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Journal ArticleDOI

Medical Analogies in Buddhist and Hellenistic Thought: Tranquillity and Anger

01 Jul 2010-Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement (Cambridge University Press)-Vol. 66, Iss: 66, pp 11-33
TL;DR: Medical analogies are commonly invoked in both Indian Buddhist dharma and Hellenistic philosophy as discussed by the authors, and both renditions of the analogy may be said to declare that philosophy cures mental diseases and brings about psychological health.
Abstract: Medical analogies are commonly invoked in both Indian Buddhist dharma and Hellenistic philosophy. In the Pāli Canon, nirvana (or, in Pāli, nibbāna) is depicted as a form of health, and the Buddha is portrayed as a doctor who helps us attain it. Much later in the tradition, Śāntideva described the Buddha’s teaching as ‘the sole medicine for the ailments of the world, the mine of all success and happiness.’ Cicero expressed the view of many Hellenistic philosophers when he said that philosophy is ‘a medical science for the mind.’ He thought we should ‘hand ourselves over to philosophy, and let ourselves be healed.’ ‘For as long as these ills [of the mind] remain,’ he wrote, ‘we cannot attain to happiness.’ There are many different forms of medical analogy in these two traditions, but the most general form may be stated as follows: just as medicine cures bodily diseases and brings about physical health, so Buddhist dharma or Hellenistic philosophy cures mental diseases and brings about psychological health—where psychological health is understood as the highest form of happiness or well-being. Insofar as Buddhist dharma involves philosophy, as it does, both renditions of the analogy may be said to declare that philosophy cures mental diseases and brings about psychological health. This feature of the analogy—philosophy as analogous to medical treatment—has attracted considerable attention.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 2017-BMJ Open
TL;DR: The PW-SIS is a valid and theoretically coherent scale which is brief and practical for integration into a wide range of health behaviour and outcomes research studies.
Abstract: Introduction We developed and validated a new parsimonious scale to measure stoic beliefs. Key domains of stoicism are imperviousness to strong emotions, indifference to death, taciturnity and self-sufficiency. In the context of illness and disease, a personal ideology of stoicism may create an internal resistance to objective needs, which can lead to negative consequences. Stoicism has been linked to help-seeking delays, inadequate pain treatment, caregiver strain and suicide after economic stress. Methods During 2013–2014, 390 adults aged 18+ years completed a brief anonymous paper questionnaire containing the preliminary 24-item Pathak-Wieten Stoicism Ideology Scale (PW-SIS). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test an a priori multidomain theoretical model. Content validity and response distributions were examined. Sociodemographic predictors of strong endorsement of stoicism were explored with logistic regression. Results The final PW-SIS contains four conceptual domains and 12 items. CFA showed very good model fit: root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA)=0.05 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.07), goodness-of-fit index=0.96 and Tucker-Lewis Index=0.93. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.78 and ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 for the subscales. Content validity analysis showed a statistically significant trend, with respondents who reported trying to be a stoic ‘all of the time’ having the highest PW-SIS scores. Men were over two times as likely as women to fall into the top quartile of responses (OR=2.30, 95% CI 1.44 to 3.68, P Discussion The PW-SIS is a valid and theoretically coherent scale which is brief and practical for integration into a wide range of health behaviour and outcomes research studies.

20 citations


Cites background from "Medical Analogies in Buddhist and H..."

  • ...Major Asian philosophical systems of thought, such as Buddhism and Confucianism, also endorsed stoic principles and teachings.(4) 5 Beginning in the 19th century, academic and popular philosophers in Europe and the Americas were exposed to and influenced by Asian philosophy and religion....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The paper addresses the culture construction of ageing and how pain is often constructed as a natural part of ageing, as well as exploring the cultural dimensions of health, illness and pain in old age.
Abstract: In this paper, the authors seek to discuss some of the complexities involved in cross-cultural working in relation to the communication and management of pain in older people. Specifically, the paper addresses the culture construction of ageing and how pain is often constructed as a natural part of ageing. The authors also suggest that with the rise of the ideology of active-ageing, many older people who are disabled or living in chronic pain, may feel a moral imperative to hide pain and ill-health. The discussion extends into looking at the impact of culture and the communication of pain, including specific idioms of distress, somaticize and the lay-management of pain through stoicism. The literature utilised in this paper was based on a thematic review, exploring the cultural dimensions of health, illness and pain in old age. The review also drew on the authors’ previous publications, as well as their extensive community research experience working with ethnic minority communities.

13 citations


Cites background from "Medical Analogies in Buddhist and H..."

  • ...Some authors have highlighted how stoicism is often part of religious and spiritual practice and the enduring of suffering is a commonly held belief in many religious traditions, including Confucianism, Sikhism, Daoism, Hinduism and Buddhism [88]....

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MonographDOI
01 Dec 2012
TL;DR: In this paper, a new response to the challenge of nihilism is proposed towards a new approach to the problem of self-destruction and self-criticism in the context of Buddhism.
Abstract: Introduction Part I. Nihilism and Buddhism: 1. Nietzsche as Buddha 2. Nietzsche as anti-Buddha Part II. Suffering: 3. Amor Fati and the affirmation of suffering 4. Nirvana and the cessation of suffering Part III. Compassion: 5. Overcoming compassion 6. Cultivating compassion Conclusion: toward a new response to the challenge of nihilism.

11 citations

References
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Book
05 Jun 2012
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the need and recognition of emotions as judgments of value, and the need for human beings to recognize their need for love and need to express it.
Abstract: Part I. Need and Recognition: 1. Emotions as judgments of value 2. Humans and other animals: the neo-stoic view revised 3. Emotions and human societies 4. Emotions and infancy Interlude: 'things such as might happen' 5. Music and emotion Part II. Compassion: 6. Tragic predicaments 7. Compassion: the philosophical debate 8. Compassion and public life Part III. Ascents of Love: 9. Ladders of love: an introduction 10. Contemplative creativity: Plato, Spinoza, Proust 11. The Christian ascent: Augustine 12. The Christian ascent: Dante 13. The Romantic ascent: Emily Bronte 14. The Romantic ascent: Mahler 15. Democratic desire: Walt Whitman 16. The transfiguration of everyday life: Joyce.

2,371 citations

Book
01 Jan 1994
TL;DR: The Therapy of Desire List of Philosophers and Schools Bibliography Index Locorum General Index Ch. 1Therapeutic Arguments Ch. 2Medical Dialectic: Aristotle on Theory and Practice Ch. 3Aristotle on Emotions and Ethical Health Ch. 4Epicurean Surgery: Argument and Empty Desire Ch. 5Beyond Obsession and Disgust: Lucretius on the Therapy of Love Ch. 6Mortal Immortals: Lucrekius on Death and the Voice of Nature Ch. 7"By Words, Not Arms":Lucretius
Abstract: Acknowledgments Ch. 1Therapeutic Arguments Ch. 2Medical Dialectic: Aristotle on Theory and Practice Ch. 3Aristotle on Emotions and Ethical Health Ch. 4Epicurean Surgery: Argument and Empty Desire Ch. 5Beyond Obsession and Disgust: Lucretius on the Therapy of Love Ch. 6Mortal Immortals: Lucretius on Death and the Voice of Nature Ch. 7"By Words, Not Arms": Lucretius on Anger and Aggression Ch. 8Skeptic Purgatives: Disturbance and the Life without Belief Ch. 9Stoic Tonics: Philosophy and the Self-Government of the Soul Ch. 10The Stoics on the Extirpation of the Passions Ch. 11Seneca on Anger in Public Life Ch. 12Serpents in the Soul: A Reading of Seneca's Medea Ch. 13The Therapy of Desire List of Philosophers and Schools Bibliography Index Locorum General Index

861 citations

Book
01 Jan 1987
TL;DR: Early Pyrrhonism: 1. Scepticism, tranquillity and virtue 2. Epicureanism: 3. Physics 4. Epistemology 5. Stoicism 6. Ontology logic and semantics 7. Ethics Part IV. Why to suspend judgement.
Abstract: Preface Introduction Part I. Early Pyrrhonism: 1. Scepticism, tranquillity and virtue 2. Timon's polemics Part II. Epicureanism: 3. Physics 4. Epistemology 5. Ethics Part III. Stoicism: 6. The philosophical curriculum 7. Ontology logic and semantics 8. Epistemology (stoics and academics) 9. Physics 10. Ethics Part IV. The Academics: 11. Methodology 12. Living without opinions 13. Contributions to philosophical debates 14. The Pyrrhonist revival 15. Why to suspend judgement 16. How to suspend judgement Bibliography.

560 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, Seneca's defence: Third Movements as Harmonizing Chrysippus and Zeno 4. Posidonius: Judgements Not Necessary for Emotion: Galen's Report 7. Exhaustion and Lack of Imagination 8. Disowned Judgements, Animals, and Music 9. Aspasius and Other Objections to Chrysippius 10. What is Missing from the Judgemental Analysis? Brain Research and Limitations on Stoic Cognitive Therapy 11. The ROLE OF ANALYTIC PHILOSOPHY in St
Abstract: Introduction 1. EMOTION AS COGNITIVE AND ITS THERAPY 2. The Emotions as Value Judgements in Chrysippus 3. Seneca's Defence: Third Movements as Harmonizing Chrysippus and Zeno 4. Seneca's Defence: First Movements as Answering Posidonius 5. The Arts: First Movements and Controversies on Drama and Music. Aristotle, Philodemus, and the Stoics 6. Posidonius on the Irrational Forces in Emotion: Galen's Report 7. Posidonius: Judgements Insufficient for Emotion. Exhaustion and Lack of Imagination 8. Posidonius: Judgements Not Necessary for Emotion. Disowned Judgements, Animals, and Music 9. Aspasius and Other Objections to Chrysippus 10. What is Missing from the Judgemental Analysis? Brain Research and Limitations on Stoic Cognitive Therapy 11. THE ROLE OF ANALYTIC PHILOSOPHY IN STOIC COGNITIVE THERAPY 12. Stoic Indifference: A Barrier to Therapy? 13. The Case for and against Eradication of Emotion 14. The Traditions of Moderation and Eradication 15. How the Ancient Exercises Work 16. Exercises Concerned with Time and the Self 17. Physiology and the Non-Cognitive: Galen's Alternative Approach to Emotion 18. Sex, Love, and Marriage in Pagan Philosophy and the Use of Catharsis 19. Catharsis and the Classification of Therapies 20. EMOTIONAL CONFLICT AND THE DIVIDED SELF 21. The Concept of Will 22. FIRST MOVEMENTS AS BAD THOUGHTS: ORIGEN AND HIS LEGACY 23. From First Movements to the Seven Cardinal Sins: Evagrius 24. First Movements in Augustine: Adaptation and Misunderstanding 25. Christians on Moderation versus Eradication 26. Augustine on Lust and the Will Bibliography of Secondary Sources Mentioned Index of Ancient Thinkers Index Locorum Subject and Name Index

258 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the relationship between Buddhism and society in ancient India and discuss the problem of the Gotama Buddha's Problem Situation, the Sangha's discipline, and the Accomodation between the Buddha and society.
Abstract: Acknowledgements and Recommendations for Further Reading 1. Introduction 2. Gotama Buddha's Problem Situation 3. The Buddha's Dhamma 4. The Sangha's Discipline 5. The Accomodation between Buddhism and Society in Ancient India 6. The Buddhist Tradition in Sri Lanka 7. Protestant Buddhism 8. Current Trends, New Problems Works cited, Abbreviations and Primary Sources References Index

215 citations