Bio: Chia-Fon Lee is an academic researcher from University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Combustion & Diesel fuel. The author has an hindex of 43, co-authored 250 publication(s) receiving 7040 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Chia-Fon Lee include Wuhan University & Princeton University.
Abstract: Butanol is a very competitive renewable biofuel for use in internal combustion engines given its many advantages. In this review, the properties of butanol are compared with the conventional gasoline, diesel fuel, and some widely used biofuels, i.e. methanol, ethanol, biodiesel. The comparison of fuel properties indicates that n-butanol has the potential to overcome the drawbacks brought by low-carbon alcohols or biodiesel. Then, the development of butanol production is reviewed and various methods for increasing fermentative butanol production are introduced in detailed, i.e. metabolic engineering of the Clostridia, advanced fermentation technique. The most costive part of the fermentation is the substrate, so methods involved in renewed substrates are also mentioned. Next, the applications of butanol as a biofuel are summarized from three aspects: (1) fundamental combustion experiments in some well-defined burning reactors; (2) a substitute for gasoline in spark ignition engine; (3) a substitute for diesel fuel in compression ignition engine. These studies demonstrate that butanol, as a potential second generation biofuel, is a better alternative for the gasoline or diesel fuel, from the viewpoints of combustion characteristics, engine performance, and exhaust emissions. However, butanol has not been intensively studied when compared to ethanol or biodiesel, for which considerable numbers of reports are available. Finally, some challenges and future research directions are outlined in the last section of this review.
Abstract: An experimental study was conducted in a port fuel-injection, spark-ignition engine fuelled with blends of gasoline and n-butanol at different spark timings and EGR rates. The effect of spark timing, blend ratio and EGR rate on the emission characteristics (unburned hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate size and distribution) was analyzed. BSFC (Brake specific fuel consumption) and MBT (maximum brake torque timing) at full load were also discussed. Results show that the blends of gasoline and n-butanol decrease engine specific HC, CO and NOx emissions compared to those of gasoline. Pure n-butanol increases engine specific HC and CO emissions and decreases NOx and particle number concentration compared to those of gasoline. n-Butanol addition can decrease particle number concentration emissions compared with that of gasoline. Advancing spark timing increases engine specific HC, NOx emissions and particle number concentration while it decreases engine specific CO emissions. EGR can reduce engine specific NOx emissions and particle number concentration simultaneously in spark-ignition engine fueled with gasoline and n-butanol blends.
Abstract: In this work, the combustion and emission fundamentals of high n-butanol/diesel ratio blend with 40% butanol (i.e., Bu40) in a heavy-duty diesel engine were investigated by experiment and simulation at constant engine speed of 1400 rpm and an IMEP of 1.0 MPa. Additionally, the impact of EGR was evaluated experimentally and compared with neat diesel fuel (i.e., Bu00). The results show that Bu40 has higher cylinder pressure, longer ignition delay, and faster burning rate than Bu00. Compared with Bu00, moreover, Bu40 has higher NOx due to wider combustion high-temperature region, lower soot due to local lower equivalence ratio distribution, and higher CO due to lower gas temperature in the late expansion process. For Bu40, EGR reduces NOx emissions dramatically with no obvious influence on soot. Meanwhile, there is no significant change in HC and CO emissions and indicated thermal efficiency (ITE) with EGR until EGR threshold is reached. When EGR rate exceeds the threshold level, HC and CO emissions increase dramatically, and ITE decreases markedly. Compared with Bu00, the threshold of Bu40 appears at lower EGR rate. Consequently, combining high butanol/diesel ratio blend with medium EGR has the potential to achieve ultra-low NOx and soot emissions simultaneously while maintaining high thermal efficiency level.
Abstract: In this work, the commercially available diesel fuel (Bu00), butanol(20%)–diesel(80%) (by vol.) (Bu20), butanol(30%)–diesel(70%) (Bu30), and butanol(40%)–diesel (60%) (Bu40) fuels were tested. Experiments were conducted on a high-speed direct injection (DI) diesel engine for passenger-car application for varied loads at two representative engine speeds. The results showed that butanol–diesel blends slightly increased combustion pressure and accelerated burning rate. As fueled by the Bu40 blend, the maximum power output of the engine cannot be affected. Besides, butanol–diesel blends increased BSFC and brake thermal efficiency. Moreover, the effects of butanol addition on diesel engine exhaust emissions were varied with loads. Under low-load conditions, CO emissions obviously increased while NOx emissions decreased as butanol blending ratio increased. Under high-load conditions, on the contrary, CO emissions decreased but NOx emission increased. For the 40% butanol–diesel blend, in addition, HC emissions were higher than the neat diesel and lower percentage of butanol–diesel blends, especially at low-load. It is interesting that smoke decreased significantly at all conditions with the use of butanol–diesel blends, and the more butanol blending ratio the less smoke. Overall butanol is a potentially promising biofuel, which could be used conveniently up to high blending ratio with diesel fuel in diesel engines.
Abstract: In this study, the effect of injection timing and EGR rate on the combustion and emissions of a Ford Lion V6 split injection strategy direct injection diesel engine has been experimentally investigated by using neat biodiesel produced from soybean oil. The results showed that, with the increasing of EGR rate, the brake specific fuel combustion (BSFC) and soot emission were slightly increased, and nitrogen oxide (NO x ) emission was evidently decreased. Under higher EGR rate, the peak pressure was slightly lower, and the peak heat release rate kept almost identical at lower engine load, and was higher at higher engine load. With the main injection timing retarded, BSFC was slightly increased, NO x emission was evidently decreased, and soot emission hardly varied. The second peak pressure was evidently decreased and the heat release rate was slightly increased.
Alexander L. Yarin1•Institutions (1)
Abstract: The review deals with drop impacts on thin liquid layers and dry surfaces. The impacts resulting in crown formation are referred to as splashing. Crowns and their propagation are discussed in detail, as well as some additional kindred, albeit nonsplashing, phenomena like drop spreading and deposition, receding (recoil), jetting, fingering, and rebound. The review begins with an explanation of various practical motivations feeding the interest in the fascinating phenomena of drop impact, and the above-mentioned topics are then considered in their experimental, theoretical, and computational aspects.
Abstract: As the fossil fuels are depleting day by day, there is a need to find out an alternative fuel to fulfill the energy demand of the world. Biodiesel is one of the best available resources that have come to the forefront recently. In this paper, a detailed review has been conducted to highlight different related aspects to biodiesel industry. These aspects include, biodiesel feedstocks, extraction and production methods, properties and qualities of biodiesel, problems and potential solutions of using vegetable oil, advantages and disadvantages of biodiesel, the economical viability and finally the future of biodiesel. The literature reviewed was selective and critical. Highly rated journals in scientific indexes were the preferred choice, although other non-indexed publications, such as Scientific Research and Essays or some internal reports from highly reputed organizations such as International Energy Agency (IEA), Energy Information Administration (EIA) and British Petroleum (BP) have also been cited. Based on the overview presented, it is clear that the search for beneficial biodiesel sources should focus on feedstocks that do not compete with food crops, do not lead to land-clearing and provide greenhouse-gas reductions. These feedstocks include non-edible oils such as Jatropha curcas and Calophyllum inophyllum , and more recently microalgae and genetically engineered plants such as poplar and switchgrass have emerged to be very promising feedstocks for biodiesel production. It has been found that feedstock alone represents more than 75% of the overall biodiesel production cost. Therefore, selecting the best feedstock is vital to ensure low production cost. It has also been found that the continuity in transesterification process is another choice to minimize the production cost. Biodiesel is currently not economically feasible, and more research and technological development are needed. Thus supporting policies are important to promote biodiesel research and make their prices competitive with other conventional sources of energy. Currently, biodiesel can be more effective if used as a complement to other energy sources.
Abstract: Biodiesel is a renewable transportation fuel consisting of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), generally produced by transesterification of vegetable oils and animal fats. In this review, the fatty acid (FA) profiles of 12 common biodiesel feedstocks were summarized. Considerable compositional variability exists across the range of feedstocks. For example, coconut, palm and tallow contain high amounts of saturated FA; while corn, rapeseed, safflower, soy, and sunflower are dominated by unsaturated FA. Much less information is available regarding the FA profiles of algal lipids that could serve as biodiesel feedstocks. However, some algal species contain considerably higher levels of poly-unsaturated FA than is typically found in vegetable oils. Differences in chemical and physical properties among biodiesel fuels can be explained largely by the fuels’ FA profiles. Two features that are especially influential are the size distribution and the degree of unsaturation within the FA structures. For the 12 biodiesel types reviewed here, it was shown that several fuel properties – including viscosity, specific gravity, cetane number, iodine value, and low temperature performance metrics – are highly correlated with the average unsaturation of the FAME profiles. Due to opposing effects of certain FAME structural features, it is not possible to define a single composition that is optimum with respect to all important fuel properties. However, to ensure satisfactory in-use performance with respect to low temperature operability and oxidative stability, biodiesel should contain relatively low concentrations of both long-chain saturated FAME and poly-unsaturated FAME.
Abstract: HCCI combustion has been drawing the considerable attention due to high efficiency and lower nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. However, there are still tough challenges in the successful operation of HCCI engines, such as controlling the combustion phasing, extending the operating range, and high unburned hydrocarbon and CO emissions. Massive research throughout the world has led to great progress in the control of HCCI combustion. The first thing paid attention to is that a great deal of fundamental theoretical research has been carried out. First, numerical simulation has become a good observation and a powerful tool to investigate HCCI and to develop control strategies for HCCI because of its greater flexibility and lower cost compared with engine experiments. Five types of models applied to HCCI engine modelling are discussed in the present paper. Second, HCCI can be applied to a variety of fuel types. Combustion phasing and operation range can be controlled by the modification of fuel characteristics. Third, it has been realized that advanced control strategies of fuel/air mixture are more important than simple homogeneous charge in the process of the controlling of HCCI combustion processes. The stratification strategy has the potential to extend the HCCI operation range to higher loads, and low temperature combustion (LTC) diluted by exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has the potential to extend the operation range to high loads; even to full loads, for diesel engines. Fourth, optical diagnostics has been applied widely to reveal in-cylinder combustion processes. In addition, the key to diesel-fuelled HCCI combustion control is mixture preparation, while EGR is the main path to achieve gasoline-fuelled HCCI combustion. Specific strategies for diesel-fuelled, gasoline-fuelled and other alternative fuelled HCCI combustion are also discussed in the present paper.
•08 Feb 2000
Abstract: The development of four-stroke, spark-ignition engines that are designed to inject gasoline directly into the combustion chamber is an important worldwide initiative of the automotive industry. The thermodynamic potential of such engines for significantly enhanced fuel economy, transient response and cold-start hydrocarbon emission levels has led to a large number of research and development projects that have the goal of understanding, developing and optimizing gasoline direct-injection (GDI) combustion systems. The processes of fuel injection, spray atomization and vaporization, charge cooling, mixture preparation and the control of in-cylinder air motion are all being actively researched, and this work is reviewed in detail and analyzed. The new technologies such as high-pressure, common-rail, gasoline injection systems and swirl-atomizing gasoline fuel injectors are discussed in detail, as these technologies, along with computer control capabilities, have enabled the current new examination of an old objective; the direct-injection, stratified-charge (DISC), gasoline engine. The prior work on DISC engines that is relevant to current GDI engine development is also reviewed and discussed. The fuel economy and emission data for actual engine configurations are of significant importance to engine researchers and developers. These data have been obtained and assembled for all of the available GDI literature, and are reviewed and discussed in detail. The types of GDI engines are arranged in four classifications of decreasing complexity, and the advantages and disadvantages of each class are noted and explained. Emphasis is placed upon consensus trends and conclusions that are evident when taken as a whole. Thus the GDI researcher is informed regarding the degree to which engine volumetric efficiency and compression ratio can be increased under optimized conditions, and as to the extent to which unburned hydrocarbon (UBHC), NOx and particulate emissions can be minimized for specific combustion strategies. The critical area of GDI fuel injector deposits and the associated effect on spray geometry and engine performance degradation are reviewed, and important system guidelines for minimizing deposition rates and deposit effects are presented. The capabilities and limitations of emission control techniques and aftertreatment hardware are reviewed in depth, and areas of consensus on attaining European, Japanese and North American emission standards are compiled and discussed. All known research, prototype and production GDI engines worldwide are reviewed as to performance, emissions and fuel economy advantages, and for areas requiring further development. The engine schematics, control diagrams and specifications are compiled, and the emission control strategies are illustrated and discussed. The influence of lean-NOx catalysts on the development of late-injection, stratified-charge GDI engines is reviewed, and the relative merits of lean-burn, homogeneous, direct-injection engines as an option requiring less control complexity are analyzed. All current information in the literature is used as the basis for discussing the future development of automotive GDI engines.
Author's H-index: 43