Materials today communications
About: Materials today communications is an academic journal published by Elsevier BV. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Materials science & Composite material. It has an ISSN identifier of 2352-4928. Over the lifetime, 6008 publications have been published receiving 38106 citations.
TL;DR: The three-dimensional (3-D) in vitro tumor models aim to closely mimic cancer microenvironments and have emerged as an alternative to routinely used methods for drug screening.
Abstract: The natural microenvironment of tumors is composed of extracellular matrix (ECM), blood vasculature, and supporting stromal cells. The physical characteristics of ECM as well as the cellular components play a vital role in controlling cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, metabolism, and differentiation. To mimic the tumor microenvironment outside the human body for drug testing, two-dimensional (2-D) and murine tumor models are routinely used. Although these conventional approaches are employed in preclinical studies, they still present challenges. For example, murine tumor models are expensive and difficult to adopt for routine drug screening. On the other hand, 2-D in vitro models are simple to perform, but they do not recapitulate natural tumor microenvironment, because they do not capture important three-dimensional (3-D) cell–cell, cell–matrix signaling pathways, and multi-cellular heterogeneous components of the tumor microenvironment such as stromal and immune cells. The three-dimensional (3-D) in vitro tumor models aim to closely mimic cancer microenvironments and have emerged as an alternative to routinely used methods for drug screening. Herein, we review recent advances in 3-D tumor model generation and highlight directions for future applications in drug testing.
TL;DR: The effect of wood content in 3D printing materials on the properties of 3D printed parts was investigated in this paper, where six filaments using polylactic acid (PLA) with varying loading levels of wood particles from 0% to 50% by weight were produced and used for 3D printings and the results showed that the surface of the parts printed from the filament without the addition of wood was smoother and the printed part had no voids within the structure.
Abstract: The effect of wood content in 3D printing materials on the properties of 3D printed parts was investigated. Six filaments using polylactic acid (PLA) with varying loading levels of wood particles from 0% to 50% by weight were produced and used for 3D printing. The density of the filaments and 3D printed parts used in this study slightly decreased with increasing wood content. The tensile strength of the filaments increased from 55 MPa to 57 MPa with an addition of 10% wood, but decreased with higher levels of wood content to 30 MPa for filaments with 50% wood content. The surface of the parts printed from the filament without the addition of wood was smoother and the printed part had no voids within the structure. With increasing wood content the surface becomes rougher, more voids were present, and had visible clusters of wood particles (due to wood particle clustering and clogging in the printer nozzle). Higher wood content in 3D printed parts decreased the storage modulus. measured with torsional loading on a rheometer, but did not change the glass transition temperature.
TL;DR: A rapid continuous3D-printing platform was developed to print customizable NGCs with unprecedented resolution, speed, flexibility, and scalability and showed promising recovery of motor function and sensation in the ipsilateral limbs grafted with the 3D-printed N GCs.
Abstract: Engineered nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) have been demonstrated for repairing peripheral nerve injuries. However, there remains a need for an advanced biofabrication system to build NGCs with complex architectures, tunable material properties, and customizable geometrical control. Here, a rapid continuous 3D-printing platform was developed to print customizable NGCs with unprecedented resolution, speed, flexibility, and scalability. A variety of NGC designs varying in complexity and size were created including a life-size biomimetic branched human facial NGC. In vivo implantation of NGCs with microchannels into complete sciatic nerve transections of mouse models demonstrated the effective directional guidance of regenerating sciatic nerves via branching into the microchannels and extending toward the distal end of the injury site. Histological staining and immunostaining further confirmed the progressive directional nerve regeneration and branching behavior across the entire NGC length. Observational and functional tests, including the von Frey threshold test and thermal test, showed promising recovery of motor function and sensation in the ipsilateral limbs grafted with the 3D-printed NGCs.
TL;DR: A general understanding is provided of how various properties of nanoparticles aid in drug delivery through BBB and usher the development of novel nanotechnology-based nanomaterials for cerebral disease therapies.
Abstract: The Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB), a unique structure in the central nervous system (CNS), protects the brain from bloodborne pathogens by its excellent barrier properties. Nevertheless, this barrier limits therapeutic efficacy and becomes one of the biggest challenges in new drug development for neurodegenerative disease and brain cancer. Recent breakthroughs in nanotechnology have resulted in various nanoparticles (NPs) as drug carriers to cross the BBB by different methods. This review presents the current understanding of advanced NP-mediated non-invasive drug delivery for the treatment of neurological disorders. Herein, the complex compositions and special characteristics of BBB are elucidated exhaustively. Moreover, versatile drug nanocarriers with their recent applications and their pathways on different drug delivery strategies to overcome the formidable BBB obstacle are briefly discussed. In terms of significance, this paper provides a general understanding of how various properties of nanoparticles aid in drug delivery through BBB and usher the development of novel nanotechnology-based nanomaterials for cerebral disease therapies.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors summarized the methods used for (nano)material deposition onto an electrode surface for efficient biosensor fabrication and discussed the problems faced during biosensor application as well as the present challenges and prospects for superior deposition methods.
Abstract: Biosensor development includes the deposition of (nano)materials onto a conductive electrode surface, which is a crucial step for obtaining improved performance from the constructed biosensors. Various methods have been used to create a successful matrix of (nano)materials that ensures proper contact between the material and electrode surface. The purpose of (nano)material deposition is to provide a high surface area to improve the electroanalytical performance of biosensors by supporting the stable immobilization of enzymes in a more significant quantity as well as enhancing the catalytic or bioaffinity features. For decades, researchers have been using increasingly advanced methods not only for improving sensing performance, but also for improving stability, reproducibility, and mass production. In this review, we summarized the methods used for (nano)material deposition onto an electrode surface for efficient biosensor fabrication. An enhanced and optimized (nano)material deposition method is crucial for the mechanical stability and fabrication reproducibility of electrodes when designing a suitable biosensing device. In addition, we discussed the problems faced during biosensor application as well as the present challenges and prospects for superior deposition methods.