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Journal ArticleDOI

Measurement of muscle mass in humans: validity of the 24-hour urinary creatinine method.

01 Mar 1983-The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (American Society for Nutrition)-Vol. 37, Iss: 3, pp 478-494
TL;DR: While creatinine excretion may serve as a useful approximation of muscle mass in carefully selected subjects, there remains a need for accurate and practical indices of Muscle mass for use in the individuals in whom the method cannot be reliably applied.
About: This article is published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.The article was published on 1983-03-01. It has received 812 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Creatinine & Creatine.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The purpose of this study was to develop an equation from MDRD Study data that could improve the prediction of GFR from serum creatinine concentration, and major clinical decisions in general medicine, geriatrics, and oncology are made by using the Cockcroft-Gault formula and other formulas to predict the level of renal function.
Abstract: The serum creatinine concentration is widely used as an index of renal function, but this measure is affected by factors other than the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This study examined an equa...

14,711 citations


Cites background from "Measurement of muscle mass in human..."

  • ...Older age and female sex were independent predictors of lower GFR, presumably reflecting the well-known relations of age and sex to muscle mass (40)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Sarcopenia should be considered in all older patients who present with observed declines in physical function, strength, or overall health, and patients who meet these criteria should further undergo body composition assessment using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry with sarcopenia being defined using currently validated definitions.

2,378 citations


Cites background from "Measurement of muscle mass in human..."

  • ...The most direct measurement currently available is urinary creatinine measured over 24-hour periods (58)....

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Book
01 Jan 2002
TL;DR: This report presents detailed information on age- and gender-related differences in the anatomical and physiological characteristics of reference individuals to provide needed input to prospective dosimetry calculations for radiation protection purposes for both workers and members of the general public.
Abstract: Preface Abstract 1. Basis of ICRP Reference Values 2. Summary of Reference Values 3. Embryo and Fetus 4. Total Body 5. Respiratory System 6. Alimentary System 7. Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems 8. Urogenital System 9. Skeletal System 10. Integumentary System 11. Additional Organs and Tissues 12. Pregnant Woman: Anatomical and Physiological Changes 13. Elemental Composition of the Body Reference

1,741 citations


Cites background from "Measurement of muscle mass in human..."

  • ...A constant relationship between muscle mass and daily creatinine excretion has been suggested on the basis of animal studies (Heymsfield et al., 1983)....

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  • ...Experimentally determined values for ‘creatinine equivalence’ (kg muscle mass/g urinary creatinine) in animals range from 17 to 22 (Heymsfield et al., 1983; Malina, 1986)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The fundamental principles of physiology, metabolism, and analytical chemistry that are necessary to correctly interpret the serum creatinine concentration are reviewed and applied to important clinical circumstances, including aging, pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, drug administration, and acute and chronic renal failure.
Abstract: The serum creatinine concentration is widely interpreted as a measure of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and is used as an index of renal function in clinical practice. Glomerular filtration of creatinine, however, is only one of the variables that determines its concentration in serum. Alterations in renal handling and metabolism of creatinine and methodological interferences in its measurement may have a profound impact on the serum concentration of creatinine. We review the fundamental principles of physiology, metabolism, and analytical chemistry that are necessary to correctly interpret the serum creatinine concentration. These principles are then applied to important clinical circumstances, including aging, pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, drug administration, and acute and chronic renal failure. Despite numerous limitations, serum creatinine remains a useful clinical tool, but more accurate measures of renal function are frequently necessary.

1,550 citations


Cites background from "Measurement of muscle mass in human..."

  • ...(44) comprehensively analyzed these issues....

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  • ...7% of the total creatine pool per day (44)....

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  • ...Evidence suggests that reductions in dietary protein mediate small decreases (by 5-15%) in the size of the creatine pool; such decreases appear to reflect reduced availability of the creatine precursors arginine and glycine (44,56)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The reference values provided needed input to prospective dosimetry calculations for radiation protection purposes for both workers and members of the general public as mentioned in this paper, and the reference values were used for both male and female subjects of six different ages: newborn, 1 year, 5 years, 10 years, 15 years, and adult.
Abstract: This report presents detailed information on age- and gender-related differences in the anatomical and physiological characteristics of reference individuals. These reference values provide needed input to prospective dosimetry calculations for radiation protection purposes for both workers and members of the general public. The purpose of this report is to consolidate and unify in one publication, important new information on reference anatomical and physiological values that has become available since Publication 23 was published by the ICRP in 1975. There are two aspects of this work. The first is to revise and extend the information in Publication 23 as appropriate. The second is to provide additional information on individual variation among grossly normal individuals resulting from differences in age, gender, race, or other factors. This publication collects, unifies, and expands the updated ICRP reference values for the purpose of providing a comprehensive and consistent set of age- and gender-specific reference values for anatomical and physiological features of the human body pertinent to radiation dosimetry. The reference values given in this report are based on: (a) anatomical and physiological information not published before by the ICRP; (b) recent ICRP publications containing reference value information; and (c) information in Publication 23 that is still considered valid and appropriate for radiation protection purposes. Moving from the past emphasis on ‘Reference Man’, the new report presents a series of reference values for both male and female subjects of six different ages: newborn, 1 year, 5 years, 10 years, 15 years, and adult. In selecting reference values, the Commission has used data on Western Europeans and North Americans because these populations have been well studied with respect to antomy, body composition, and physiology. When appropriate, comparisons are made between the chosen reference values and data from several Asian populations. The first section of the report provides summary tables of all the anatomical and physiological parameters given as reference values in this publication. These results give a comprehensive view of reference values for an individual as influenced by age and gender. The second section describes characteristics of dosimetric importance for the embryo and fetus. Information is provided on the development of the total body and the timing of appearance and development of the various organ systems. Reference values are provided on the mass of the total body and selected organs and tissues, as well as a number of physiological parameters. The third section deals with reference values of important anatomical and physiological characteristics of reference individuals from birth to adulthood. This section begins with details on the growth and composition of the total body in males and females. It then describes and quantifies anatomical and physiological characteristics of various organ systems and changes in these characteristics during growth, maturity, and pregnancy. Reference values are specified for characteristics of dosimetric importance. The final section gives a brief summary of the elemental composition of individuals. Focusing on the elements of dosimetric importance, information is presented on the body content of 13 elements: calcium, carbon, chloride, hydrogen, iodine, iron, magnesium, nitrogen, oxygen, potassium, sodium, sulphur, and phosphorus.

1,169 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Bedside estimates of undernutrition severity and prognosis can therefore be calculated from two simple measurements, TSF and MAC, and the minimal range of corrected AMA values compatible with survival was defined.

785 citations

Book
01 Jan 1974

592 citations


"Measurement of muscle mass in human..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Muscle is roughly 80% water and 20% protein, and a 70-kg man has about 28 kg of this tissue (1)....

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  • ...Cm (moles/day) = K (day ) x Cr (moles/kg) x M (kg) (1)...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In a group of 34 adult and child subjects a high correlation was found between lean body mass, as determined by potassium-40 counting, and urinary creatinine excretion, and it appears that one can make a reasonable estimate of lean body body mass from urinary creat inane excretion.

467 citations