inter-array homogenization. These phenomena separately and collectively create a network of paralogous sequence relationships potentially confounding accurate phylogenetic reconstruction. Homoplasy is shown to be higher in ITS than in other DNA sequence data sets, most likely because of orthology/paralogy conflation, compensatory base changes, problems in alignment due to indel accumulation, sequencing errors, or some combination of these phenomena. Despite the near-universal usage of ITS sequence data in plant phylogenetic studies, its complex and unpredictable evolutionary behavior reduce its utility for phylogenetic analysis. It is suggested that more robust insights are likely to emerge from the use of single-copy or low-copy nuclear genes.
TL;DR: A new index to measure substitution saturation in a set of aligned nucleotide sequences based on the notion of entropy in information theory is introduced and illustrated by applying it to an analysis of the aligned sequences of the elongation factor-1alpha gene originally used to resolve the deep phylogeny of major arthropod groups.
Abstract: We introduce a new index to measure substitution saturation in a set of aligned nucleotide sequences. The index is based on the notion of entropy in information theory. We derive the critical values of the index based on computer simulation with different sequence lengths, different number of OTUs and different topologies. The critical value enables researchers to quickly judge whether a set of aligned sequences is useful in phylogenetics. We illustrate the index by applying it to an analysis of the aligned sequences of the elongation factor-1α gene originally used to resolve the deep phylogeny of major arthropod groups. The method has been implemented in DAMBE.
TL;DR: This study provides further evidence that the supermatrix approach provides an effective strategy for inferring large-scale phylogenies using the combined results of previous studies, despite many taxa having extensive missing data.
Abstract: The extant amphibians are one of the most diverse radiations of terrestrial vertebrates (>6800 species). Despite much recent focus on their conservation, diversification, and systematics, no previous phylogeny for the group has contained more than 522 species. However, numerous studies with limited taxon sampling have generated large amounts of partially overlapping sequence data for many species. Here, we combine these data and produce a novel estimate of extant amphibian phylogeny, containing 2871 species (∼40% of the known extant species) from 432 genera (∼85% of the ∼500 currently recognized extant genera). Each sampled species contains up to 12,712 bp from 12 genes (three mitochondrial, nine nuclear), with an average of 2563 bp per species. This data set provides strong support for many groups recognized in previous studies, but it also suggests non-monophyly for several currently recognized families, particularly in hyloid frogs (e.g., Ceratophryidae, Cycloramphidae, Leptodactylidae, Strabomantidae). To correct these and other problems, we provide a revised classification of extant amphibians for taxa traditionally delimited at the family and subfamily levels. This new taxonomy includes several families not recognized in current classifications (e.g., Alsodidae, Batrachylidae, Rhinodermatidae, Odontophrynidae, Telmatobiidae), but which are strongly supported and important for avoiding non-monophyly of current families. Finally, this study provides further evidence that the supermatrix approach provides an effective strategy for inferring large-scale phylogenies using the combined results of previous studies, despite many taxa having extensive missing data.