Starch : chemistry and technology
01 Jan 1965-
Abstract: Starch: Chemistry and Technology, Second Edition focuses on the chemistry, processes, methodologies, applications, and technologies involved in the processing of starch. The selection first elaborates on the history and future expectation of starch use, economics and future of the starch industry, and the genetics and physiology of starch development. Discussions focus on polysaccharide biosynthesis, nonmutant starch granule polysaccharide composition, cellular developmental gradients, projected future volumes of corn likely to be used by the wet-milling industry, and organization of the corn wet-milling industry. The manuscript also tackles enzymes in the hydrolysis and synthesis of starch, starch oligosaccharides, and molecular structure of starch. The publication examines the organization of starch granules, fractionation of starch, and gelatinization of starch and mechanical properties of starch pastes. Topics include methods for determining starch gelatinization, solution properties of amylopectin, conformation of amylose in dilute solution, and biological and biochemical facets of starch granule structure. The text also takes a look at photomicrographs of starches, industrial microscopy of starches, and starch and dextrins in prepared adhesives. The selection is a vital reference for researchers interested in the processing of starch.
TL;DR: This review will focus first on the present understanding of the structures of amylose and amylopectin and their organization within the granule, and then on the biosynthetic mechanisms explaining the biogenesis of starch in plants.
Abstract: The emphasis of this review is on starch structure and its biosynthesis. Improvements in understanding have been brought about during the last decade through the development of new physicochemical and biological techniques, leading to real scientific progress. All this literature needs to be kept inside the general literature about biopolymers, despite some confusing results or discrepancies arising from the biological variability of starch. However, a coherent picture of starch over all the different structural levels can be presented, in order to obtain some generalizations about its structure. In this review we will focus first on our present understanding of the structures of amylose and amylopectin and their organization within the granule, and we will then give insights on the biosynthetic mechanisms explaining the biogenesis of starch in plants.
01 Mar 2004-Journal of Cereal Science
Abstract: Much has been written over many decades about the structure and properties of starch. As technology develops, the capacity to understand in more depth the structure of starch granules and how this complex organisation controls functionality develops in parallel. This review puts the current state of knowledge about starch structure in perspective and integrates aspects of starch composition, interactions, architecture and functionality.
01 Aug 2010-Starch-starke
Abstract: Recent developments in methods and instrumentation have contributed to major advances in our understanding of the fine structure of amylose and amylopectin. The structure of the starch granule slowly unravels with new insight into key structural features. Following a brief presentation of the structural features common to all starches, the most recent findings for the structure of amylose and amylopectin are reported. The organization of different types of chains in amylopectin is discussed with a critical review of the 'cluster' model leading to the presentation of alternative models. The locations of molecular components in the starch granule are described according to a progress structural order. The description of the crystalline components is followed by a presentation of their supramolecular arrangements. The crystalline components comprise platelet nanocrystals which have already been identified and characterized, and other less well characterized 'blocklet components'. The location and state of amylose within the granule is also presented. This comprehensive review aims at distinguishing between those structural features that have received widespread acceptance and those that are still under debate, with the ambition of being educational and to provide stimulation for further fundamental investigation into the starch granule as a macromolecular assembly.
01 Mar 1997-Carbohydrate Polymers
Abstract: Considerable information on starch granule structure may be gathered from a review of published data. Evidence from a range of different (predominantly microscopic) techniques is compared and discussed, allowing the presence of a level of starch granule organization between that of the amylopectin lamellae and the large ‘growth rings’ to be deduced. This structural level of the granule involves the organization of the amylopectin lamellae into effectively spherical ‘blocklets’ which range in diameter from 20 to 500 nm depending on starch botanical type and their location in the granule. The presence of short, radial ‘channels’ of amorphous material within starch granules from some starch varieties is confirmed. The organization and structure of the crystalline and amorphous amylopectin lamellae is also discussed. Consideration of the information regarding starch granule structure and organization to date has significant implications on the internal architecture of the starch granule, and it is evident that the presence of the blockets and amorphous channels play a role in both the resistance of starch to enzymic attack and the structure of the semi-crystalline shells.
01 Jan 2007-Food Hydrocolloids
Abstract: Effect of some common chemical modifications such as acetylation, hydroxypropylation and cross-linking on the physico-chemical, morphological, thermal and rheological properties of starches from different botanical sources have been reviewed. The distinguishing factors that affect the efficiency of modification are the starch source, amylose to amylopectin ratio, granule morphology, and type and concentration of the modifying reagent. The extent of alteration in the starch properties reflects the resistance or the susceptibility of a starch towards different chemical modifications. Modified starches with desirable properties and degree of substitution can be prepared by critically selecting a suitable modifying agent and a native starch source.
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