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Paolo Scartezzini

Bio: Paolo Scartezzini is an academic researcher from University of Bologna. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Genista & Adenine nucleotide translocator. The author has an hindex of 7, co-authored 8 publication(s) receiving 1024 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
Paolo Scartezzini1, Ester Speroni1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: Seven plants contain antioxidant principles, that can explain and justify their use in traditional medicine in the past as well as the present, and are viewed for their historical, etymological, morphological, phytochemical and pharmacological aspects.
Abstract: A lot of medicinal plants, traditionally used for thousands of years, are present in a group of herbal preparations of the Indian traditional health care system (Ayurveda) named Rasayana proposed for their interesting antioxidant activities. Among the medicinal plants used in ayurvedic Rasayana for their therapeutic action, some of these have been throughly investigated. In the present paper seven plants (Emblica officinalis L., Curcuma longa L., Mangifera indica L., Momordica charantia L., Santalum album L., Swertia chirata Buch-Ham, Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal) are viewed for their historical, etymological, morphological, phytochemical and pharmacological aspects. The plants described contain antioxidant principles, that can explain and justify their use in traditional medicine in the past as well as the present. In order to identify the plants with antioxidant activity in Ayurveda, a formulation of some rasayanas with well defined antioxidant properties has been examinated. For this purpose, we have considered Sharma's work on the preparation MAK4, MAK5, MA631, MA 471, MA Raja's Cup, MA Student Rasayana, MA Ladies Rasayana.

747 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A reliable and feasible HPLC method with diode array detection has been developed and it is found that the Emblica fruit contains ascorbic acid and that the Ayurvedic method of processing increases the healthy characteristics of the fruit thanks to a higher antioxidant activity and a higher content of ascorBic acid.
Abstract: Emblica officinalis Gaertn. is one of the most important plants of Ayurved, the traditional Indian medicine. In this ancient medicine, the fruit of Emblica officinalis is processed according to a method named "Svaras Bhavana", whereby the therapeutic potential of the plant is enhanced by treating the main herb with its own juice. For many years, the activity of the fruits was attributed to the high content of ascorbic acid; however, this has recently been questioned. The aim of the paper is to clarify this matter. A reliable and feasible HPLC method with diode array detection has been developed for the determination of ascorbic acid in Emblica fruit and particularly in Emblica fruit processed according to the Ayurvedic method. The antioxidant effects have also been evaluated in comparison to the real levels of Vitamin C by different antioxidant tests. The data obtained show that the Emblica fruit contains ascorbic acid (0.4%, w/w), and that the Ayurvedic method of processing increases the healthy characteristics of the fruit thanks to a higher antioxidant activity and a higher content of ascorbic acid (1.28%, w/w). It has also been found that Vitamin C accounts for approximately 45-70% of the antioxidant activity.

187 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
28 Jun 2011-PLOS ONE
TL;DR: The results indicate the molecular basis of the antileukemic effects of Hemidesmus and identify the mitochondrial pathways and [Ca2+]i as crucial actors in its anticancer activity.
Abstract: Background Although cancers are characterized by the deregulation of multiple signalling pathways, most current anticancer therapies involve the modulation of a single target. Because of the enormous biological diversity of cancer, strategic combination of agents targeted against the most critical of those alterations is needed. Due to their complex nature, plant products interact with numerous targets and influence several biochemical and molecular cascades. The interest in further development of botanical drugs has been increasing steadily and the FDA recently approved the first new botanical prescription drug. The present study is designed to explore the potential antileukemic properties of Hemidesmus indicus with a view to contributing to further development of botanical drugs. Hemidesmus was submitted to an extensive in vitro preclinical evaluation. Methodology/principal findings A variety of cellular assays and flow cytometry, as well as a phytochemical screening, were performed on different leukemic cell lines. We have demonstrated that Hemidesmus modulated many components of intracellular signaling pathways involved in cell viability and proliferation and altered the protein expression, eventually leading to tumor cell death, mediated by a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. ADP, adenine nucleotide translocator and mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitors did not reverse Hemidesmus-induced mitochondrial depolarization. Hemidesmus induced a significant [Ca(2+)](i) raise through the mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+) stores. Moreover, Hemidesmus significantly enhanced the antitumor activity of three commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs (methotrexate, 6-thioguanine, cytarabine). A clinically relevant observation is that its cytotoxic activity was also recorded in primary cells from acute myeloid leukemic patients. Conclusions/significance These results indicate the molecular basis of the antileukemic effects of Hemidesmus and identify the mitochondrial pathways and [Ca(2+)](i) as crucial actors in its anticancer activity. On these bases, we conclude that Hemidesmus can represent a valuable tool in the anticancer pharmacology, and should be considered for further investigations.

33 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Paolo Scartezzini1, Fabiana Antognoni1, Lucia Conte1, Andrea Maxia2  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
TL;DR: The results seem to confirm the hypothesis that the Italian populations of this species may not be indigenous but naturalised and due to the high withaferin A content of the Sardinian samples, these plants could be used as a source for pharmaceutical purposes.
Abstract: The geographical distribution of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is quite wide. However, in Italy, this species is very rare and grows spontaneously only in Sicily and in Sardinia. The PCR–RAPD technique has been utilized in this work to determine the genetic relationship among Sicilian, Sardinian and Indian samples and the HPLC analysis of whitaferin A was used as a marker to evaluate the phytochemical differences. The genetic difference between Indian and Sicilian plants of W. somnifera turned out to be smaller than that between Indian and Sardinian plants of this species. The phytochemical analysis as well showed that the Sardinian specimen strongly differed from the Indian and Sicilian ones in its contents of withaferin A. Our results seem to confirm the hypothesis that the Italian populations of this species may not be indigenous but naturalised. Due to the high withaferin A content of the Sardinian samples, these plants could be used as a source for pharmaceutical purposes.

28 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The flavonoid fraction of the aerial parts of Genista cadasonensis Valsecchi (Leguminosae), an endemic plant from Sardinia, was examined and shown the presence of a rare flavonoids, the 6-hydroxy-genistein.
Abstract: The flavonoid fraction of the aerial parts of Genista cadasonensis Valsecchi (Leguminosae), an endemic plant from Sardinia, was examined and compared with the flavonoid pattern already known in the Genista genus. This comparison evidenced the endemic nature of this species, showing the presence of a rare flavonoid, the 6-hydroxy-genistein. The antioxidant activity of dichloromethanic, ethanolic and acetonic total extracts of aerial parts was evaluated.

11 citations


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The literature reveals that these natural antioxidants represent a potentially side effect-free alternative to synthetic antioxidants in the food processing industry and for use in preventive medicine.
Abstract: Some researchers suggest that two-thirds of the world's plant species have medicinal value; in particular, many medicinal plants have great antioxidant potential. Antioxidants reduce the oxidative stress in cells and are therefore useful in the treatment of many human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory diseases. This paper reviews the antioxidant potential of extracts from the stems, roots, bark, leaves, fruits and seeds of several important medicinal species. Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxylanisole (BHA) are currently used as food additives, and many plant species have similar antioxidant potentials as these synthetics. These species include Diospyros abyssinica, Pistacia lentiscus, Geranium sanguineum L., Sargentodoxa cuneata Rehd. Et Wils, Polyalthia cerasoides (Roxb.) Bedd, Crataeva nurvala Buch-Ham., Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn, Teucrium polium L., Dracocephalum moldavica L., Urtica dioica L., Ficus microcarpa L. fil., Bidens pilosa Linn. Radiata, Leea indica, the Lamiaceae species, Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC, Salvia officinalis L., Momordica Charantia L., Rheum ribes L., and Pelargonium endlicherianum. The literature reveals that these natural antioxidants represent a potentially side effect-free alternative to synthetic antioxidants in the food processing industry and for use in preventive medicine.

750 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review focuses on Indian Herbal drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes, especially in India, and a list of medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects and of herbal drugs used in treatment of Diabetes is compiled.
Abstract: Traditional Medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60% of the world's population. This review focuses on Indian Herbal drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes, especially in India. Diabetes is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. In India it is proving to be a major health problem, especially in the urban areas. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill effects of diabetes and its secondary complications, herbal formulations are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. A list of medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects and of herbal drugs used in treatment of diabetes is compiled. These include, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum graecum and Withania somnifera. One of the etiologic factors implicated in the development of diabetes and its complications is the damage induced by free radicals and hence an antidiabetic compound with antioxidant properties would be more beneficial. Therefore information on antioxidant effects of these medicinal plants is also included.

745 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of the pharmacological activities of C. longa L., showing its importance, and experiments showing the anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory potency of curcumin and extracts of this plant by parenteral and oral application in animal models.
Abstract: There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae), which exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anti-bacteria, antioxidant effects and nematocidal activities. Curcumin is a major component in Curcuma longa L., being responsible for its biological actions. Other extracts of this plant has been showing potency too. In vitro, curcumin exhibits anti-parasitic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and gastrointestinal effects; and also inhibits carcinogenesis and cancer growth. In vivo, there are experiments showing the anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory potency of curcumin and extracts of C. longa L. by parenteral and oral application in animal models. In this present work we make an overview of the pharmacological activities of C. longa L., showing its importance.

625 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Total antioxidant capacities of 133 Indian medicinal plant species sampled from 64 families were assessed by ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays, and their total phenolic contents measured by Folin–Ciocalteu assay. These species exhibited a broad range of antioxidant activities, varying from 0.16 to 500.70 mmol TEAC/100 g DW in the ABTS assay. The antioxidant activity values similarly varied with the DPPH and FRAP assays. Significant and positive linear correlations were found between total antioxidant capacities and phenolic contents ( R = 0.89–0.97), indicating that phenolics were the dominant antioxidant constituents in the tested medicinal plants. Preliminary identification of the major phenolic compounds from 83 selected medicinal plants by reversed-phase HPLC revealed phenolic acids, tannins, flavonoids, curcuminoids, coumarins, lignans, and quinines. The fruit of Terminalia chebula , pericarp of Punica granatum and gall of Rhus succedanea showed very high levels of hydrolysable tannins, and the gum of Acacia catechu presented very high levels of catechin and epicatechin in addition to tannins. Major phenolics in many of the medicinal plants were identified for the first time (e.g., Euphorbia lathyrus , Ipomoea turpethum , and Picrorrhiza kurroa ). This systematic investigation of a large number of Indian medicinal plants proved important for understanding their chemical constituents and functionality in Ayurvedic medicine, and contributes to the search for natural sources of potent antioxidants.

567 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Tuba Esatbeyoglu1, Patricia Huebbe1, Insa M. A. Ernst1, Dawn Chin1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
TL;DR: This Review describes the development of curcumin from a "traditional" spice and food coloring to a "modern" biological regulator.
Abstract: Turmeric is traditionally used as a spice and coloring in foods. It is an important ingredient in curry and gives curry powder its characteristic yellow color. As a consequence of its intense yellow color, turmeric, or curcumin (food additive E100), is used as a food coloring (e.g. mustard). Turmeric contains the curcuminoids curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin. Recently, the health properties (neuroprotection, chemo-, and cancer prevention) of curcuminoids have gained increasing attention. Curcuminoids induce endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms in the organism and have anti-inflammatory activity. Curcuminoids influence gene expression as well as epigenetic mechanisms. Synthetic curcumin analogues also exhibit biological activity. This Review describes the development of curcumin from a "traditional" spice and food coloring to a "modern" biological regulator.

526 citations


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Author's H-index: 7

No. of papers from the Author in previous years
YearPapers
20111
20103
20072
20061
20001