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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Safety information routing protocol in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks

18 Jun 2015-pp 859-864
TL;DR: The proposed scheme describes the safety information routing protocol for VANETs, to build a stable routing protocol by considering the different parameters of vehicles (i.e. speed).
Abstract: Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) is one of the promising approaches to provide road safety and to improve Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). Due to unpredictable vehicle mobility and density, routing is a challenging issue in vehicular Ad hoc Networks. Especially safety information requires efficient mechanism for proper delivery of data to the destination with minimum latency and maximum throughput. The proposed scheme describes the safety information routing protocol for VANETs. The key idea behind the scheme is to build a stable routing protocol by considering the different parameters of vehicles (i.e. speed).
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Vehicular Ad-hoc NETworks (VANETs) is an important research domain as it deals with the safety of vehicles moving on roads and the selection of the most prominent routing protocol is made.
Abstract: Vehicular Ad-hoc NETworks (VANETs) is an important research domain as it deals with the safety of vehicles moving on roads. The selection of the most prominent routing protocol in this field is a c...
References
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 2011
TL;DR: The proposed connectivity-aware minimum-delay geographic routing protocol for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), which adapts well to continuously changing network status in such networks, is compared with two plausible geographic connectivity- aware routing protocols for VANets, A-STAR and VADD.
Abstract: In this paper, we propose the connectivity-aware minimum-delay geographic routing (CMGR) protocol for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), which adapts well to continuously changing network status in such networks. When the network is sparse, CMGR takes the connectivity of routes into consideration in its route selection logic to maximize the chance of packet reception. On the other hand, in situations with dense network nodes, CMGR determines the routes with adequate connectivity and selects among them the route with the minimum delay. The performance limitations of CMGR in special vehicular networking situations are studied and addressed. These situations, which include the case where the target vehicle has moved away from its expected location and the case where traffic in a road junction is so sparse that no next-hop vehicle can be found on the intended out-going road, are also problematic in most routing protocols for VANETs. Finally, the proposed protocol is compared with two plausible geographic connectivity-aware routing protocols for VANETs, A-STAR and VADD. The obtained results show that CMGR outperforms A-STAR and VADD in terms of both packet delivery ratio and ratio of dropped data packets. For example, under the specific conditions considered in the simulations, when the maximum allowable one-way transmission delay is 1min and one gateway is deployed in the network, the packet delivery ratio of CMGR is approximately 25% better than VADD and A-STAR for high vehicle densities and goes up to 900% better for low vehicle densities.

98 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A hop greedy routing scheme that yields a routing path with the minimum number of intermediate intersection nodes while taking connectivity into consideration is proposed and back-bone nodes that play a key role in providing connectivity status around an intersection are introduced.
Abstract: Using advanced wireless local area network technologies, vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have become viable and valuable for their wide variety of novel applications, such as road safety, multimedia content sharing, commerce on wheels, etc. Multihop information dissemination in VANETs is constrained by the high mobility of vehicles and the frequent disconnections. Currently, geographic routing protocols are widely adopted for VANETs as they do not require route construction and route maintenance phases. Again, with connectivity awareness, they perform well in terms of reliable delivery. To obtain destination position, some protocols use flooding, which can be detrimental in city environments. Further, in the case of sparse and void regions, frequent use of the recovery strategy elevates hop count. Some geographic routing protocols adopt the minimum weighted algorithm based on distance or connectivity to select intermediate intersections. However, the shortest path or the path with higher connectivity may include numerous intermediate intersections. As a result, these protocols yield routing paths with higher hop count. In this paper, we propose a hop greedy routing scheme that yields a routing path with the minimum number of intermediate intersection nodes while taking connectivity into consideration. Moreover, we introduce back-bone nodes that play a key role in providing connectivity status around an intersection. Apart from this, by tracking the movement of source as well as destination, the back-bone nodes enable a packet to be forwarded in the changed direction. Simulation results signify the benefits of the proposed routing strategy in terms of high packet delivery ratio and shorter end-to-end delay.

95 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The vehicular communication problem in urban hybrid networks is addressed and a hybrid routing scheme for data dissemination in VANETs is presented to address and guarantee quality of service (QoS) under various network connectivity and deployment configurations.
Abstract: It is a challenge to design efficient routing protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) because of their highly dynamic properties. We address the vehicular communication problem in urban hybrid networks and present a hybrid routing scheme for data dissemination in VANETs. Location-based crowdsourcing of nearby roadside units (RSUs) has been applied to the infrastructural support of inter-vehicle, vehicle-to-roadside, and inter-roadside communications in hybrid VANETs. The combination of RSU resources and ad hoc networks involves an online probabilistic RSU retrieval algorithm that uses coarse- and fine-grained localization to estimate the number and location of available RSUs; a network coding based multicast routing for dense VANETs using maximum distance separation (MDS) code and local topology information from the forwarding set to achieve robust communication and max-flow min-cut data dissemination; an application of opportunistic routing, using a carry-and-forward scheme to solve the forwarding disconnection problem in sparse VANETs; and a routing switch mechanism to guarantee quality of service (QoS) under various network connectivity and deployment configurations. The performance of our hybrid routing scheme is evaluated using both simulations and real testbed experiments.

72 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper proposes three graph-based metrics to gauge the redundancy of dissemination protocols and shows that Advanced Adaptive Geocast behaves almost optimally from a routing efficiency point of view but fails to offer sufficient redundancy for data consistency mechanisms in many scenarios.
Abstract: Vehicular networks (VANETs) are a growing research area with a large number of use cases. Foreseen applications include safety applications, traffic efficiency enhancements, and infotainment services. To make future deployment successful, it is imperative that all applications are matched with proper security mechanisms. Current proposals mostly focus on entity authorization by establishing a public key infrastructure. Such proactive security efficiently excludes nonauthorized entities from the network. However, in the face of insider attackers possessing valid key material, we need to consider data-centric methods to complement entity-centric trust. A promising approach for consistency checks, particularly in multihop scenarios, is to exploit redundant information dissemination. If information is received from both honest and malicious vehicles, chances are that attacks can be detected. In this paper, we propose three graph-based metrics to gauge the redundancy of dissemination protocols. We apply our metrics to a baseline protocol, a geocast protocol, and an aggregation protocol using extensive simulations. In addition, we point out open issues and applications of the metrics, such as colluding attackers and eviction of attacker nodes based on detected attacks. Results show that Advanced Adaptive Geocast behaves almost optimally from a routing efficiency point of view but fails to offer sufficient redundancy for data consistency mechanisms in many scenarios. The simulated aggregation protocol shows sufficient redundancy to facilitate data consistency checking.

55 citations


"Safety information routing protocol..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...In the work [7], the authors have designed a Location-aided Gateway Advertisement and discovery Protocol for VANET....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The localized opportunistic routing (LOR) protocol is proposed, which utilizes the distributed minimum transmission selection (MTS-B) algorithm to partition the topology into several nested close-node-sets (CNSs) using local information and highlights an interesting tradeoff between the global optimality of the used forwarder lists and scalability inferred from the incurred overhead.
Abstract: Opportunistic routing utilizes the broadcast nature of wireless networks, significantly promoting the unicast throughput. Many variations of opportunistic routing designs have been proposed, although all of the current designs consistently rely on all of the topology information to construct forwarder lists and process data forwarding, which indeed restricts the application in large-scale wireless networks, where collecting global optimal information is very costly. In this paper, we propose the localized opportunistic routing (LOR) protocol, which utilizes the distributed minimum transmission selection (MTS-B) algorithm to partition the topology into several nested close-node-sets (CNSs) using local information. LOR can locally realize the optimal opportunistic routing for a large-scale wireless network with low control overhead cost. Since it does not use global topology information, LOR highlights an interesting tradeoff between the global optimality of the used forwarder lists and scalability inferred from the incurred overhead. Extensive simulation results show that LOR dramatically improves performances over extremely opportunistic routing (ExOR) and MAC-independent opportunistic routing protocol (MORE), which are two well-known designs from the literature, in terms of control overhead, end-to-end delay, and throughputs. It also exhibits promising performance in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs).

34 citations


"Safety information routing protocol..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...In the work [4], the authors have designed a Distance Routing Effect Algorithm for Mobility Protocol for Inter-vehicle...

    [...]