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JournalISSN: 0360-5442


About: Energy is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Renewable energy & Exergy. It has an ISSN identifier of 0360-5442. Over the lifetime, 23806 publication(s) have been published receiving 756742 citation(s).

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Journal ArticleDOI
15 Apr 2014-Energy
Abstract: This paper defines the concept of 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH) including the relations to District Cooling and the concepts of smart energy and smart thermal grids. The motive is to ident ...

1,325 citations

Journal Article
01 Jan 1970-Energy

1,229 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 2011-Energy
Abstract: This article reviews the hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass with the aim of describing the current status of the technology. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a medium-temperature, high-pressure thermochemical process, which produces a liquid product, often called bio-oil or bi-crude. During the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the macromolecules of the biomass are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive and can recombine into larger ones. During this process, a substantial part of the oxygen in the biomass is removed by dehydration or decarboxylation. The chemical properties of bio-oil are highly dependent of the biomass substrate composition. Biomass constitutes of various components such as protein; carbohydrates, lignin and fat, and each of them produce distinct spectra of compounds during hydrothermal liquefaction. In spite of the potential for hydrothermal production of renewable fuels, only a few hydrothermal technologies have so far gone beyond lab- or bench-scale.

1,221 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Henrik Lund1
01 Jun 2007-Energy
Abstract: This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy (wind, solar, wave and biomass) in the making of strategies for a sustainable development. Such strategies typically involve three major technological changes: energy savings on the demand side, efficiency improvements in the energy production, and replacement of fossil fuels by various sources of renewable energy. Consequently, large-scale renewable energy implementation plans must include strategies for integrating renewable sources in coherent energy systems influenced by energy savings and efficiency measures. Based on the case of Denmark, this paper discusses the problems and perspectives of converting present energy systems into a 100% renewable energy system. The conclusion is that such development is possible. The necessary renewable energy sources are present, and if further technological improvements of the energy system are achieved the renewable energy system can be created. Especially technologies of converting the transportation sector and the introduction of flexible energy system technologies are crucial.

1,106 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 2000-Energy
TL;DR: Index decomposition methodology was a technique first used in the late 1970s to study the impact of changes in product mix on industrial energy demand and has been increasingly used in energy-related environmental analysis.
Abstract: Index decomposition methodology was a technique first used in the late 1970s to study the impact of changes in product mix on industrial energy demand. A survey in 1995 listed a total of 51 studies. Since then, many new studies and several new decomposition methods have been reported and the methodology has been increasingly used in energy-related environmental analysis. We trace these new developments, discuss method formulation using an index number framework, and classify more than one hundred studies based on application area, aggregate indicator, and decomposition scheme. Application issues useful to researchers undertaking new studies and possible areas for future research are presented.

1,099 citations

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