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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.7203/SJP.20.2.20559

Integrated biochronology of the pliocene deposits of the Estepona basin (Málaga, S Spain). Palaeobiogeographic and palaeoceanographic implications

02 Mar 2021-Vol. 20, Iss: 2, pp 225-244
Abstract: In the Estepona basin (Malaga, S Spain), the richest and the most diverse Pliocene sites of marine invertebrates (mostly molluscs) of the Mediterranean are found. Most of the species described up until now (~95% out of 892 identified species) occur at the Parque Antena and the Velerin Area (Velerin, Velerin-Carretera and Velerin-Antena) sites. Although molluscs are very well known, the age of these important sites is still controversial. In this paper, a biochronological study of these sites based on an integrated study of the microfossil (calcareous nannoplankton and planktonic foraminifers) and macrofossil (molluscs) assemblages is presented. The Parque Antena and Velerin-Carretera sites can be attributed to the late Zanclean (uppermost part of the early Pliocene) based on the presence of Globorotalia margaritae, Gr. puncticulata and Gr. group crassaformis (including Gr. crassaformis s.s.). Nannoplankton assemblages agree with this age, and can be attributed to the CN11b biozone of Okada & Bukry (1980) due to the presence of small Gephyrocapsa, Sphenolithus abies and Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilica. At the Velerin-Antena section, the bioindicators of the early Pliocene Gr. margaritae, Sphenolithus abies and Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilica are absent. The molluscs found in the studied sites correlate with the Mediterranean Pliocene Molluscan Unit 1 of Raffi & Monegatti (1993) (MPMU1). Finally, the coexistence of Gr. margaritae and Gr. group crassaformis in the Mediterranean domain is described for the first time.

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Topics: Biochronology (50%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.4202/APP.2009.0115
Jordi Martinell1, Rosa Domènech1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Some solitary caryophylliid (Caryophyllia, Trochocyathus, and Ceratotrochus) and flabellid (Flabellum) scleractinian corals from Pliocene of Western Mediterranean exhibit long groove-shaped bioersional structures running along the surface of the thecae. They are epigenic structures produced by an episkeletozoan and therefore, they are described as Fixichnia. Here we propose Sulcichnus as a new ichnogenus, with three new ichnospecies (Sulcichnus maeandriformis, S. helicoidalis, and S. sigillum) to name this traces. Sulcichnus is attributed to the activity of polychaetes. Similar structures are recently produced by Lumbrineris flabellicola, a symbiotic eunicid which maintains a commensalistic relationship with solitary corals. In the fossil record, Sulcichnus occurs associated to shallow marine environments whereas their Recent counterparts are described on deep-marine corals. We interpret this as a consequence of a change in the environmental requirements of the coral/worm pair.

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Topics: Caryophyllia (59%), Scleractinia (57%), Bioerosion (53%) ... read more

22 Citations


Book ChapterDOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-11190-8_3
01 Jan 2019-
Abstract: The Miocene is an essential period in the configuration of the present-day relief of the Betic Cordillera and the South Iberian continental margin, which determined the structure and evolution of the Neogene sedimentary basins (Fig. 3.1). The crustal thinning processes that occurred during the early and middle Miocene, after the main metamorphic events, generated major low-angle normal faults that separate the main metamorphic complexes. Although a wide variety of tectonic models have been proposed for this setting, most of them are related to delamination or to subduction with associated roll-back. During the late Miocene, the relatively flat and low relief of the continental crust facilitated the accumulation of sedimentary deposits, which are interlayered with volcanic rocks in the eastern Betic Cordillera and Alboran Sea. The continuous Eurasian-African convergence finally produced regional uplift since the late Miocene and the development of large late regional E-W to NE-SW folds, which determine the main reliefs Open image in new window Fig. 3.1 Geologic schematic map showing the position of the main intermontane basins of the Betic Cordillera and the Alboran Sea Simplified and modified from Sanz de Galdeano and Pelaez (2011) .

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Topics: Late Miocene (63%), Sedimentary basin (58%), Neogene (55%) ... read more

6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.7203/SJP.32.1.17029
Julio Aguirre1, Rosa Domènech2, Jordi Martinell2, Eduardo Mayoral3  +2 moreInstitutions (3)
09 Apr 2020-
Abstract: The Sierra de la Utrera, a relief in the Manilva Basin (Malaga, SW Spain), shows bored surfaces at different heights above present-day sea level, from 96 m to 287 m. Borings occur in the eastern, central, and western parts of the Canuto de la Utrera, a prominent gorge in the central southern part of the relief excavated in Mesozoic limestones, as well as on the western end of the Canuto Chico, a smaller canyon in the northern part. Pliocene marine deposits fossilized the bored surfaces. Bored boulders of the substrate are embedded in the Pliocene sediments. The traces Gastrochaenolites ispp., Entobia ispp., Caulostrepsis ispp., Circolites kotoucensis, and Ericichnus asgaardi have been identified. Among these, Caulostrepsis is found only in the reworked blocks. This ichnoassemblage, attributed to the archetypical Entobia Ichnofacies of rocky shores, represents boring activity in high-energy, very-shallow-water settings, close to the sea level, and with a virtually null sedimentation rate. The vertical distribution of bored surfaces attests to a progressive sea-level rise. The onlap of the Pliocene deposits on the substrate is consistent with the deepening trend. Planktonic foraminiferal assemblages collected from the sediment adjacent to the Sierra de la Utrera demonstrate that boring activity spanned, at most, 1 Ma during the early Pliocene, Zanclean (biozones MPl 1 and MPl 2), ranging from 5.33 to 4.36 Ma.

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Topics: Entobia (55%), Gastrochaenolites (54%), Sea level (51%) ... read more

5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CRETRES.2013.09.002
Abstract: A bivalve assemblage from the Lower Cretaceous Puez Formation at the type locality, Piz de Puez (Dolomites, South Tyrol, northern Italy) is described. Given the large amount of sedimentary rock screened during the course of this study, the <50 bivalves examined here, although occurring in very low abundance, are considered to represent a reasonably comprehensive sample. The assemblage provides insight into an autochthonous, Mesozoic, deep-water bivalve community, which was dominated by glass scallops. Two species are described as new, Parvamussium pizpuezense n. sp. and the giant P. mordsdrum n. sp. Presumably, they lived as epifaunal-reclining carnivores and preyed on various meiofauna, occupying a similar ecologic niche as their modern counterparts. Scarce epifaunal, suspension-feeding Inoceramidae entered only by occasional recruitment of larvae into an environment that is inferred to have been characterised by low levels of suspended nutrients.

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Topics: Propeamussiidae (54%), Cenomanian (51%)

5 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.QUASCIREV.2020.106676
Abstract: This paper constitutes the first comprehensive review of animal fossils retrieved in Iberian archaeological sites. Out of 633 items from 82 sites, 143 were analyzed and a further 13 assessed and their status clarified by us on 20 sites. Among others, this study is the first one in Iberia to assess the role played by fossil scaphopods and to carry out a systematic description of shark teeth. The relevance of those 156 fossils we assessed through a comparison with all the finds located in the Iberian literature. Failure to report fossils properly did not allow us to warrant such status for 352 items. We believe that the poor record of fossils in Iberian archaeological sites is the result of a combination of methodological and theoretical constraints. For that reason, we contend that the items herein reported probably represent a fraction, however substantial, of the evidence at hand. In light of the contrasted relevance of fossils for addressing cultural issues, some recommendations and a plea for a more systematic and rigorous search of archaeological specimens are made.

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3 Citations


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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0025-3227(71)90053-3
01 Feb 1971-Marine Geology
Topics: Drilling (52%), Deep sea (50%)

4,094 Citations


Book ChapterDOI: 10.2110/PEC.95.04.0129
01 Jan 1995-
Abstract: Since the publication of our previous time scale (Berggren and others, 1985c = BKFV85) a large amount of new magneto- and biostratigraphic data and radioisotopic ages have become available. An evaluation of some of the key magnetobiostratigraphic calibration points used in BKFV85, as suggested by high precision 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating (e.g., Montanari and others, 1988; Swisher and Prothero, 1990; Prothero and Swisher, 1992; Prothero, 1994), has served as a catalyst for us in developing a revised Cenozoic time scale. For the Neogene Period, astrochron- ologic data (Shackleton and others, 1990; Hilgen, 1991) required re-evaluation of the calibration of the Pliocene and Pleistocene Epochs. The significantly older ages for the Pliocene-Pleistocene Epochs predicted by astronomical calibrations were soon corroborated by high precision 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating (e.g., Baksi and others, 1992; McDougall and others, 1992; Tauxe and others, 1992; Walter and others, 1991; Renne and others, 1993). At the same time, a new and improved definition of the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic polarity sequence was achieved based on a comprehensive evaluation of global sea-floor magnetic anomaly profiles (Cande and Kent, 1992). This, in turn, led to a revised Cenozoic geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) based on standardization to a model of South Atlantic spreading history (Cande and Kent, 1992/1995 = CK92/95). This paper presents a revised (integrated magnetobiochronologic) Cenozoic time scale (IMBTS) based on an assessment and integration of data from several sources. Biostratigraphic events are correlated to the recently revised global polarity time scale (CK95). The construction of the new GPTS is outlined with emphasis on methodology and newly developed polarity history nomenclature. The radioisotopic calibration points (as well as other relevant data) used to constrain the GPTS are reviewed in their (bio)stratigraphic context. An updated magnetobiostratigraphic (re)assessment of about 150 pre-Pliocene planktonic foraminiferal datum events (including recently avail- able high southern (austral) latitude data) and a new/modified zonal biostratigraphy provides an essentially global biostratigraphic correlation framework. This is complemented by a (re)assessment of nearly 100 calcareous nannofossil datum events. Unrecognized unconformities in the stratigraphic record (and to a lesser extent differences in taxonomic concepts), rather than latitudinal diachrony, is shown to account for discrep- ancies in magnetobiostratigraphic correlations in many instances, particularly in the Paleogene Period. Claims of diachrony of low amplitude (<2 my) are poorly substantiated, at least in the Paleocene and Eocene Epochs. Finally, we (re)assess the current status of Cenozoic chronostratigraphy and present estimates of the chronology of lower (stage) and higher (system) level units. Although the numerical values of chronostratigraphic units (and their boundaries) have changed in the decade since the previous version of the Cenozoic time scale, the relative duration of these units has remained essentially the same. This is particularly true of the Paleogene Period, where the Paleocene/Eocene and Eocene/Oligocene boundaries have been shifted ~2 my younger and the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary ~1 my younger. Changes in the Neogene time scale are relatively minor and reflect primarily improved magnetobiostratigraphic calibrations, better understanding of chronostratigraphic and magnetobiostratigraphic relationships, and the introduction of a congruent astronom- ical/paleomagnetic chronology for the past 6 my (and concomitant adjustments to magnetochron age estimates).

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Topics: Paleogene (53%), Chronostratigraphy (51%), Cenozoic (51%) ... read more

3,063 Citations



BookDOI: 10.2110/PEC.95.04
01 Jan 1995-
Abstract: Geochronology, Time Scales, and Global Stratigraphic Correlation - The last decade has witnessed significant advances in analytic techniques and methodologic approaches to understanding earth history. This publication is a well-constructed geochronologic framework that allows estimation of rates of geologic processes, correlation of stratigraphies, and placement of discrete events in temporal order. Resulting from a research symposium at the 67th Annual SEPM meeting in New Orleans, Louisiana, April 1993, the 16 papers of this volume represent a broad spectrum of approaches to understanding earth history and the passage of geologic time.

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1,026 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/307620A0
Nicholas J Shackleton1, Jan Backman2, Jan Backman3, H. Zimmerman4  +14 moreInstitutions (12)
01 Feb 1984-Nature
Abstract: We report here that DSDP Site 552A, cored with the hydraulic piston corer on the west flank of Rockall Bank, recovered an undisturbed sequence of alternating white deep-sea carbonate oozes and dark-coloured layers that are rich in glacial debris. Oxygen isotope analysis of the sequence together with detailed nannofossil and palaeomagnetic stratigraphy shows that the first major horizon of ice-rafting occurred at about 2.4 Myr, and was preceded by a minor pulse of ice-rafting at about 2.5 Myr. The carbon isotope record shows that the site has been bathed by a water mass of similar characteristics to present-day North Atlantic deep water at least since 3.5 Myr.

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Topics: North Atlantic Deep Water (57%), Ice rafting (56%), Glacial period (52%) ... read more

1,003 Citations