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Journal ArticleDOI

A comparative evaluation of welding consumables for dissimilar welds between 316LN austenitic stainless steel and Alloy 800

TL;DR: In this article, a trimetallic joint involving modified 9Cr-1Mo steel and 316LN austenitic stainless steel as the base materials and Alloy 800 as the intermediate piece was investigated.
About: This article is published in Journal of Nuclear Materials.The article was published on 2000-03-01. It has received 150 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Austenitic stainless steel & Inconel.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a unified equation to compute the energy density is proposed to compare works performed with distinct equipment and experimental conditions, covering the major process parameters: power, travel speed, heat source dimension, hatch distance, deposited layer thickness and material grain size.

369 citations


Cites background from "A comparative evaluation of welding..."

  • ...9Cr–1Mo to 316LN stainless steel Inconel 182 Improvement of mechanical properties and thermal stability [216]...

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  • ...For example, fusion welding of ferritic to austenitic steels for the petrochemical industry is problematic due to the significantly different thermal stresses arising from the fact that both alloys exhibit distinct coefficients of thermal expansion [216]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors compared welding of AISI 310 austenitic stainless steel to Inconel 657 nickel-chromium superalloy and showed that Inconels A showed the least susceptibility to hot cracking.

223 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the feasibility of joining Inconel 718 with 316L Stainless Steel, and vice versa, by utilizing electron beam melting (EBM) additive manufacturing, a class of powder bed fusion technology.

203 citations


Cites background from "A comparative evaluation of welding..."

  • ...This phenomenon has also been seen within the FZ of dissimilar welds consisting of austenitic stainless steels and Nb bearing nickel-based superalloys [9] [27]....

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  • ...The precipitates are most likely niobium carbide (NbC), which coincides with results from others [9] [26] [27]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The microstructure and mechanical properties of Inconel 617/310 austenitic stainless steel dissimilar welds were investigated in this article, where three types of filler materials, including nickel-base fillers, were used to obtain dissimilar joint using the gas tungsten arc welding process.

192 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the weld fusion zones and the interfaces with the base materials were characterised in detail using light and transmission electron microscopy, showing that the stainless steel weld metals solidified dendritically, while the 16-8-2 (16%Cr-8%Ni-2%Mo) weld metal showed a predominantly cellular substructure.
Abstract: For joining type 316LN austenitic stainless steel to modified 9Cr–1Mo steel for power plant application, a trimetallic configuration using an insert piece (such as alloy 800) of intermediate thermal coefficient of expansion (CTE) has been sometimes suggested for bridging the wide gap in CTE between the two steels. Two joints are thus involved and this paper is concerned with the weld between 316LN and alloy 800. These welds were produced using three types of filler materials: austenitic stainless steels corresponding to 316, 16Cr–8Ni–2Mo, and the nickel-base Inconel 182 1 . The weld fusion zones and the interfaces with the base materials were characterised in detail using light and transmission electron microscopy. The 316 and Inconel 182 weld metals solidified dendritically, while the 16–8–2 (16%Cr–8%Ni–2%Mo) weld metal showed a predominantly cellular substructure. The Inconel weld metal contained a large number of inclusions when deposited from flux-coated electrodes, but was relatively inclusion-free under inert gas-shielded welding. Long-term elevated-temperature aging of the weld metals resulted in embrittling sigma phase precipitation in the austenitic stainless steel weld metals, but the nickel-base welds showed no visible precipitation, demonstrating their superior metallurgical stability for high-temperature service.

186 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an improved transition metal joint (TMJ) with a trimetallic configuration of austenitic stainless steel/Alloy 800/Cr-Mo ferritic steel is discussed.

101 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, cross-weld tensile specimens were machined from welds made in 2·25 Cr-1 M 0 steel plate using either AISI 316 or Inconel 182 filler metals.
Abstract: Cross-weld tensile specimens were machined from welds made in 2·25 Cr-1 M 0 steel plate using either AISI 316 or Inconel 182 filler metals. Low-ductility failures, close to the ferritic steel/weld metal interface, were produced by iso-stress temperature-acceleration tests at either 62 or 100 MN m−2 over the temperature range 575°-640°C. The endurances of joints made using Inconel 182 weld metal were greater than those made using AISI 316 weld metal by factors of ∼2·5 and 3 for tests at 62 and 100 MN m−2, respectively. The fracture morphology has been studied by optical and scanning electron microscopy. By comparison with previous investigations, a change in the short- and long-term fracture mechanism of nickelbased joints is identified. The interfacial damage has been measured and is used to discuss the relative importance of creep-strength mismatch and thermal-expansion coefficient differences between the weld metal and ferritic steel in controlling the fracture of the joint.

32 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the interfacial structures between 2·25Cr 1 Mo steel and Inconel 182 weld metal have been studied in the as-welded condition and after aging at temperatures between 630 and 700°C for times up to 6000 h.
Abstract: The interfacial structures between 2·25Cr–1 Mo steel and Inconel 182 weld metal have been studied in the as-welded condition and after aging at temperatures between 630 and 700°C for times up to 6000 h. Examination of the as-welded specimens revealed a band of martensite ∼0·5 to ∼50 μm wide between the steel and the weld metal. During aging, precipitates developed in this band and led to arrays of interfacial carbides which showed two morphologies, depending on the initial width of the martensite band. Single lines of coarse carbides were associated with narrow bands, and finer precipitates were distributed within the wider martensite bands. Initially, the interfacial precipitates formed readily between 630 and 700°C, but on further aging at temperatures >675°C the precipitates dissolved. The effects of changing the welding conditions and weld metal composition on the development of the interfacial precipitates are considered. In comparison with nickel-based transition joints examined after longte...

28 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, three commercial heats of Alloy 800 have been tested at 838 K in simple tension and in fatigue at constant plastic strain ranges from 0.2 pct. to 1.4 pct, and it was found that significant additional precipitation occurred during the fatigue testing of two of the heats, and this was correlated with secondary hardening behavior found during the mechanical tests.
Abstract: Three commercial heats of Alloy 800 have been tested at 838 K in simple tension and in fatigue at constant plastic strain ranges from 0.2 pct. to 1.4 pct. Although all three heats met the ASTM specifications for Alloy 800, the heats exhibited significant differences in elevated temperature mechanical properties. These differences were functions not only of heat-to-heat chemistry variations, but also of the final annealing treatment given during their manufacture. The microstructures of several samples cycled to failure in the above tests were examined by transmission electron microscopy and compared with the microstructures of the as-received heats. It was found that significant additional precipitation occurred during the fatigue testing of two of the heats, and this was correlated with secondary hardening behavior found during the mechanical tests. The observed precipitation behavior could be explained using suggested isothermal transformation curves and solvus curves taken from the literature.

23 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A transition metal joint between type 304 stainless steel and 2·25Cr-1Mo steel, with Alloy 800 as the transition piece, is being developed for application in the steam generator circuit of the 500 MW prototype fast breeder reactor.
Abstract: A transition metal joint between type 304 stainless steel and 2·25Cr–1Mo steel, with Alloy 800 as the transition piece, is being developed for application in the steam generator circuit of the 500 MW prototype fast breeder reactor. As part of this programme, the hot cracking susceptibility of Inconel 82/182 and of 16–8–2 welding consumables were compared and the microstructure and mechanical properties of butt welds between type 304 stainless steel and Alloy 800, welded by the two consumables, were studied to select the appropriate welding consumables for this joint. It is recommended that the 16–8–2 consumable should be used for welding this joint because of its lower microfissuring tendency and reduced mismatch in the coefficient of thermal expansion across the joint, although this would mean a slight adverse effect on the elevated temperature mechanical properties. Further, to select the optimum post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) of the joint between Alloy 800 and 2·25Cr–1Mo steel, welded with Inc...

22 citations