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Journal ArticleDOI

Study of traffic flow characteristics using different vehicle-following models under mixed traffic conditions

04 Mar 2018-Transportation Letters: The International Journal of Transportation Research (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 10, Iss: 2, pp 92-103

TL;DR: The performance of different vehicle-following models was evaluated based on different Measure of Effectiveness (MoE) using field data collected from a four-lane divided urban arterial road in Chennai city and the results showed the promise of some measures based on vehicle class.
Abstract: To understand the congestion problem and the occurrence of bottlenecks and to formulate solutions for it, a thorough study of vehicle-to-vehicle interactions is necessary. Car-following models replicate the behavior of a driver following another vehicle. These models are widely used in the development of traffic simulation models, and in analysis of safety and capacity. In India, traffic on roads is mixed in nature with wide variations in physical dimensions and other vehicular and traffic characteristics with loose lane discipline. In mixed traffic conditions, leader-follower vehicle types are not only car–car cases but also there are different combinations of vehicles (e.g. car-two wheeler, two wheeler-auto rickshaw, and heavy vehicle-two wheeler). The present study focuses on evaluation of different vehicle-following models under mixed traffic conditions. The car-following models such as Gipps, Intelligent Driver Model (IDM), Krauss Model and Das and Asundi were selected for this study. These m...
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Arti Choudhary1, Sharad Gokhale1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Traffic events such as interruptions and congestions occur on urban roads causing higher vehicular emissions resulting in air-pollution hotspots. This study investigates the performances of two emission models for estimating emissions from passenger cars and auto-rickshaws of different mileages, moving with a traffic fleet during these events. The instantaneous measurements of emissions and speeds were carried out on a test route of 3.8 km by integrating the auto-gas analyser and V-Box for estimating the on-road emission factors (EFs). The measured driving profiles and acceleration/decelerations were used in the IVE emission model and the speed was averaged in the COPERT-IV emission model into 0–10 km/h; 10–25 km/h; 25–35 km/h and >35 km/h. The on-road EFs of CO, HC, CO2 and NOx at peak hours (PHs) and off-peak hours (OPHs) were compared with the modelled EFs. The estimates of COPERT-IV were about 25% less for CO, HC and CO2 and 26–39% more for NOx than IVE during PHs. As compared to the on-road EF, the IVE estimates for CO, HC, CO2 was 5–50% less and 12–50% higher for NOx for auto-rickshaw and passenger car; and the COPERT–IV estimates for CO, HC, CO2 were 30–74% less and 6–86% higher for NOx, showing that instantaneous driving profiles in emission modelling are important. The interruptions during PHs were 80% of the time, a cause of deviations in the models. Thus, the real-world emissions vary with the levels of interruptions and congestions on the roads, and hence emission models must account for these events.

15 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Ali Ghaffari1, Alireza Khodayari1, Ali Kamali2, Farzam Tajdari2  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
01 Jun 2018-
TL;DR: This paper aims to investigate the behavior of the immediate follower during the lane-change of its leader vehicle with a novel and adaptive neuro-fuzzy model that considers human driving factors and reveals that the proposed model can describe anticipation and evaluation behavior with smaller errors.
Abstract: Nowadays, vehicles are the most important means of transportation in our daily lifes. During the last few decades, many studies have been carried out in the field of intelligent vehicles and signif...

14 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Ameer K. Mulla1, Apurva Joshi2, Rakesh Chavan3, Dhiman Chakraborty4  +1 moreInstitutions (4)
TL;DR: It is verified that the proposed model, in addition to macroscopic patterns, can also accurately predict complex maneuvers, such as overtaking, sideways movements and avoiding collisions with slower moving vehicles.
Abstract: In this paper, a new model is introduced for traffic on broad roads, where the drivers do not follow lane-discipline. For both longitudinal and lateral motions, the driver reactions are assumed to be influenced by possibly a number of vehicles, obstacles, and unmodeled entities in visibility cones to the front and to the sides of each vehicle. The network of influences and the resultant interaction is modeled by “influence graphs.” In congested traffic situations, it is assumed that the influence structure is time invariant and all drivers are forced to behave homogeneously. Then, the collection converges to a layered formation with fixed intervehicle distances. In sparse and heterogeneous traffic, the velocity and intervehicle separations in the set of modeled vehicles, though can oscillate continuously, are uniformly bounded. These model-based predictions are verified experimentally. Videos of typical traffic on a sample road in Mumbai city, India, are recorded. Detailed motion information of groups of cars is extracted through image processing techniques. The proposed model is initialized with the extracted data and the computed trajectories are compared with the actual ones calculated from the images. It is verified that the proposed model, in addition to macroscopic patterns, can also accurately predict complex maneuvers, such as overtaking, sideways movements and avoiding collisions with slower moving vehicles.

13 citations


Cites result from "Study of traffic flow characteristi..."

  • ...Similar models, in the absence of more realistic theory, have been used to model Indian traffic [32], [33] which, however, does not obey lane discipline....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The area of traffic flow modelling and analysis that bridges civil engineering, computer science, and mathematics has gained significant momentum in the urban areas due to increasing vehicular population causing traffic congestion and accidents. Notably, the existence of mixed traffic conditions has been proven to be a significant contributor to road accidents and congestion. The interaction of vehicles takes place in both lateral and longitudinal directions, giving rise to a two-dimensional (2D) traffic behaviour. This behaviour contradicts with the traditional car-following (CF) or one-dimensional (1D) lane-based traffic flow. Existing one-dimensional CF models did the inclusion of lane changing and overtaking behaviour of the mixed traffic stream with specific alterations. However, these parameters cannot describe the continuous lateral manoeuvre of mixed traffic flow. This review focuses on all the significant contributions made by 2D models in evaluating the lateral and longitudinal vehicle behaviour simultaneously. The accommodation of vehicle heterogeneity into the car-following models (homogeneous traffic models) is discussed in detail, along with their shortcomings and research gaps. Also, the review of commercially existing microscopic traffic simulation frameworks built to evaluate real-world traffic scenario are presented. This review identified various vehicle parameters adopted by existing CF models and whether the current 2D traffic models developed from CF models effectively captured the vehicle behaviour in mixed traffic conditions. Findings of this study are outlined at the end.

12 citations


Cites methods from "Study of traffic flow characteristi..."

  • ...[84] evaluated the performance of carfollowing models such as Gipps, IDM, Krauss Model, Das, and Asundi based on the measure of effectiveness (MoE), which utilises field data obtained from heterogeneous traffic conditions....

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Journal ArticleDOI
04 Jul 2019-
TL;DR: An investigation on the adequacy of one of the major performance indicators for two-lane highways, the percent-time-spent-following (PTSF) under changing driver’s behavior in choosing headways in India indicates a value of about 6 s under such traffic unlike 3 s as considered in PTSF estimation.
Abstract: This paper presents an investigation on the adequacy of one of the major performance indicators for two-lane highways, the percent-time-spent-following (PTSF) under changing driver’s behavior in ch...

12 citations


Cites background from "Study of traffic flow characteristi..."

  • ...Asaithambi et al. (2016) evaluated different vehicle-following model to find suitable one particularly under such traffic conditions....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Aug 2000-Physical Review E
TL;DR: It is shown that the results of the microscopic model can be understood by formulating the theoretical phase diagram for bottlenecks in a more general way, and a local drop of the road capacity induced by parameter variations has essentially the same effect as an on-ramp.
Abstract: We present data from several German freeways showing different kinds of congested traffic forming near road inhomogeneities, specifically lane closings, intersections, or uphill gradients. The states are localized or extended, homogeneous or oscillating. Combined states are observed as well, like the coexistence of moving localized clusters and clusters pinned at road inhomogeneities, or regions of oscillating congested traffic upstream of nearly homogeneous congested traffic. The experimental findings are consistent with a recently proposed theoretical phase diagram for traffic near on-ramps [D. Helbing, A. Hennecke, and M. Treiber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4360 (1999)]. We simulate these situations with a continuous microscopic single-lane model, the ``intelligent driver model,'' using empirical boundary conditions. All observations, including the coexistence of states, are qualitatively reproduced by describing inhomogeneities with local variations of one model parameter. We show that the results of the microscopic model can be understood by formulating the theoretical phase diagram for bottlenecks in a more general way. In particular, a local drop of the road capacity induced by parameter variations has essentially the same effect as an on-ramp.

2,592 citations


"Study of traffic flow characteristi..." refers background in this paper

  • ...In mixed traffic, when vehicles are progressing in urban networks with congested traffic, they follow the leader closely and select the following speed and following distance according to the principle of collision avoidance (Gipps 1981; Krauss 1997; Treiber, Hennecke, and Helbing 2000)....

    [...]

  • ...The safety distance models (Gipps 1981; Krauss 1997; Treiber, Hennecke, and Helbing 2000) assume that the following vehicle will maintain a safe distance with the vehicle in front and will select its speed to ensure that the vehicle can stop safely to avoid a rear-end collision....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Masako Bando1, Katsuya Hasebe1, Atsuko Nakayama, Akira Shibata2  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
01 Feb 1995-Physical Review E
TL;DR: In this model, the legal velocity function is introduced, which is a function of the headway of the preceding vehicle, and the evolution of traffic congestion is observed with the development of time.
Abstract: We present a dynamical model of traffic congestion based on the equation of motion of each vehicle. In this model, the legal velocity function is introduced, which is a function of the headway of the preceding vehicle. We investigate this model with both analytic and numerical methods. The stability of traffic flow is analyzed, and the evolution of traffic congestion is observed with the development of time.

2,163 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
P.G. Gipps1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: A new model is constructed for the response of the following vehicle based on the assumption that each driver sets limits to his desired braking and acceleration rates and it is shown that when realistic values are assigned to the parameters in a simulation, the model reproduces the characteristics of real traffic flow.
Abstract: The ability to predict the response of a vehicle in a stream of traffic to the behaviour of its predecessor is important in estimating what effect changes to the driving environment will have on traffic flow. Various proposed to explain this behaviour have different strengths and weaknesses. The paper constructs a new model for the response of the following vehicle based on the assumption that each driver sets limits to his desired braking and acceleration rates. The parameters in the model correspond directly to obvious characteristics of driver behaviour and the paper goes on to show that when realistic values are assigned to the parameters in a simulation, the model reproduces the characteristics of real traffic flow.

1,706 citations


"Study of traffic flow characteristi..." refers background in this paper

  • ...In mixed traffic, when vehicles are progressing in urban networks with congested traffic, they follow the leader closely and select the following speed and following distance according to the principle of collision avoidance (Gipps 1981; Krauss 1997; Treiber, Hennecke, and Helbing 2000)....

    [...]

  • ...The safety distance models (Gipps 1981; Krauss 1997; Treiber, Hennecke, and Helbing 2000) assume that the following vehicle will maintain a safe distance with the vehicle in front and will select its speed to ensure that the vehicle can stop safely to avoid a rear-end collision....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A variety of nonlinear follow-the-leader models of traffic flow are discussed in the light of available observational and experimental data. Emphasis is placed on steady-state flow equations. Some trends regarding the advantages of certain follow-the-leader functionals over others are established. However, it is found from extensive correlation studies that more data are needed before one can establish the unequivocal superiority of one particular model. A discussion is given of some ideas concerning the possible reasons for the existence of a bimodal flow versus concentration curve especially for multilane highways.

1,268 citations


"Study of traffic flow characteristi..." refers background in this paper

  • ...…as a stimulus-response concept based on the assumption that the driver of the following vehicle accurately perceives and reacts appropriately to the spacing and speed differential between the following and the lead vehicles (Chandler, Herman, and Montroll 1958; Gazis, Herman, and Rothery 1961)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The manner in which vehicles follow each other on a highway without passing and the propagation disturbances down a line of vehicles has been investigated. Experimental data is presented which indicates that the acceleration at time t of a car which is attempting to follow a leader is proportional to the difference in velocity of the two cars at a time t-Δ, Δ being about 1.5 sec and the proportionality constant being about 0.37 sec-1. It is shown theoretically that the motion of a long line of vehicles becomes unstable when the product of the lag time and the proportionality constant exceeds one-half. The experimental data implies that driving is done on the verge of instability. A variety of other laws of following is analyzed theoretically.

1,219 citations


"Study of traffic flow characteristi..." refers background in this paper

  • ...…as a stimulus-response concept based on the assumption that the driver of the following vehicle accurately perceives and reacts appropriately to the spacing and speed differential between the following and the lead vehicles (Chandler, Herman, and Montroll 1958; Gazis, Herman, and Rothery 1961)....

    [...]


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No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
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20216
202012
201910
20184
20173