# An approximate many-body calculation for trapped bosons with attractive interaction

TL;DR: In this paper, the stability of trapped interacting bosons with attractive interactions is studied using an approximate many-body calculation using PHEM instead of using the traditional hyperspherical harmonics expansion method (PHEM), and the justification of the use of PHEM in connection with dilute condensates is presented.

Abstract: The stability of trapped interacting bosons with attractive interactions is studied using an approximate many-body calculation. Instead of using the traditional hyperspherical harmonics expansion method we prescribe a potential harmonics expansion method (PHEM). The justification of the use of PHEM in connection with dilute condensates is presented. The choice of a correlation function is justified as it correctly reproduces the short-range two-body correlation in the wavefunction as also the correct value of the s-wave scattering length (as). Applications to 7Li and 85Rb condensates with the realistic van der Waals interaction give good agreement with the Rice and JILA experiments, respectively. The JILA experiment used controlled collapse of the 85Rb condensate for different values of as. Our calculations agree with the experimental results within the experimental error bars.

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14 Jul 1996TL;DR: The striking signature of Bose condensation was the sudden appearance of a bimodal velocity distribution below the critical temperature of ~2µK.

Abstract: Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) has been observed in a dilute gas of sodium atoms. A Bose-Einstein condensate consists of a macroscopic population of the ground state of the system, and is a coherent state of matter. In an ideal gas, this phase transition is purely quantum-statistical. The study of BEC in weakly interacting systems which can be controlled and observed with precision holds the promise of revealing new macroscopic quantum phenomena that can be understood from first principles.

3,530 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a quantum many body approach with van der Waal type of interaction was presented to achieve 85Rb Bose-Einstein condensate with tunable interaction which has been produced by magnetic field induced Feshbach resonance.

27 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors studied the properties of Bose-Einstein condensates with the realistic van der Waals two-body interaction for large numbers of trapped atoms, solving the many-body Schrodinger equation by the potential harmonic expansion method.

Abstract: We study the properties of Bose-Einstein condensates with the realistic van der Waals two-body interaction for large numbers of trapped atoms, solving the many-body Schr\"odinger equation by the potential harmonic expansion method. The effect of different ${C}_{6}$ parameters has been critically examined, starting from very few to 14 000 atoms to analyze and justify the idea of a shape-independent approximation. It is found that the condensate properties almost remain unchanged when the number of atoms are quite small $(\ensuremath{\sim}100)$, in good agreement with earlier results of Blume and Greene [Phys. Rev. A 63, 063601 (2001)], but we observe the appreciable effect of a long attractive tail when $N$ is large, even in the low-density limit. The above reference considered only 20 atoms which is far from a real experimental situation. Our calculation gives a realistic scenario which justifies the use of a shape-dependent two-body interaction in many-body theories.

22 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a correlated many-body approach was employed to study Bose-Einstein condensation of a magnetically trapped gas of 7Li atoms and the properties of a trapped gas are strongly influenced by the attractive interactions and two-body correlations.

Abstract: We employ a correlated many-body approach to study Bose-Einstein condensation of a magnetically trapped gas of 7Li atoms. The properties of a trapped gas are strongly influenced by the attractive interactions and two-body correlations. The correlations lower the interaction energy. The lowlying collective frequencies have also been calculated. In addition we explore the frequency of surface modes as a function of angular momentum.

11 citations

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TL;DR: By using a correlated many body method and using the realistic van der Waals potential, this article studied several statistical measures like the specific heat, transition temperature and the condensate fraction of the interacting Bose gas trapped in an anharmonic potential.

Abstract: By using a correlated many body method and using the realistic van der Waals potential we study several statistical measures like the specific heat, transition temperature and the condensate fraction of the interacting Bose gas trapped in an anharmonic potential As the quadratic plus a quartic confinement makes the trap more tight, the transition temperature increases which makes more favourable condition to achieve Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) experimentally BEC in 3D isotropic harmonic potential is also critically studied, the correction to the critical temperature due to finite number of atoms and also the correction due to inter-atomic interaction are calculated by the correlated many-body method Comparison and discussion with the mean-field results are presented

11 citations

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TL;DR: A Bose-Einstein condensate was produced in a vapor of rubidium-87 atoms that was confined by magnetic fields and evaporatively cooled and exhibited a nonthermal, anisotropic velocity distribution expected of the minimum-energy quantum state of the magnetic trap in contrast to the isotropic, thermal velocity distribution observed in the broad uncondensed fraction.

Abstract: A Bose-Einstein condensate was produced in a vapor of rubidium-87 atoms that was confined by magnetic fields and evaporatively cooled. The condensate fraction first appeared near a temperature of 170 nanokelvin and a number density of 2.5 x 10 12 per cubic centimeter and could be preserved for more than 15 seconds. Three primary signatures of Bose-Einstein condensation were seen. (i) On top of a broad thermal velocity distribution, a narrow peak appeared that was centered at zero velocity. (ii) The fraction of the atoms that were in this low-velocity peak increased abruptly as the sample temperature was lowered. (iii) The peak exhibited a nonthermal, anisotropic velocity distribution expected of the minimum-energy quantum state of the magnetic trap in contrast to the isotropic, thermal velocity distribution observed in the broad uncondensed fraction.

6,074 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors reviewed the Bose-Einstein condensation of dilute gases in traps from a theoretical perspective and provided a framework to understand the main features of the condensation and role of interactions between particles.

Abstract: The phenomenon of Bose-Einstein condensation of dilute gases in traps is reviewed from a theoretical perspective. Mean-field theory provides a framework to understand the main features of the condensation and the role of interactions between particles. Various properties of these systems are discussed, including the density profiles and the energy of the ground-state configurations, the collective oscillations and the dynamics of the expansion, the condensate fraction and the thermodynamic functions. The thermodynamic limit exhibits a scaling behavior in the relevant length and energy scales. Despite the dilute nature of the gases, interactions profoundly modify the static as well as the dynamic properties of the system; the predictions of mean-field theory are in excellent agreement with available experimental results. Effects of superfluidity including the existence of quantized vortices and the reduction of the moment of inertia are discussed, as well as the consequences of coherence such as the Josephson effect and interference phenomena. The review also assesses the accuracy and limitations of the mean-field approach.

4,782 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, Bose-Einstein condensation of sodium atoms was observed in a novel trap that employed both magnetic and optical forces, which increased the phase-space density by 6 orders of magnitude within seven seconds.

Abstract: We have observed Bose-Einstein condensation of sodium atoms. The atoms were trapped in a novel trap that employed both magnetic and optical forces. Evaporative cooling increased the phase-space density by 6 orders of magnitude within seven seconds. Condensates contained up to 5\ifmmode\times\else\texttimes\fi{}${10}^{5}$ atoms at densities exceeding ${10}^{14}$ ${\mathrm{cm}}^{\ensuremath{-}3}$. The striking signature of Bose condensation was the sudden appearance of a bimodal velocity distribution below the critical temperature of \ensuremath{\sim}2\ensuremath{\mu}K. The distribution consisted of an isotropic thermal distribution and an elliptical core attributed to the expansion of a dense condensate.

3,848 citations

01 Jan 2001

TL;DR: In this paper, a unified introduction to the physics of ultracold atomic Bose and Fermi gases for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, as well as experimentalists and theorists is provided.

Abstract: Since an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate, predicted by Einstein in 1925, was first produced in the laboratory in 1995, the study of ultracold Bose and Fermi gases has become one of the most active areas in contemporary physics. This book explains phenomena in ultracold gases from basic principles, without assuming a detailed knowledge of atomic, condensed matter, and nuclear physics. This new edition has been revised and updated, and includes new chapters on optical lattices, low dimensions, and strongly-interacting Fermi systems. This book provides a unified introduction to the physics of ultracold atomic Bose and Fermi gases for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, as well as experimentalists and theorists. Chapters cover the statistical physics of trapped gases, atomic properties, cooling and trapping atoms, interatomic interactions, structure of trapped condensates, collective modes, rotating condensates, superfluidity, interference phenomena, and trapped Fermi gases. Problems are included at the end of each chapter.

3,534 citations

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14 Jul 1996TL;DR: The striking signature of Bose condensation was the sudden appearance of a bimodal velocity distribution below the critical temperature of ~2µK.

Abstract: Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) has been observed in a dilute gas of sodium atoms. A Bose-Einstein condensate consists of a macroscopic population of the ground state of the system, and is a coherent state of matter. In an ideal gas, this phase transition is purely quantum-statistical. The study of BEC in weakly interacting systems which can be controlled and observed with precision holds the promise of revealing new macroscopic quantum phenomena that can be understood from first principles.

3,530 citations