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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/07060661.2020.1788165

Epidemiology of Fusarium oxysporum causing root and crown rot of cannabis (Cannabis sativa L., marijuana) plants in commercial greenhouse production

04 Mar 2021-Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology-revue Canadienne De Phytopathologie (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 43, Iss: 2, pp 216-235
Abstract: Fusarium oxysporum causes root browning and crown infection on marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) plants, resulting in stunted growth, yellowing of leaves, and plant death. Pathogen presence and divers...

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Topics: Fusarium oxysporum (56%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/07060661.2020.1793222
Zamir K. Punja1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Cannabis (Cannabis sativa L., marijuana) plants grown under greenhouse or controlled environments with symptoms of leaf yellowing, leaf necrosis and defoliation were observed during 2018–2019. Addi...

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Topics: Fusarium proliferatum (57%), Stem rot (54%), Pith (51%)

7 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/07060661.2020.1866672
Zamir K. Punja1, Li Ni1, Alastair J. Roberts1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Greenhouse-grown cannabis (Cannabis sativa L., marijuana) plants with yellowing, crown rot and root-browning symptoms were sampled from six production facilities during 2019–2020. Among 34 fungal i...

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5 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/07060661.2021.1954695
Abstract: Cannabis (Cannabis sativa L., marijuana) plants with symptoms of crown rot, root decay, wilting and plant death were sampled during 2018 and 2019 from seven production greenhouses. Affected tissues...

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Topics: Pythium (57%), Root rot (56%), Wilting (52%)

5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/PS.6307
Zamir K. Punja1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Cultivation of cannabis plants (Cannabis sativa L., marijuana) has taken place worldwide for centuries. In Canada, legalization of cannabis in October 2018 for the medicinal and recreational markets has spurned interest in large-scale growing. This increased production has seen a rise in the incidence and severity of plant pathogens, causing a range of previously unreported diseases. The objective of this review is to highlight the important diseases currently affecting the cannabis and hemp industries in North America and to discuss various mitigation strategies. Progress in molecular diagnostics for pathogen identification and determining inoculum sources and methods of pathogen spread have provided useful insights. Sustainable disease management approaches include establishing clean planting stock, modifying environmental conditions to reduce pathogen development, implementing sanitation measures, and applying fungal and bacterial biological control agents. Fungicides are not currently registered for use and hence there are no published data on their efficacy. The greatest challenge remains in reducing microbial loads (colony-forming units) on harvested inflorescences (buds). Contaminating microbes may be introduced during the cultivation and postharvest phases, or constitute resident endophytes. Failure to achieve a minimum threshold of microbes deemed to be safe for utilization of cannabis products can arise from conventional and organic cultivation methods, or following applications of beneficial biocontrol agents. The current regulatory process for approval of cannabis products presents a challenge to producers utilizing biological control agents for disease management. © 2021 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

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5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/07060661.2021.1936650
Zamir K. Punja1, Li Ni1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Bud rot pathogens cause diseases on Cannabis sativa L. (cannabis, hemp) worldwide through pre- and post-harvest infections of the inflorescence. Seven indoor or outdoor cannabis production sites an...

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Topics: Botrytis cinerea (53%), Cannabis (51%), Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (51%) ... read more

2 Citations


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36 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/MOLBEV/MSW054
Sudhir Kumar1, Glen Stecher2, Koichiro Tamura3Institutions (3)
Abstract: We present the latest version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software, which contains many sophisticated methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. In this major upgrade, Mega has been optimized for use on 64-bit computing systems for analyzing larger datasets. Researchers can now explore and analyze tens of thousands of sequences in Mega The new version also provides an advanced wizard for building timetrees and includes a new functionality to automatically predict gene duplication events in gene family trees. The 64-bit Mega is made available in two interfaces: graphical and command line. The graphical user interface (GUI) is a native Microsoft Windows application that can also be used on Mac OS X. The command line Mega is available as native applications for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X. They are intended for use in high-throughput and scripted analysis. Both versions are available from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.

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Topics: Mac OS (56%), Mega- (55%), Microsoft Windows (55%) ... read more

25,894 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.95.5.2044
Abstract: Panama disease of banana, caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is a serious constraint both to the commercial production of banana and cultivation for subsistence agriculture. Previous work has indicated that F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense consists of several clonal lineages that may be genetically distant. In this study we tested whether lineages of the Panama disease pathogen have a monophyletic origin by comparing DNA sequences of nuclear and mitochondrial genes. DNA sequences were obtained for translation elongation factor 1α and the mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA genes for F. oxysporum strains from banana, pathogenic strains from other hosts and putatively nonpathogenic isolates of F. oxysporum. Cladograms for the two genes were highly concordant and a partition-homogeneity test indicated the two datasets could be combined. The tree inferred from the combined dataset resolved five lineages corresponding to “F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense” with a large dichotomy between two taxa represented by strains most commonly isolated from bananas with Panama disease. The results also demonstrate that the latter two taxa have significantly different chromosome numbers. F. oxysporum isolates collected as nonpathogenic or pathogenic to other hosts that have very similar or identical elongation factor 1α and mitochondrial small subunit genotypes as banana pathogens were shown to cause little or no disease on banana. Taken together, these results indicate Panama disease of banana is caused by fungi with independent evolutionary origins.

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Topics: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (66%), Panama disease (64%), Fusarium oxysporum (61%) ... read more

1,336 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1364-3703.2009.00538.X
Caroline B. Michielse1, Martijn Rep1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Taxonomy: Kingdom Fungi; Phylum Ascomycota; Class Sordariomycetes; Order Hypocreales; Family Nectriaceae; genus Fusarium. Host range: Very broad at the species level. More than 120 different formae speciales have been identified based on specificity to host species belonging to a wide range of plant families. Disease symptoms: Initial symptoms of vascular wilt include vein clearing and leaf epinasty, followed by stunting, yellowing of the lower leaves, progressive wilting, defoliation and, finally, death of the plant. On fungal colonization, the vascular tissue turns brown, which is clearly visible in cross-sections of the stem. Some formae speciales are not primarily vascular pathogens, but cause foot and root rot or bulb rot. Economic importance: Can cause severe losses in many vegetables and flowers, field crops, such as cotton, and plantation crops, such as banana, date palm and oil palm. Control: Use of resistant varieties is the only practical measure for controlling the disease in the field. In glasshouses, soil sterilization can be performed. Useful websites: http://www.broad.mit.edu/annotation/genome/fusarium_group/MultiHome.html; http://www.fgsc.net/Fusarium/fushome.htm; http://www.phi-base.org/query.php

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Topics: Fusarium oxysporum (54%), Fusarium (53%), Root rot (52%)

450 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1046/J.1364-3703.2003.00180.X
Abstract: SUMMARY Taxonomy: Vascular wilt fungus; Ascomycete although sexual stage is yet to be found. The most closely related teleomorphic group, Gibberella, is classified within the Pyrenomycetes. Host range: Very broad at the species level. More than 120 different formae speciales have been identified based on specificity to host species belonging to a wide range of plant families. Disease symptoms: Initial symptoms of vascular wilt include vein clearing and leaf epinasty, followed by stunting, yellowing of the lower leafs, progressive wilting of leaves and stem, defoliation and finally death of the plant. In cross-sections of the stem, a brown ring is evident in the area of the vascular bundles. Some formae speciales are not primarily vascular pathogens but cause foot- and rootrot or bulbrot. Economic importance: Causes severe losses on most vegetables and flowers, several field crops such as cotton and tobacco, plantation crops such as banana, plantain, coffee and sugarcane, and a few shade trees. Control: Use of resistant varieties is the only practical measure for controlling the disease in the field. Under greenhouse conditions, soil sterilization can be performed. Alternative control methods with potential for the future include soil solarization and biological control with antagonistic bacteria or fungi. Useful websites: http://www.fgsc.net/fus.htm, http://www-genome.wi.mit.edu/annotation/fungi/fusarium/, http://www.cbs.knaw.nl/fusarium/database.html

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Topics: Fusarium oxysporum (55%), Fusarium (52%), Soil solarization (50%)

376 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.BIOCONTROL.2008.01.003
Bryan A. Bailey1, Hanhong Bae1, M.D. Strem1, J. Crozier2  +4 moreInstitutions (2)
01 Jul 2008-Biological Control
Abstract: Theobroma cacao (cacao) suffers severe yield losses in many major production areas due to fungus-induced diseases. Cacao supports a complex endophytic microbial community that offers candidates for biocontrol of cacao diseases. Endophytic isolates of Trichoderma species were isolated from the live sapwood of trunks of Theobroma species, pods of Theobroma species, and a liana (Banisteriopsis caapi). Fifteen isolates of Trichoderma, potentially representing seven species, were selected for characterization of the influence of seedling inoc- ulation on the establishment of endophytic growth in cacao seedlings. An isolate of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was also included. The isolates studied in vitro varied in their abilities to produce metabolites inhibitory to Moniliophthora roreri and in their abilities to para- sitize M. roreri cultures. The five inoculation methods used were: (1) inoculation of germinating seed on agar plates; (2) plate inoculation followed by planting in sterile soil; (3) planting sterile seed in pre-inoculated soil; (4) inoculation of emerged seedlings at the soil surface; and (5) inoculation of emerged seedlings between the cotyledon and stem. All the isolates studied were able to colonize Theobroma cacao seedlings, but isolates DIS 110a (Trichoderma cf. harzianum), DIS 219b (T. hamatum), DIS 219f (T. harzianum), and TA (T. asperellum) were the most efficient across inoculation methods. These same isolates also caused moderate to severe discoloration of roots of cacao seedlings germinated on water agar plates. Isolates DIS 173a (T. spirale), DIS 185c (T. stromaticum), and Col (Colletotrichum gloeospo- rioides) were inefficient colonizers of cacao. Most of the isolates studied were able to establish an endophytic relationship with cacao by colonizing the above ground portions of the cacao seedling, and exploitation of this characteristic could lead to the development of novel biocontrol strategies for control of cacao diseases. 2008 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

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Topics: Moniliophthora roreri (57%), Theobroma (55%), Trichoderma (54%)

175 Citations