An evaluation of a somaclone of Dioscorea floribunda Mart & Gall
01 Mar 1991-Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (Birkhäuser-Verlag)-Vol. 47, Iss: 3, pp 284-288
TL;DR: 150 plants ofD.
Abstract: 150 plants ofD. floribunda representing a single clone were regenerated from a stem tissue culture and regenerants were subjected to cytological, phenotypic and biochemical analysis from the pre-transfer stage to three vegetative growth cycles in the field. The plants could be subdivided into three cytological categories, namely, diploid, mosaic and tetraploid. Diploids, mosaics and the one tetraploid showed diversity amongst themselves with respect to internode length, content of chlorophyll and diosgenin. No marked difference in the length and nature of the leaf or in the type of stoma was recorded. Possible causes of the observed variation are discussed.
TL;DR: In this article , a review of the somaclonal variation arising from the in vitro multiplication of medicinal plants from three perspectives: cytogenetics, genetics, and epigenetics is presented.
Abstract: Cell and tissue plant cultures are used either to save vulnerable species from extinction or to multiply valuable genotypes, or both, and are widely applied for economically important plant species. For medicinal plants, the use of in vitro technologies for the production of secondary metabolites and pathogen-free plants has been greatly developed. Two opposite aspects characterize the in vitro micropropagation of medicinal plants: maintaining genetic fidelity for the perpetuation and preservation of elites, and the identification and exploitation of somaclonal variations associated with new, useful traits. A balance between what is advantageous and what is undesirable is necessary, and this implies the identification of somaclonal variability at all levels, from the phenotypic to molecular ones. This review addresses the somaclonal variation arising from the in vitro multiplication of medicinal plants from three perspectives: cytogenetics, genetics, and epigenetics. The possible causes of the appearance of somaclones, the methods for their identification, and the extent to which they are desirable are presented comparatively for different plant species with therapeutic properties. The emphasis is on the subtle changes at the genetic and epigenetic level, as it results from the application of methods based on DNA markers.
TL;DR: In vivo redox biosensing resolves the spatiotemporal dynamics of compartmental responses to local ROS generation and provide a basis for understanding how compartment-specific redox dynamics may operate in retrograde signaling and stress 67 acclimation in plants.
Abstract: In experiments with tobacco tissue cultured on White's modified medium (basal meditmi hi Tnhles 1 and 2) supplemenk'd with kiticthi and hidoleacctic acid, a slrikin^' fourlo (ive-told intTease iu yield was ohtaitu-d within a three to Tour week j^rowth period on addition of an aqtteotis exlrarl of tobacco leaves (Fi^'ures 1 and 2). Subse(iueutly it was found Ihiit this jnoniotiou oi' f^rowih was due mainly though nol entirely to inorj^auic rather than organic con.stitttenls in the extract. In the isolation of Rrowth factors from plant tissues and other sources inorj '̂anic salts are fre(|uently carried along with fhe organic fraclioits. When tissue cultures are used for bioassays, therefore, il is necessary lo lake into account increases in growth which may result from nutrient elements or other known constituents of the medium which may he present in the te.st materials. To minimize interference trom rontaminaitis of this type, an altempt has heen made to de\\eh)p a nieditmi with such adequate supplies of all re(iuired tnineral nutrients and cotntnott orgattic cottslitueitls that no apprecial»le change in growth rate or yield will result from the inlroduclion of additional amounts in the range ordinarily expected to be present in tnaterials to be assayed. As a point of referetice for this work some of the culture media in mc)st common current use will he cotisidered briefly. For ease of comparis4)n Iheir mineral compositions are listed in Tables 1 and 2. White's nutrient .solution, designed originally for excised root cultures, was based on Uspeuski and Uspetiskaia's medium for algae and Trelease and Trelease's micronutrieni solution. This medium also was employed successfully in the original cttltivation of callus from the tobacco Iiybrid Nicotiana gtauca x A', tanijadorffii, atitl as further modified by White in 194̂ ^ and by others it has been used for the
TL;DR: Evidence that a copper enzyme, polyphenoloxidase (otherwise known as tyrosinase or catecholase), is localized in the chloroplasts of spinach beet (chard), Beta vu?garis is presented.
Abstract: The chloroplast, as the seat of chlorophyll pigments in plants, occupies a unique position in the economy of the green cell. In recent years there has been a renewed interest in the reactions and properties of chloroplasts as a result of the work of Hill (11, 12) and Hill and Scarisbrick (13, 14) who demonstrated that the reaction characteristic of photosynthesis in green plants, the evolution of oxygen, occurs in appreciable quantities in isolated chloroplasts under the influence of light and in the presence of suitable oxidants (2, 7, 8, 26). In the course of an investigation of oxygen evolution by isolated chloroplasts it was deemed important to explore their enzymatic composition. Of special interest were considered enzymes capable of participating in oxidation-reduction reactions, and more particularly, those localized principally, if not entirely, in the chloroplasts. This paper presents evidence that a copper enzyme, polyphenoloxidase (otherwise known as tyrosinase or catecholase), is localized in the chloroplasts of spinach beet (chard), Beta vu?garis.
TL;DR: It is argued that this variation in plant cell culture itself generates genetic variability (somaclonal variation) that may be employed to enhance the exchange required in sexual hybrids for the introgression of desirable alien genes into a crop species.
Abstract: It is concluded from a review of the literature that plant cell culture itself generates genetic variability (somaclonal variation). Extensive examples are discussed of such variation in culture subclones and in regenerated plants (somaclones). A number of possible mechanisms for the origin of this phenomenon are considered. It is argued that this variation already is proving to be of significance for plant improvement. In particular the phenomenon may be employed to enhance the exchange required in sexual hybrids for the introgression of desirable alien genes into a crop species. It may also be used to generate variants of a commercial cultivar in high frequency without hybridizing to other genotypes.
01 Jan 1965
01 Jan 1983
TL;DR: R.R. Str~m*, D.W. LeRudulier**, M.C. Jakowec, R.A. Bunnell,
Abstract: A.R. Str~m*, D. LeRudulier**, M.W. Jakowec, R.C. Bunnell,