Abstract: Piper, the pepper plants or pepper vines are an economically and ecologically important genus in the family Piperaceae. It contains about 1,000-2,000 species of shrubs, herbs, and lianas, many of which are keystone species in their native habitat. Piper species have a pan tropical distribution, and are most commonly found in the understory of lowland tropical rainforests, but can also occur in clearings and in higher elevation life zones such as cloud forests. Most Piper species are either herbaceous or vines; some grow as shrubs or almost as small trees. Many species of piper have been used for treating different diseases in many traditions. E.g P. cubeba has been used in folk medicine, herbalism as well as in the early 20th century, as a cigarette flavoring. P. darienense is used medically by the Kuna people of the Panama-Colombia border region, and elsewhere it is used to intoxicate fish which then can be easily caught. Black Pepper (P. nigrum) essential oil is sometimes used in herbalism, and Long Pepper (P. longum) is similarly employed in Ayurveda, where it was an ingredient of Triphala Guggulu and (together with Black Pepper) of Trikatu pills, used for rasayana (rejuvenating and detoxifying) purposes.