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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/TWC.2021.3062089

Intelligent Reflecting Surface Enhanced Indoor Robot Path Planning: A Radio Map-Based Approach

04 Mar 2021-IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (IEEE)-Vol. 20, Iss: 7, pp 4732-4747
Abstract: Integrating robots into cellular networks creating connected robotic users has emerged as a promising technology for future smart cities and smart factories due to their low cost and high maneuverability. However, the requirement of establishing stable and high-quality communication links to the robotic users greatly restricts their applicability, especially in indoor environments where obstacles may block the wireless link. To tackle this challenge, in this paper, an indoor robot navigation system is investigated, where an intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) is employed to enhance the connectivity between the access point (AP) and robotic users. Both single-user and multiple-user scenarios are considered. In the single-user scenario, one mobile robotic user (MRU) communicates with the AP. In the multiple-user scenario, the AP serves one MRU and one static robotic user (SRU) employing either non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) or orthogonal multiple access (OMA) transmission. The considered system is optimized for minimization of the travelling time/distance of the MRU from a given starting point to a predefined final location, while satisfying constraints on the communication quality of the robotic users. To this end, a radio map based approach is proposed to exploit location-dependent channel propagation knowledge. For the single-user scenario, a channel power gain map is constructed, which characterizes the spatial distribution of the maximum expected effective channel power gain of the MRU for the optimal IRS phase shifts. Based on the obtained channel power gain map, the communication-aware robot path planing problem is solved by exploiting graph theory. For the multiple-user scenario, a communication rate map is constructed, which characterizes the spatial distribution of the maximum expected rate of the MRU for the optimal power allocation at the AP and the optimal IRS phase shifts subject to a minimum rate requirement for the SRU. The joint optimization problem is efficiently solved by invoking bisection search and successive convex approximation methods. Then, a graph theory based solution for the robot path planning problem is derived by exploiting the obtained communication rate map. Our numerical results show that: 1) the required travelling distance of the MRU can be significantly reduced by deploying an IRS; 2) NOMA yields a higher communication rate for the MRU than OMA; 3) the IRS performance gain is significantly more pronounced for NOMA than for OMA.

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Topics: Cellular network (52%), Communication channel (51%), Wireless (51%)
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7 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/COMST.2021.3077737
Yuanwei Liu1, Xiao Liu1, Xidong Mu2, Tianwei Hou3  +3 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs), also known as intelligent reflecting surfaces (IRSs), or large intelligent surfaces (LISs), 1 have received significant attention for their potential to enhance the capacity and coverage of wireless networks by smartly reconfiguring the wireless propagation environment. Therefore, RISs are considered a promising technology for the sixth-generation (6G) of communication networks. In this context, we provide a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art on RISs, with focus on their operating principles, performance evaluation, beamforming design and resource management, applications of machine learning to RIS-enhanced wireless networks, as well as the integration of RISs with other emerging technologies. We describe the basic principles of RISs both from physics and communications perspectives, based on which we present performance evaluation of multiantenna assisted RIS systems. In addition, we systematically survey existing designs for RIS-enhanced wireless networks encompassing performance analysis, information theory, and performance optimization perspectives. Furthermore, we survey existing research contributions that apply machine learning for tackling challenges in dynamic scenarios, such as random fluctuations of wireless channels and user mobility in RIS-enhanced wireless networks. Last but not least, we identify major issues and research opportunities associated with the integration of RISs and other emerging technologies for applications to next-generation networks. 1 Without loss of generality, we use the name of RIS in the remainder of this paper.

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85 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Yuanwei Liu, Xiao Liu, Xidong Mu, Tianwei Hou1  +4 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs), also known as intelligent reflecting surfaces (IRSs), have received significant attention for their potential to enhance the capacity and coverage of wireless networks by smartly reconfiguring the wireless propagation environment. Therefore, RISs are considered a promising technology for the sixth-generation (6G) communication networks. In this context, we provide a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art on RISs, with focus on their operating principles, performance evaluation, beamforming design and resource management, applications of machine learning to RIS-enhanced wireless networks, as well as the integration of RISs with other emerging technologies. We describe the basic principles of RISs both from physics and communications perspectives, based on which we present performance evaluation of multi-antenna assisted RIS systems. In addition, we systematically survey existing designs for RIS-enhanced wireless networks encompassing performance analysis, information theory, and performance optimization perspectives. Furthermore, we survey existing research contributions that apply machine learning for tackling challenges in dynamic scenarios, such as random fluctuations of wireless channels and user mobility in RIS-enhanced wireless networks. Last but not least, we identify major issues and research opportunities associated with the integration of RISs and other emerging technologies for application to next-generation networks.

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Topics: Wireless network (56%)

44 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/LCOMM.2021.3082214
Abstract: In this letter, simultaneous transmitting and reflecting reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (STAR-RISs) are studied. Compared with the conventional reflecting-only RISs, the coverage of STAR-RISs is extended to 360 degrees via simultaneous transmission and reflection. A general hardware model for STAR-RISs is presented. Then, channel models are proposed for the near-field and the far-field scenarios, based on which the diversity gain of the STAR-RISs is analyzed and compared with that of the conventional RISs. Numerical simulations are provided to verify analytical results and to demonstrate that full diversity order can be achieved on both sides of the STAR-RIS.

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Topics: Diversity gain (51%)

12 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Yuanwei Liu, Shuowen Zhang1, Xidong Mu2, Zhiguo Ding3  +4 moreInstitutions (7)
Abstract: Due to the explosive growth in the number of wireless devices and diverse wireless services, such as virtual/augmented reality and Internet-of-Everything, next generation wireless networks face unprecedented challenges caused by heterogeneous data traffic, massive connectivity, and ultra-high bandwidth efficiency and ultra-low latency requirements. To address these challenges, advanced multiple access schemes are expected to be developed, namely next generation multiple access (NGMA), which are capable of supporting massive numbers of users in a more resource- and complexity-efficient manner than existing multiple access schemes. As the research on NGMA is in a very early stage, in this paper, we explore the evolution of NGMA with a particular focus on non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA), i.e., the transition from NOMA to NGMA. In particular, we first review the fundamental capacity limits of NOMA, elaborate the new requirements for NGMA, and discuss several possible candidate techniques. Moreover, given the high compatibility and flexibility of NOMA, we provide an overview of current research efforts on multi-antenna techniques for NOMA, promising future application scenarios of NOMA, and the interplay between NOMA and other emerging physical layer techniques. Furthermore, we discuss advanced mathematical tools for facilitating the design of NOMA communication systems, including conventional optimization approaches and new machine learning techniques. Next, we propose a unified framework for NGMA based on multiple antennas and NOMA, where both downlink and uplink transmission are considered, thus setting the foundation for this emerging research area. Finally, several practical implementation challenges for NGMA are highlighted as motivation for future work.

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Topics: Noma (57%), Wireless network (51%)

2 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: In this letter, simultaneous transmitting and reflecting reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (STAR-RISs) are studied. Compared with the conventional reflecting-only RISs, the coverage of STAR-RISs is extended to 360 degrees via simultaneous transmission and reflection. A general hardware model for STAR-RISs is presented. Then, channel models are proposed for the near-field and the far-field scenarios, base on which the diversity gain of the STAR-RISs is analyzed and compared with that of the conventional RISs. Numerical simulations are provided to verify analytical results and to demonstrate that full diversity order can be achieved on both sides of the STAR-RIS.

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Topics: Diversity gain (51%)

2 Citations


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29 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/MSP.2010.936019
Zhi-Quan Luo1, Wing-Kin Ma2, Anthony Man-Cho So3, Yinyu Ye4  +1 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: In this article, we have provided general, comprehensive coverage of the SDR technique, from its practical deployments and scope of applicability to key theoretical results. We have also showcased several representative applications, namely MIMO detection, B? shimming in MRI, and sensor network localization. Another important application, namely downlink transmit beamforming, is described in [1]. Due to space limitations, we are unable to cover many other beautiful applications of the SDR technique, although we have done our best to illustrate the key intuitive ideas that resulted in those applications. We hope that this introductory article will serve as a good starting point for readers who would like to apply the SDR technique to their applications, and to locate specific references either in applications or theory.

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2,324 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/TWC.2019.2936025
Qingqing Wu1, Rui Zhang1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) is a revolutionary and transformative technology for achieving spectrum and energy efficient wireless communication cost-effectively in the future. Specifically, an IRS consists of a large number of low-cost passive elements each being able to reflect the incident signal independently with an adjustable phase shift so as to collaboratively achieve three-dimensional (3D) passive beamforming without the need of any transmit radio-frequency (RF) chains. In this paper, we study an IRS-aided single-cell wireless system where one IRS is deployed to assist in the communications between a multi-antenna access point (AP) and multiple single-antenna users. We formulate and solve new problems to minimize the total transmit power at the AP by jointly optimizing the transmit beamforming by active antenna array at the AP and reflect beamforming by passive phase shifters at the IRS, subject to users’ individual signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) constraints. Moreover, we analyze the asymptotic performance of IRS’s passive beamforming with infinitely large number of reflecting elements and compare it to that of the traditional active beamforming/relaying. Simulation results demonstrate that an IRS-aided MIMO system can achieve the same rate performance as a benchmark massive MIMO system without using IRS, but with significantly reduced active antennas/RF chains. We also draw useful insights into optimally deploying IRS in future wireless systems.

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Topics: Beamforming (58%), MIMO (56%), Wireless network (54%) ... show more

1,344 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/TWC.2019.2922609
Abstract: The adoption of a reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) for downlink multi-user communication from a multi-antenna base station is investigated in this paper. We develop energy-efficient designs for both the transmit power allocation and the phase shifts of the surface reflecting elements subject to individual link budget guarantees for the mobile users. This leads to non-convex design optimization problems for which to tackle we propose two computationally affordable approaches, capitalizing on alternating maximization, gradient descent search, and sequential fractional programming. Specifically, one algorithm employs gradient descent for obtaining the RIS phase coefficients, and fractional programming for optimal transmit power allocation. Instead, the second algorithm employs sequential fractional programming for the optimization of the RIS phase shifts. In addition, a realistic power consumption model for RIS-based systems is presented, and the performance of the proposed methods is analyzed in a realistic outdoor environment. In particular, our results show that the proposed RIS-based resource allocation methods are able to provide up to 300% higher energy efficiency in comparison with the use of regular multi-antenna amplify-and-forward relaying.

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Topics: Fractional programming (56%), Gradient descent (55%), Resource allocation (53%) ... show more

1,196 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/MCOM.001.1900107
Qingqing Wu1, Rui Zhang1Institutions (1)
Abstract: IRS is a new and revolutionizing technology that is able to significantly improve the performance of wireless communication networks, by smartly reconfiguring the wireless propagation environment with the use of massive low-cost passive reflecting elements integrated on a planar surface. Specifically, different elements of an IRS can independently reflect the incident signal by controlling its amplitude and/or phase and thereby collaboratively achieve fine-grained 3D passive beamforming for directional signal enhancement or nulling. In this article, we first provide an overview of the IRS technology, including its main applications in wireless communication, competitive advantages over existing technologies, hardware architecture as well as the corresponding new signal model. We then address the key challenges in designing and implementing the new IRS-aided hybrid (with both active and passive components) wireless network, as compared to the traditional network comprising active components only. Finally, numerical results are provided to show the great performance enhancement with the use of IRS in typical wireless networks.

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Topics: Wireless network (63%), Wireless (54%), Hardware architecture (52%)

1,014 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/JPROC.2017.2768666
Yuanwei Liu1, Zhijin Qin2, Maged Elkashlan1, Zhiguo Ding2  +2 moreInstitutions (3)
01 Dec 2017-
Abstract: Driven by the rapid escalation of the wireless capacity requirements imposed by advanced multimedia applications (e.g., ultrahigh-definition video, virtual reality, etc.), as well as the dramatically increasing demand for user access required for the Internet of Things (IoT), the fifth-generation (5G) networks face challenges in terms of supporting large-scale heterogeneous data traffic. Nonorthogonal multiple access (NOMA), which has been recently proposed for the third-generation partnership projects long-term evolution advanced (3GPP-LTE-A), constitutes a promising technology of addressing the aforementioned challenges in 5G networks by accommodating several users within the same orthogonal resource block. By doing so, significant bandwidth efficiency enhancement can be attained over conventional orthogonal multiple-access (OMA) techniques. This motivated numerous researchers to dedicate substantial research contributions to this field. In this context, we provide a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in power-domain multiplexing-aided NOMA, with a focus on the theoretical NOMA principles, multiple-antenna-aided NOMA design, on the interplay between NOMA and cooperative transmission, on the resource control of NOMA, on the coexistence of NOMA with other emerging potential 5G techniques and on the comparison with other NOMA variants. We highlight the main advantages of power-domain multiplexing NOMA compared to other existing NOMA techniques. We summarize the challenges of existing research contributions of NOMA and provide potential solutions. Finally, we offer some design guidelines for NOMA systems and identify promising research opportunities for the future.

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Topics: Noma (59%)

677 Citations


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