University of Exeter
Education•Exeter, United Kingdom•
About: University of Exeter is a(n) education organization based out in Exeter, United Kingdom. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Randomized controlled trial. The organization has 15820 authors who have published 50650 publication(s) receiving 1793046 citation(s). The organization is also known as: Exeter University & University of the South West of England.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: By altering the structure of a metal's surface, the properties of surface plasmons—in particular their interaction with light—can be tailored, which could lead to miniaturized photonic circuits with length scales that are much smaller than those currently achieved.
Abstract: Surface plasmons are waves that propagate along the surface of a conductor. By altering the structure of a metal's surface, the properties of surface plasmons--in particular their interaction with light--can be tailored, which offers the potential for developing new types of photonic device. This could lead to miniaturized photonic circuits with length scales that are much smaller than those currently achieved. Surface plasmons are being explored for their potential in subwavelength optics, data storage, light generation, microscopy and bio-photonics.
01 Jan 1996-Family Practice
TL;DR: Three broad categories of naturalistic sampling are described: convenience, judgement and theoretical models, which are illustrated with practical examples from the author's own research.
Abstract: The probability sampling techniques used for quantitative studies are rarely appropriate when conducting qualitative research. This article considers and explains the differences between the two approaches and describes three broad categories of naturalistic sampling: convenience, judgement and theoretical models. The principles are illustrated with practical examples from the author's own research.
Daniel J. Klionsky1, Kotb Abdelmohsen2, Akihisa Abe3, Joynal Abedin4 +2519 more•Institutions (695)
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macro-autophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes.
Abstract: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. For example, a key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process including the amount and rate of cargo sequestered and degraded). In particular, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation must be differentiated from stimuli that increase autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. It is worth emphasizing here that lysosomal digestion is a stage of autophagy and evaluating its competence is a crucial part of the evaluation of autophagic flux, or complete autophagy. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. Along these lines, because of the potential for pleiotropic effects due to blocking autophagy through genetic manipulation, it is imperative to target by gene knockout or RNA interference more than one autophagy-related protein. In addition, some individual Atg proteins, or groups of proteins, are involved in other cellular pathways implying that not all Atg proteins can be used as a specific marker for an autophagic process. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
•01 Jan 1981
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the properties of phase diagrams for single-component systems, including the influence of interfaces on the equilibrium of binary solutions in Heterogeneous Systems (Heterogeneous Binary Phase Diagrams).
Abstract: Thermodynamics and Phase Diagrams Equilibrium Single-Component Systems Binary Solutions Equilibrium in Heterogeneous Systems Binary Phase Diagrams Influence of Interfaces on Equilibrium Ternary Equilibrium Additional Thermodynamic Relationships for Binary Solutions Computation of Phase Diagrams Kinetics of Phase Transformations Exercises References Further Readings Diffusion Atomic Mechanisms of Diffusion Interstitial Diffusion Substitutional Diffusion Atomic Mobility Tracer Diffusion in Binary Alloys Diffusion in Ternary Alloys High-Diffusivity Paths Diffusion in Multiphase Binary Systems Exercises References Further Readings Crystal Interfaces and Microstructure Interfacial Free Energy Solid=Vapor Interfaces Boundaries in Single-Phase Solids Interphase Interfaces in Solids Interface Migration Exercises References Further Readings Solidification Nucleation in Pure Metals Growth of a Pure Solid Alloy Solidification Solidification of Ingots and Castings Solidification of Fusion Welds Solidification during Quenching from the Melt Metallic Glasses Case Studies of Some Practical Castings and Welds Exercises References Further Readings Diffusional Transformations in Solids Homogeneous Nucleation in Solids Heterogeneous Nucleation Precipitate Growth5 Overall Transformation Kinetics-TTT Diagrams Precipitation in Age-Hardening Alloys Precipitation of Ferrite from Austenite Cellular Precipitation Eutectoid Transformations Massive Transformations Ordering Transformations Case Studies Exercises References Further Readings Diffusionless Transformations Characteristics of Diffusionless Transformations Martensite Crystallography Theories of Martensite Nucleation Martensite Growth1 Premartensite Phenomena Tempering of Ferrous Martensites Case Studies Exercises References Further Readings Solutions to Exercises Compiled by John C. Ion
•31 Jan 1992
TL;DR: In this article, the authors bring together several aspects of soliton theory currently only available in research papers, including inverse scattering in multi-dimensions, integrable nonlinear evolution equations in multidimensional space, and the ∂ method.
Abstract: Solitons have been of considerable interest to mathematicians since their discovery by Kruskal and Zabusky. This book brings together several aspects of soliton theory currently only available in research papers. Emphasis is given to the multi-dimensional problems arising and includes inverse scattering in multi-dimensions, integrable nonlinear evolution equations in multi-dimensions and the ∂ method. Thus, this book will be a valuable addition to the growing literature in the area and essential reading for all researchers in the field of soliton theory.
Showing all 15820 results
|Frank B. Hu||250||1675||253464|
|John C. Morris||183||1441||168413|
|David W. Johnson||160||2714||140778|
|Kevin J. Gaston||150||750||85635|
|Andrew T. Hattersley||146||768||106949|
|Timothy M. Frayling||133||500||100344|
|Joel N. Hirschhorn||133||431||101061|
|Jonathan D. G. Jones||129||417||80908|
|Graeme I. Bell||127||531||61011|
|Mark D. Griffiths||124||1238||61335|
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