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Journal ArticleDOI

PLC Performance Analysis Assuming BPSK Modulation Over Nakagami- $m$ Additive Noise

01 Apr 2014-IEEE Communications Letters (IEEE)-Vol. 18, Iss: 6, pp 909-912

TL;DR: A maximum likelihood receiver of binary phase shift keying signals over Nakagami-m distributed additive noise in power line communication system is derived.

AbstractIn this letter, we derive a maximum likelihood receiver of binary phase shift keying signals over Nakagami- $m$ distributed additive noise in power line communication system. The decision variable is characterized by using copula approach. The analytical average bit error rate of the considered scheme is numerically evaluated by using the cumulative distribution function of the decision variable. It is shown by simulations that the proposed receiver performs significantly better than an existing suboptimal receiver.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The analysis presented in this letter closely predicts the behavior of the PLC system under the combined effect of background and impulsive noises.
Abstract: Power line communication (PLC) is the use of power lines for the purpose of electronic data transmission. The presence of additive noise, namely, background noise and impulsive noise, significantly affects the performance of a PLC system. While the background noise is modeled by Nakagami- $m$ distribution, the impulsive noise is modeled using Middleton class A distribution. In this letter, we study the performance of a PLC system under the combined effect of Nakagami- $m$ background noise and Middleton class A impulsive noise assuming binary phase shift keying signaling. The probability density function of decision variable under the influence of additive noise (sum of background noise and impulsive noise) is derived. We also derive an analytical expression for the average bit error rate of the considered PLC system. The analytical expressions are validated by close matching to the simulation results. The analysis presented in this letter closely predicts the behavior of the PLC system under the combined effect of background and impulsive noises.

56 citations


Cites methods from "PLC Performance Analysis Assuming B..."

  • ...Using this noise model for the background noise, a maximum likelihood detector for binary and quaternary transmitted signals is derived in [4] and [5], respectively, and the...

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  • ...The BER of single carrier binary phase shift keying (BPSK) signal under the influence of both background noise and impulsive noise has been derived in [8], but the analysis is performed under the assumption that the background noise is additive white Gaussian, which is not applicable to PLC systems [3], [4], [6]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper provides the performance analysis of a PLC system over Rayleigh fading channel under Nakagami- $m$ distributed additive background noise assuming binary phase shift keying modulation scheme and obtains a numerically computable expression of the analytical average bit error rate.
Abstract: Power line communication (PLC) utilizes power lines for transmission of power as well as data transmission. It is an emerging field of communication for the home area network of smart grid. The performance of a PLC system is significantly affected by the additive and multiplicative power line noises; the additive noises are of two types, namely background noise and impulsive noise. Whereas, the multiplicative PLC noise leads to fading in the received signal strength. This paper provides the performance analysis of a PLC system over Rayleigh fading channel under Nakagami- $m$ distributed additive background noise assuming binary phase shift keying modulation scheme. The probability density function of the decision variable is derived. We obtain a numerically computable expression of the analytical average bit error rate of the considered system. The closed-form expression of the outage probability of the PLC system is also computed. Simulation results closely verify the validity of the derived analytical expressions.

39 citations


Cites background or methods from "PLC Performance Analysis Assuming B..."

  • ...The contribution of this paper is significantly different from [7] as the effect of Rayleigh fading over the BER performance of the PLC system perturbed by Nakagami-m additive noise has been studied in this paper while fading effects were completely ignored in [7]....

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  • ...In [7], a maximum likelihood detector is derived based on the system model in [5], [6] and the corresponding BER performance is obtained....

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  • ...2364850 (due to the multiplicative noise) have been neglected in the derivations in [6] and [7]....

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  • ...Although, the detector in (7) is not an optimal detector in the presence of Nakagami-m additive background noise, but this threshold based detector is sufficient for our analysis of the effects of Rayleigh fading in PLC systems that was not included in [6] and [7]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The aim of this brief is to propose a differential chaos shift keying (DCSK) modulation scheme as a potential candidate for smart grid communication networks and prove the advantages of this low-cost noncoherent modulation technique for PLC systems over its rivals.
Abstract: The past few years have witnessed a tremendous development in power-line communications (PLCs) for the realization of smart grids. Since power lines were not originally intended for conveying high-frequency signals, any communication over these lines would be exposed to severe adversarial factors, such as interference, impulsive, and phase noise. This elucidates the importance of employing robust modulation techniques and motivates research in this direction. Indeed, the aim of this brief is to propose a differential chaos shift keying (DCSK) modulation scheme as a potential candidate for smart grid communication networks. This DCSK class of noncoherent modulation is very robust against linear and nonlinear channel distortions. More importantly, the demodulation process can be carried out without any channel estimator at the receiver side. In this work, we analyze the bit error rate performance of DCSK over multipath PLC channels in which phase, background, and impulsive noise are present. A simulator is developed to verify the performance of the proposed DCSK against direct sequence code division multiple access and direct sequence differential phase shift keying. The results presented in this work prove the advantages of this low-cost noncoherent modulation technique for PLC systems over its rivals.

34 citations


Cites background from "PLC Performance Analysis Assuming B..."

  • ...Impulse noise has much wider power spectral density than the background and phase noise [5]–[7]....

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  • ...Indeed, it has been experimentally verified in [5]–[7] that the latter follows the Nakagami-m distribution....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper aims to devise a generalized maximum likelihood (ML) estimator to robustly detect signals with unknown noise statistics in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems by proposing a novel ML detection framework driven by an unsupervised learning approach.
Abstract: This paper aims to devise a generalized maximum likelihood (ML) estimator to robustly detect signals with unknown noise statistics in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. In practice, there is little or even no statistical knowledge on the system noise, which in many cases is non-Gaussian, impulsive and not analyzable. Existing detection methods have mainly focused on specific noise models, which are not robust enough with unknown noise statistics. To tackle this issue, we propose a novel ML detection framework to effectively recover the desired signal. Our framework is a fully probabilistic one that can efficiently approximate the unknown noise distribution through a normalizing flow. Importantly, this framework is driven by an unsupervised learning approach, where only the noise samples are required. To reduce the computational complexity, we further present a low-complexity version of the framework, by utilizing an initial estimation to reduce the search space. Simulation results show that our framework outperforms other existing algorithms in terms of bit error rate (BER) in non-analytical noise environments, while it can reach the ML performance bound in analytical noise environments.

28 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Analysis of a dual-hop wireless-power line mixed communication setup employing a decode-and-forward relay in terms of analytical average bit error rate (BER), outage probability, and average channel capacity finds that the system performance deteriorates as the impulsive noise index and the arrival probability of theImpulsive component of the PLC additive noise increase.
Abstract: Wireless communications and power line communications (PLC) are essential components for smart grid communications. This paper analyses the performance of a dual-hop wireless-power line mixed communication setup employing a decode-and-forward relay in terms of analytical average bit error rate (BER), outage probability, and average channel capacity. The Nakagami- $m$ distribution captures the wireless channel fading; whereas the PLC channel gain is characterized by the Log-normal distribution. The additive PLC channel noise is assumed to be Bernoulli-Gaussian distributed. Approximate closed-form expression of the average BER and exact closed-form expression of the outage probability are derived for the considered system. Further, we obtain an approximate closed-form expression of the capacity of the wireless-power line mixed system in terms of the Meijer-G function. It is observed that the system performance deteriorates as the impulsive noise index and the arrival probability of the impulsive component of the PLC additive noise increase.

17 citations


Cites methods from "PLC Performance Analysis Assuming B..."

  • ...A maximum likelihood (ML) detector of binary phase shift keying (BPSK) transmitted signals over Nakagami-m background noise was evaluated for a PLC system in [7] and its analytical bit error rate (BER) was obtained....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Power line noise is known to affect the performance of broadband power-line communications significantly. This paper presents a frequency-domain approach to characterize and model the statistical variation of power-line noise. The model considers both the background noise and the impulsive noise. The background noise model is based on statistical analysis of the results from two long-term measurements of noise spectrum conducted at two separate sites of a laboratory and a residential apartment. On the other hand, the impulsive noise model is obtained by direct measurements from the noise sources (i.e., various electrical household appliances). The amount of impulse noise reaching a power-line communications (PLC) receiver can then be determined with consideration of the channel transfer characteristics between the noise sources and the PLC receiver. Using these noise models, the performance of two major classes of digital modulation schemes, namely single-carrier modulation and multicarrier modulation, are analyzed and compared. It is found that the multicarrier scheme performs better than the single-carrier scheme when subjected to the observed power-line noise with non-Gaussian statistics.

352 citations


"PLC Performance Analysis Assuming B..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...In this paper, we focuss on the background noise in PLC system which is modeled by using Nakagamim distribution [3], [4], [5]....

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  • ...The long term measurements of the noise spectrum of the PLC system, performed in [3], suggest that the probability distributio n of the time-domain noise amplitudes in the PLC resemble the Nakagamim distribution; therefore, the amplitude of the background noise in PLC has been modeled using Nakagamim distribution in [3] and [4]....

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  • ..., θ, is assumed to be uniformly distributed from−π to π [3], [4], [5]....

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  • ...(6) The suboptimal demodulator used in [3], [5] is given by...

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper presents a novel approach to model the transfer function of electrical power lines for broadband power line communication. In this approach, the power line is approximated as a transmission line and the two intrinsic parameters, the characteristic impedance and the propagation constants, are derived based on the lumped-element circuit model. Using these intrinsic parameters, the transfer characteristics for a N-branch power distribution network are derived based on the scattering matrix method. Detail derivation of this line model is given in this paper. The model has been verified with practical measurements conducted on actual power networks. It is demonstrated that the model accurately determine the line characteristics under different network configuration and when different household appliances are connected.

315 citations


"PLC Performance Analysis Assuming B..." refers background in this paper

  • ...PLC has its own set of challenges, for instance, it offers a difficult communication environme nt, because the noise, channel impedance, and attenuation vary with time, frequency, and location; thereby, making it diffi cult to model the PLC channel [2]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This article overviews the power line communication, which is originally devised to transmit electric power from a small number of sources to a large number of sinks. Initially the first data transmission were over power lines were primarily done only to protect sections of the power distribution system in case of faults. This paper also studies the performance of power lines for high bit rate applications. DMT technology is adopted by the homeplug standard can theoretically provide data rates of 100Mb/s. However, products based on the standard only have achieved data rates up to 14 Mb/s. To protect against the severe noisy conditions and fading in the powerline channel, very high levels of error control coding need to be provided. The efforts of the homeplug alliance and home networking technology's growth in the US portend a very bright future for DMT-based PLC home networking.

288 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
24 Sep 1996
TL;DR: This work gives a systems level overview of power line communications, and discusses existing communications systems and solutions, as well as the results of some measurements on the channel.
Abstract: We give a systems level overview of power line communications. Topics covered, include feasible applications of power line communications, and the impact of the currently evolving international standards on power line communications. The power line communications channel is discussed at some length. Existing communications systems and solutions are discussed. The results of some measurements on the channel, are presented.

173 citations


"PLC Performance Analysis Assuming B..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Other benefits include easy access to the netw ork and huge coverage area [1]....

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Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2011
Abstract: Over the last decade, it has been shown that the concept of comonotonicity is a helpful tool for solving several research and practical problems in the domain of finance and insurance. In this chapter, we give an extensive bibliographic overview—without claiming to be complete—of the developments of the theory of comonotonicity and its applications, with an emphasis on the achievements in the period 2004–2010. These applications range from pricing and hedging of derivatives over risk management to life insurance.

68 citations


"PLC Performance Analysis Assuming B..." refers background in this paper

  • ...These comonotonic RVs are linked by a fundamental copula called comonotonic copula which is defined as [11], [12] C (...

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