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Showing papers in "Water in 2022"


Journal ArticleDOI
14 Jan 2022-Water
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors provided a tutorial basis for the readers working in the dye degradation research area and provided a wide range of previously published work on advanced photocatalytic systems.
Abstract: The unavailability of clean drinking water is one of the significant health issues in modern times. Industrial dyes are one of the dominant chemicals that make water unfit for drinking. Among these dyes, methylene blue (MB) is toxic, carcinogenic, and non-biodegradable and can cause a severe threat to human health and environmental safety. It is usually released in natural water sources, which becomes a health threat to human beings and living organisms. Hence, there is a need to develop an environmentally friendly, efficient technology for removing MB from wastewater. Photodegradation is an advanced oxidation process widely used for MB removal. It has the advantages of complete mineralization of dye into simple and nontoxic species with the potential to decrease the processing cost. This review provides a tutorial basis for the readers working in the dye degradation research area. We not only covered the basic principles of the process but also provided a wide range of previously published work on advanced photocatalytic systems (single-component and multi-component photocatalysts). Our study has focused on critical parameters that can affect the photodegradation rate of MB, such as photocatalyst type and loading, irradiation reaction time, pH of reaction media, initial concentration of dye, radical scavengers and oxidising agents. The photodegradation mechanism, reaction pathways, intermediate products, and final products of MB are also summarized. An overview of the future perspectives to utilize MB at an industrial scale is also provided. This paper identifies strategies for the development of effective MB photodegradation systems.

234 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
13 Feb 2022-Water
TL;DR: In this article , the authors analyzed the changes in river discharge and regional precipitation records before and after the construction of the Three Gorges Dam and found that the river discharge shows a decrease of wavelet magnitude at the three downstream locations.
Abstract: The Yangtze River has been the primary support of the resources and transportation of China. The Three Gorges Dam and Reservoir on the Yangtze River is one of the world’s largest dams. The influence caused by the dam and reservoir on the river system has been overwhelming and destructive. For better water resource use and flood-prevention planning, more understanding is needed regarding the dam’s impact on river discharge, regional precipitation, and frequency of extreme rainfall events. This study aims to analyze the changes in river discharge and regional precipitation records before and after the construction of the Three Gorges Dam. This research examines temporal correlations among these data by collecting daily dam injection and dam discharge records, the precipitation from ground stations, and river discharge. The time series are analyzed with the wavelet analysis. The precipitation datasets decrease in wavelet magnitude after 1998 when the dam was built in the wavelet analysis. The annual cycle, shown as a bright year line through the time range, still exists in the analysis result after 1998, but the magnitude of the annual cycle has reduced. The river discharge shows a decrease of wavelet magnitude at the three downstream locations. The possible explanation of this pattern could be the human-controlled dam discharge. The constant water level maintained in the reservoir by human control would slow down the flow speed and stabilize it.

50 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
28 Jan 2022-Water
TL;DR: In this paper , the cellular automata-artificial neural network (CA-ANN) technique was used to predict future land use land cover changes in Selangor, Malaysia.
Abstract: Land use land cover (LULC) has altered dramatically because of anthropogenic activities, particularly in places where climate change and population growth are severe. The geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing are widely used techniques for monitoring LULC changes. This study aimed to assess the LULC changes and predict future trends in Selangor, Malaysia. The satellite images from 1991–2021 were classified to develop LULC maps using support vector machine (SVM) classification in ArcGIS. The image classification was based on six different LULC classes, i.e., (i) water, (ii) developed, (iii) barren, (iv) forest, (v) agriculture, and (vi) wetlands. The resulting LULC maps illustrated the area changes from 1991 to 2021 in different classes, where developed, barren, and water lands increased by 15.54%, 1.95%, and 0.53%, respectively. However, agricultural, forest, and wetlands decreased by 3.07%, 14.01%, and 0.94%, respectively. The cellular automata-artificial neural network (CA-ANN) technique was used to predict the LULC changes from 2031–2051. The percentage of correctness for the simulation was 82.43%, and overall kappa value was 0.72. The prediction maps from 2031–2051 illustrated decreasing trends in (i) agricultural by 3.73%, (ii) forest by 1.09%, (iii) barren by 0.21%, (iv) wetlands by 0.06%, and (v) water by 0.04% and increasing trends in (vi) developed by 5.12%. The outcomes of this study provide crucial knowledge that may help in developing future sustainable planning and management, as well as assist authorities in making informed decisions to improve environmental and ecological conditions.

44 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
06 Feb 2022-Water
TL;DR: In this article , the authors examined the geochemical mechanisms influencing the chemistry of groundwater and assessed groundwater resources through several water quality indices (WQIs), GIS methods, and the partial least squares regression model (PLSR).
Abstract: Water shortage and quality are major issues in many places, particularly arid and semi-arid regions such as Makkah Al-Mukarramah province, Saudi Arabia. The current work was conducted to examine the geochemical mechanisms influencing the chemistry of groundwater and assess groundwater resources through several water quality indices (WQIs), GIS methods, and the partial least squares regression model (PLSR). For that, 59 groundwater wells were tested for different physical and chemical parameters using conventional analytical procedures. The results showed that the average content of ions was as follows: Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg 2+ > K+ and Cl− > SO42− > HCO32− > NO3− > CO3−. Under the stress of evaporation and saltwater intrusion associated with the reverse ion exchange process, the predominant hydrochemical facies were Ca-HCO3, Na-Cl, mixed Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4, and Na-Ca-HCO3. The drinking water quality index (DWQI) has indicated that only 5% of the wells were categorized under good to excellent for drinking while the majority (95%) were poor to unsuitable for drinking, and required appropriate treatment. Furthermore, the irrigation water quality index (IWQI) has indicated that 45.5% of the wells were classified under high to severe restriction for agriculture, and can be utilized only for high salt tolerant plants. The majority (54.5%) were deemed moderate to no restriction for irrigation, with no toxicity concern for most plants. Agriculture indicators such as total dissolved solids (TDS), potential salinity (PS), sodium absorption ratio (SAR), and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) had mean values of 2572.30, 33.32, 4.84, and −21.14, respectively. However, the quality of the groundwater in the study area improves with increased rainfall and thus recharging the Quaternary aquifer. The PLSR models, which are based on physicochemical characteristics, have been shown to be the most efficient as alternative techniques for determining the six WQIs. For instance, the PLSR models of all IWQs had determination coefficients values of R2 ranging between 0.848 and 0.999 in the Cal., and between 0.848 and 0.999 in the Val. datasets, and had model accuracy varying from 0.824 to 0.999 in the Cal., and from 0.817 to 0.989 in the Val. datasets. In conclusion, the combination of physicochemical parameters, WQIs, and multivariate modeling with statistical analysis and GIS tools is a successful and adaptable methodology that provides a comprehensive picture of groundwater quality and governing mechanisms.

41 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
17 Feb 2022-Water
TL;DR: The outcome indicated that the ANN-WT-LSTM model proposed in this study performed better than previous models in many evaluation indices.
Abstract: Clean water is an indispensable essential resource on which humans and other living beings depend. Therefore, the establishment of a water quality prediction model to predict future water quality conditions has a significant social and economic value. In this study, a model based on an artificial neural network (ANN), discrete wavelet transform (DWT), and long short-term memory (LSTM) was constructed to predict the water quality of the Jinjiang River. Firstly, a multi-layer perceptron neural network was used to process the missing values based on the time series in the water quality dataset used in this research. Secondly, the Daubechies 5 (Db5) wavelet was used to divide the water quality data into low-frequency signals and high-frequency signals. Then, the signals were used as the input of LSTM, and LSTM was used for training, testing, and prediction. Finally, the prediction results were compared with the nonlinear auto regression (NAR) neural network model, the ANN-LSTM model, the ARIMA model, multi-layer perceptron neural networks, the LSTM model, and the CNN-LSTM model. The outcome indicated that the ANN-WT-LSTM model proposed in this study performed better than previous models in many evaluation indices. Therefore, the research methods of this study can provide technical support and practical reference for water quality monitoring and the management of the Jinjiang River and other basins.

37 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
24 Feb 2022-Water
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors present the evolution of irrigation and IoT, factors to be considered for effective irrigation, the need for efficient irrigation optimization, and how dynamic irrigation optimization would help reduce water use.
Abstract: The increase in population growth and demand is rapidly depleting natural resources. Irrigation plays a vital role in the productivity and growth of agriculture, consuming no less than 75% of fresh water utilization globally. Irrigation, being the largest consumer of water across the globe, needs refinements in its process, and because it is implemented by individuals (farmers), the use of water for irrigation is not effective. To enhance irrigation management, farmers need to keep track of information such as soil type, climatic conditions, available water resources, soil pH, soil nutrients, and soil moisture to make decisions that resolve or prevent agricultural complexity. Irrigation, a data-driven technology, requires the integration of emerging technologies and modern methodologies to provide solutions to the complex problems faced by agriculture. The paper is an overview of IoT-enabled modern technologies through which irrigation management can be elevated. This paper presents the evolution of irrigation and IoT, factors to be considered for effective irrigation, the need for effective irrigation optimization, and how dynamic irrigation optimization would help reduce water use. The paper also discusses the different IoT architecture and deployment models, sensors, and controllers used in the agriculture field, available cloud platforms for IoT, prominent tools or software used for irrigation scheduling and water need prediction, and machine learning and neural network models for irrigation. Convergence of the tools, technologies and approaches helps in the development of better irrigation management applications. Access to real-time data, such as weather, plant and soil data, must be enhanced for the development of effective irrigation management applications.

36 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
06 Jan 2022-Water
TL;DR: This review presented the recent advances of using natural coagulants for pharmaceutical compound removal from aqueous solutions and identified charge neutralization and polymer bridges as the main mechanisms.
Abstract: Pharmaceutical contamination threatens both humans and the environment, and several technologies have been adapted for the removal of pharmaceuticals. The coagulation-flocculation process demonstrates a feasible solution for pharmaceutical removal. However, the chemical coagulation process has its drawbacks, such as excessive and toxic sludge production and high production cost. To overcome these shortcomings, the feasibility of natural-based coagulants, due to their biodegradability, safety, and availability, has been investigated by several researchers. This review presented the recent advances of using natural coagulants for pharmaceutical compound removal from aqueous solutions. The main mechanisms of natural coagulants for pharmaceutical removal from water and wastewater are charge neutralization and polymer bridges. Natural coagulants extracted from plants are more commonly investigated than those extracted from animals due to their affordability. Natural coagulants are competitive in terms of their performance and environmental sustainability. Developing a reliable extraction method is required, and therefore further investigation is essential to obtain a complete insight regarding the performance and the effect of environmental factors during pharmaceutical removal by natural coagulants. Finally, the indirect application of natural coagulants is an essential step for implementing green water and wastewater treatment technologies.

35 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
08 Mar 2022-Water
TL;DR: In this paper , an analysis of wind, sea flow features, and wave height in the southern coasts of the Caspian Sea, especially in the off-coast sea waters of Mazandaran Province in Northern Iran, was performed.
Abstract: The prediction of ocean waves is a highly challenging task in coastal and water engineering in general due to their very high randomness. In the present case study, an analysis of wind, sea flow features, and wave height in the southern coasts of the Caspian Sea, especially in the off-coast sea waters of Mazandaran Province in Northern Iran, was performed. Satellite altimetry-based significant wave heights associated with the period of observation in 2016 were validated based on those measured at a buoy station in the same year. The comparative analysis between them showed that satellite-based wave heights are highly correlated to buoy data, as testified by a high coefficient of correlation r (0.87), low Bias (0.063 m), and root-mean-squared error (0.071 m). It was possible to assess that the dominant wave direction in the study area was northwest. Considering the main factors affecting wind-induced waves, the atmospheric framework in the examined sea region with high pressure was identified as the main factor to be taken into account in the formation of waves. The outcomes of the present research provide an interesting methodological tool for obtaining and processing accurate wave height estimations in such an intricate flow playground as the southern coasts of the Caspian Sea.

31 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
23 Feb 2022-Water
TL;DR: In this article , a deep learning approach to detect the ships from satellite imagery is discussed. But, the model developed in this work achieves integrity by the inclusion of hashing, which allows secure transmission of highly confidential images that are tamperproof.
Abstract: Ship detection plays a crucial role in marine security in remote sensing imagery. This paper discusses about a deep learning approach to detect the ships from satellite imagery. The model developed in this work achieves integrity by the inclusion of hashing. This model employs a supervised image classification technique to classify images, followed by object detection using You Only Look Once version 3 (YOLOv3) to extract features from deep CNN. Semantic segmentation and image segmentation is done to identify object category of each pixel using class labels. Then, the concept of hashing using SHA-256 is applied in conjunction with the ship count and location of bounding box in satellite image. The proposed model is tested on a Kaggle Ships dataset, which consists of 231,722 images. A total of 70% of this data is used for training, and the 30% is used for testing. To add security to images with detected ships, the model is enhanced by hashing using SHA-256 algorithm. Using SHA-256, which is a one-way hash, the data are split up into blocks of 64 bytes. The input data to the hash function are both the ship count and bounding box location. The proposed model achieves integrity by using SHA-256. This model allows secure transmission of highly confidential images that are tamper-proof.

30 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
24 Apr 2022-Water
TL;DR: This review offers a cross-section of peer reviewed, critical water-based applications that have been coupled with AI or ML, including chlorination, adsorption, membrane filtration, water-quality-index monitoring,Water- quality-parameter modeling, river-level monitoring, and aquaponics/hydroponics automation/monitoring.
Abstract: Artificial-intelligence methods and machine-learning models have demonstrated their ability to optimize, model, and automate critical water- and wastewater-treatment applications, natural-systems monitoring and management, and water-based agriculture such as hydroponics and aquaponics. In addition to providing computer-assisted aid to complex issues surrounding water chemistry and physical/biological processes, artificial intelligence and machine-learning (AI/ML) applications are anticipated to further optimize water-based applications and decrease capital expenses. This review offers a cross-section of peer reviewed, critical water-based applications that have been coupled with AI or ML, including chlorination, adsorption, membrane filtration, water-quality-index monitoring, water-quality-parameter modeling, river-level monitoring, and aquaponics/hydroponics automation/monitoring. Although success in control, optimization, and modeling has been achieved with the AI methods, ML models, and smart technologies (including the Internet of Things (IoT), sensors, and systems based on these technologies) that are reviewed herein, key challenges and limitations were common and pervasive throughout. Poor data management, low explainability, poor model reproducibility and standardization, as well as a lack of academic transparency are all important hurdles to overcome in order to successfully implement these intelligent applications. Recommendations to aid explainability, data management, reproducibility, and model causality are offered in order to overcome these hurdles and continue the successful implementation of these powerful tools.

30 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
03 Jan 2022-Water
TL;DR: In this article , a hybrid approach, integrating long-short-term memory (LSTM) networks and a genetic algorithm (GA) for streamflow forecasting, was proposed, and the performance of the hybrid model and the benchmark model was taken into account using daily flow data.
Abstract: River flow modeling plays a crucial role in water resource management and ensuring its sustainability. Therefore, in recent years, in addition to the prediction of hydrological processes through modeling, applicable and highly reliable methods have also been used to analyze the sustainability of water resources. Artificial neural networks and deep learning-based hybrid models have been used by scientists in river flow predictions. Therefore, in this study, we propose a hybrid approach, integrating long-short-term memory (LSTM) networks and a genetic algorithm (GA) for streamflow forecasting. The performance of the hybrid model and the benchmark model was taken into account using daily flow data. For this purpose, the daily river flow time series of the Beyderesi-Kılayak flow measurement station (FMS) from September 2000 to June 2019 and the data from Yazıköy from December 2000 to June 2018 were used for flow measurements on the Euphrates River in Turkey. To validate the performance of the model, the first 80% of the data were used for training, and the remaining 20% were used for the testing of the two FMSs. Statistical methods such as linear regression was used during the comparison process to assess the proposed method’s performance and to demonstrate its superior predictive ability. The estimation results of the models were evaluated with RMSE, MAE, MAPE, STD and R2 statistical metrics. The comparison of daily streamflow predictions results revealed that the LSTM-GA model provided promising accuracy results and mainly presented higher performance than the benchmark model and the linear regression model.

Journal ArticleDOI
12 May 2022-Water
TL;DR: The results indicated that all twelve ML models have good performance in predicting the WQI but that extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) has the best performance with the highest accuracy, which strengthens the argument that ML models, especially XGBeost, may be employed for WQi prediction with a high level of accuracy,Which will further improve water quality management.
Abstract: For effective management of water quantity and quality, it is absolutely essential to estimate the pollution level of the existing surface water. This case study aims to evaluate the performance of twelve machine learning (ML) models, including five boosting-based algorithms (adaptive boosting, gradient boosting, histogram-based gradient boosting, light gradient boosting, and extreme gradient boosting), three decision tree-based algorithms (decision tree, extra trees, and random forest), and four ANN-based algorithms (multilayer perceptron, radial basis function, deep feed-forward neural network, and convolutional neural network), in estimating the surface water quality of the La Buong River in Vietnam. Water quality data at four monitoring stations alongside the La Buong River for the period 2010–2017 were utilized to calculate the water quality index (WQI). Prediction performance of the ML models was evaluated by using two efficiency statistics (i.e., R2 and RMSE). The results indicated that all twelve ML models have good performance in predicting the WQI but that extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) has the best performance with the highest accuracy (R2 = 0.989 and RMSE = 0.107). The findings strengthen the argument that ML models, especially XGBoost, may be employed for WQI prediction with a high level of accuracy, which will further improve water quality management.

Journal ArticleDOI
21 Mar 2022-Water
TL;DR: In this paper , a CNN-LSTM model was proposed to compute runoff in the watershed based on two-dimensional rainfall radar maps directly, and the model explored a convolutional neural network (CNN) to process twodimensional rainfall maps and LSTM to process one-dimensional output data from the CNN and the upstream runoff in order to calculate the flow of the downstream runoff.
Abstract: Although machine learning (ML) techniques are increasingly used in rainfall-runoff models, most of them are based on one-dimensional datasets. In this study, a rainfall-runoff model with deep learning algorithms (CNN-LSTM) was proposed to compute runoff in the watershed based on two-dimensional rainfall radar maps directly. The model explored a convolutional neural network (CNN) to process two-dimensional rainfall maps and long short-term memory (LSTM) to process one-dimensional output data from the CNN and the upstream runoff in order to calculate the flow of the downstream runoff. In addition, the Elbe River basin in Sachsen, Germany, was selected as the study area, and the high-water periods of 2006, 2011, and 2013, and the low-water periods of 2015 and 2018 were used as the study periods. Via the fivefold validation, we found that the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) and Kling–Gupta efficiency (KGE) fluctuated from 0.46 to 0.97 and from 0.47 to 0.92 for the high-water period, where the optimal fold achieved 0.97 and 0.92, respectively. For the low-water period, the NSE and KGE ranged from 0.63 to 0.86 and from 0.68 to 0.93, where the optimal fold achieved 0.86 and 0.93, respectively. Our results demonstrate that CNN-LSTM would be useful for estimating water availability and flood alerts for river basin management.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Apr 2022-Water
TL;DR: In this paper , water quality management is an important facet of the effort to meet increasing demand for water, and water quality must be monitored and assessed via the use of innovative techniques, such as water quality indices (WQIs), spectral reflectance indices (SRIs), and multivariate modeling.
Abstract: Surface water quality management is an important facet of the effort to meet increasing demand for water. For that purpose, water quality must be monitored and assessed via the use of innovative techniques, such as water quality indices (WQIs), spectral reflectance indices (SRIs), and multivariate modeling. Throughout the Rosetta and Damietta branches of the Nile River, water samples were collected, and WQIs were assessed at 51 different distinct locations. The drinking water quality index (DWQI), metal index (MI), pollution index (PI), turbidity (Turb.) and total suspended solids (TSS) were assessed to estimate water quality status. Twenty-three physicochemical parameters were examined using standard analytical procedures. The average values of ions and metals exhibited the following sequences: Ca2+ > Na2+ > Mg2+ > K+, HCO32− > Cl− > SO42− > NO3− > CO3− and Al > Fe > Mn > Ba > Ni > Zn > Mo > Cr > Cr, respectively. Furthermore, under the stress of evaporation and the reverse ion exchange process, the main hydrochemical facies were Ca-HCO3 and mixed Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4. The DWQI values of the two Nile branches revealed that 53% of samples varied from excellent to good water, 43% of samples varied from poor to very poor water, and 4% of samples were unsuitable for drinking. In addition, the results showed that the new SRIs extracted from VIS and NIR region exhibited strong relationships with DWQI and MI and moderate to strong relationships with Turb. and TSS for each branch of the Nile River and their combination. The values of the R2 relationships between the new SRIs and WQIs varied from 0.65 to 0.82, 0.64 to 0.83, 0.41 to 0.60 and 0.35 to 0.79 for DWQI, MI, Turb. and TSS, respectively. The PLSR model produced a more accurate assessment of DWQI and MI based on values of R2 and slope than other indices. Furthermore, the partial least squares regression model (PLSR) generated accurate predictions for DWQI and MI of the Rosetta branch in the Val. datasets with an R2 of 0.82 and 0.79, respectively, and for DWQI and MI of the Damietta branch with an R2 of 0.93 and 0.78, respectively. Therefore, the combination of WQIs, SRIs, PLSR and GIS approaches are effective and give us a clear picture for assessing the suitability of surface water for drinking and its controlling factors.

Journal ArticleDOI
13 Aug 2022-Water
TL;DR: In this article , the authors used an ensemble of 17 regional climate models, developed in the framework of the EURO-CORDEX initiative, under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5).
Abstract: The Mediterranean region is one of the most responsive areas to climate change and was identified as a major “hot-spot” based on global climate change analyses. This study provides insight into local climate changes in the Mediterranean region under the scope of the InTheMED project, which is part of the PRIMA programme. Precipitation and temperature were analyzed in an historical period and until the end of this century for five pilot sites, located between the two shores of the Mediterranean region. We used an ensemble of 17 Regional Climate Models, developed in the framework of the EURO-CORDEX initiative, under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Over the historical period, the temperature presents upward trends, which are statistically significant for some sites, while precipitation does not show significant tendencies. These trends will be maintained in the future as predicted by the climate models projections: all models indicate a progressive and robust warming in all study areas and moderate change in total annual precipitation, but some seasonal variations are identified. Future changes in droughts events over the Mediterranean region were studied considering the maximum duration of the heat waves, their peak temperature, and the number of consecutive dry days. All pilot sites are expected to increase the maximum duration of heat waves and their peak temperature. Furthermore, the maximum number of consecutive dry days is expected to increase for most of the study areas.

Journal ArticleDOI
20 Jan 2022-Water
TL;DR: This study presents a review of IoT-controlled water storage tanks (IoT-WST), surveying contemporary work on IoT- WST, elaborating current techniques and technologies in IoT-W ST, targeting proper hardware, and selecting a secure IoT cloud server.
Abstract: Today, a large portion of the human population around the globe has no access to freshwater for drinking, cooking, and other domestic applications. Water resources in numerous countries are becoming scarce due to over urbanization, rapid industrial growth, and current global warming. Water is often stored in the aboveground or underground tanks. In developing countries, these tanks are maintained manually, and in some cases, water is wasted due to human negligence. In addition, water could also leak out from tanks and supply pipes due to the decayed infrastructure. To address these issues, researchers worldwide turned to the Internet-of-Things (IoT) technology to efficiently monitor water levels, detect leakage, and auto refill tanks whenever needed. Notably, this technology can also supply real-time feedback to end-users and other experts through a webpage or a smartphone. Literature reveals a plethora of review articles on smart water monitoring, including water quality, supply pipes leakage, and water waste recycling. However, none of the reviews focus on the IoT-based solution to monitor water level, detect water leakage, and auto control water pumps, especially at the induvial level that form a vast proportion of water consumers worldwide. To fill this gap in the literature, this study presents a review of IoT-controlled water storage tanks (IoT-WST). Some important contributions of our work include surveying contemporary work on IoT-WST, elaborating current techniques and technologies in IoT-WST, targeting proper hardware, and selecting a secure IoT cloud server.

Journal ArticleDOI
26 Jan 2022-Water
TL;DR: In this article , the authors mainly review 240 recent relevant papers on permafrost degradation and its impact on terrestrial processes, hydrometeorology, geocryology, hydrogeology, and ecohydrology.
Abstract: Under a warming climate, permafrost degradation has resulted in profound hydrogeological consequences. Here, we mainly review 240 recent relevant papers. Permafrost degradation has boosted groundwater storage and discharge to surface runoffs through improving hydraulic connectivity and reactivation of groundwater flow systems, resulting in reduced summer peaks, delayed autumn flow peaks, flattened annual hydrographs, and deepening and elongating flow paths. As a result of permafrost degradation, lowlands underlain by more continuous, colder, and thicker permafrost are getting wetter and uplands and mountain slopes, drier. However, additional contribution of melting ground ice to groundwater and stream-flows seems limited in most permafrost basins. As a result of permafrost degradation, the permafrost table and supra-permafrost water table are lowering; subaerial supra-permafrost taliks are forming; taliks are connecting and expanding; thermokarst activities are intensifying. These processes may profoundly impact on ecosystem structures and functions, terrestrial processes, surface and subsurface coupled flow systems, engineered infrastructures, and socioeconomic development. During the last 20 years, substantial and rapid progress has been made in many aspects in cryo-hydrogeology. However, these studies are still inadequate in desired spatiotemporal resolutions, multi-source data assimilation and integration, as well as cryo-hydrogeological modeling, particularly over rugged terrains in ice-rich, warm (>−1 °C) permafrost zones. Future research should be prioritized to the following aspects. First, we should better understand the concordant changes in processes, mechanisms, and trends for terrestrial processes, hydrometeorology, geocryology, hydrogeology, and ecohydrology in warm and thin permafrost regions. Second, we should aim towards revealing the physical and chemical mechanisms for the coupled processes of heat transfer and moisture migration in the vadose zone and expanding supra-permafrost taliks, towards the coupling of the hydrothermal dynamics of supra-, intra- and sub-permafrost waters, as well as that of water-resource changes and of hydrochemical and biogeochemical mechanisms for the coupled movements of solutes and pollutants in surface and subsurface waters as induced by warming and thawing permafrost. Third, we urgently need to establish and improve coupled predictive distributed cryo-hydrogeology models with optimized parameterization. In addition, we should also emphasize automatically, intelligently, and systematically monitoring, predicting, evaluating, and adapting to hydrogeological impacts from degrading permafrost at desired spatiotemporal scales. Systematic, in-depth, and predictive studies on and abilities for the hydrogeological impacts from degrading permafrost can greatly advance geocryology, cryo-hydrogeology, and cryo-ecohydrology and help better manage water, ecosystems, and land resources in permafrost regions in an adaptive and sustainable manner.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Apr 2022-Water
TL;DR: In this article , the authors focused on the trends of rainfall variability and drought monitoring in the northern region of Pakistan (Gilgit-Baltistan). Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) model data were used for the period of 1981 to 2020.
Abstract: This study focused on the trends of rainfall variability and drought monitoring in the northern region of Pakistan (Gilgit-Baltistan). Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) model data were used for the period of 1981 to 2020. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) was applied to assess the dry and wet conditions during the study period. The Mann–Kendall (MK) and Spearman’s rho (SR) trend tests were applied to calculate the trend of drought. A coupled model intercomparison project–global circulation model (CMIP5–GCMs) was used to project the future precipitation in Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) for the 21st century using a multimodel ensemble (MME) technique for representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5. From the results, the extreme drought situations were observed in the 12-month SPI series in 1982 in the Diamir, Ghizer, and Gilgit districts, while severe drought in 1982–1983 was observed in Astore, Ghizer, Gilgit, Hunza-Nagar, and Skardu. Similarly, in 2000–2001 severe drought prevailed in Diamir, Ghanche, and Skardu. The results of MK and SR indicate a significant increasing trend of rainfall in the study area, which is showing the conversion of snowfall to rainfall due to climate warming. The future precipitation projections depicted an increase of 4% for the 21st century as compared with the baseline period in the GB region. The results of the midcentury projections depicted an increase in precipitation of about 13%, while future projections for the latter half of the century recorded a decrease in precipitation (about 9%) for both RCPs, which can cause flooding in midcentury and drought in the latter half of the century. The study area is the host of the major glaciers in Pakistan from where the Indus River receives its major tributaries. The area and volume of these glaciers are decreasing due to warming impacts of climate change. Therefore, this study is useful for proper water resource management to cope up with water scarcity in the future.

Journal ArticleDOI
26 Apr 2022-Water
TL;DR: In this article , the incorporation of hydrophobic carbon nanospheres (CNS) prepared from the pyrolysis of acetylene using the chemical vapor deposition technique with poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) in order to enhance its hydrophobicity was investigated.
Abstract: Chemical pollutants, such as methyl orange (MO), constitute the main ingredients in the textile industry wastewater, and specifically, the dyeing process. The use of such chemicals leads to huge quantities of unfixed dyes to make their way to the water effluent and consequently escalates the water pollution problem. This work investigates the incorporation of hydrophobic carbon nanospheres (CNS) prepared from the pyrolysis of acetylene using the chemical vapor deposition technique with poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) in order to enhance its hydrophobicity. Moreover, a deep eutectic solvent (DES) was used to enhance the membrane’s porosity. The former was based on the quaternary ammonium salt (N,N-diethyl-ethanol-ammonium chloride) as a chemical addition throughout the membrane synthesis. Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) was employed to assess the performance of the modified membrane for treatment of MO contaminated water. The phase inversion method was used to embed various contents of CNS (i.e., 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 wt.%) with 22:78 wt.% of PVDF-co-HFP/N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone solution to prepare flat-sheet membranes. The membrane embedded with 5 wt.% CNS resulted in an increase in membrane hydrophobicity and presented considerable enhancement in DCMD permeation from 12 to 35 L/h.m2 with salt rejection >99.9%. Moreover, the composite membrane showed excellent anti-biofouling and mechanical characteristics as compared to the pristine counterpart. Using this membrane, a complete rejection of MO was achieved due to the synergistic contribution of the dye negative charge and the size exclusion effect.

Journal ArticleDOI
28 Jun 2022-Water
TL;DR: In this article , 11 different bacterial strains were tested for the degradation capabilities against Basic Orange 2 dye, and Escherichia coli emerged as the most promising strain to degrade the selected dye and was then employed in subsequent experiments.
Abstract: In this study, initially 11 different bacterial strains were tested for the degradation capabilities against Basic Orange 2 dye. In initial screening with 78.90% degradation activity, Escherichia coli emerged as the most promising strain to degrade the selected dye, and was then employed in subsequent experiments. For further enhancing the degradation capability of selected bacteria, the effects of various physicochemical parameters were also evaluated. Among the tested parameters, 20 ppm dye concentration, 1666 mg/L glucose concentration, a temperature of 40 °C, 666 mg/L sodium chloride concentration, pH 7, 1000 mg/L urea concentration, a 3-day incubation period and the use of sodium benzoate as a redox mediator (666 mg/L) were found to be ideal conditions to get the highest decolorization/degradation activities. Finally, all the mentioned parameters were combined in a single set of experiments, and the decolorization capacity of the bacteria was enhanced to 89.88%. The effect of pH, dye concentration, incubation time and temperature were found to be responsible for the optimum degradation of dye (p < 0.05), as predicted from the ANOVA (analysis of variance) of the response surface methodology. The metabolites were collected after completion of the process and characterized through Fourier transform irradiation (FTIR) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). From the data obtained, a proposed mechanism was deduced where it was assumed that the azo bond of the dye was broken by the azoreductase enzyme of the bacteria, resulting in the formation of aniline and 3, 4-diaminobezeminium chloride. The aniline was then further converted to benzene by deamination by the action of the bacterial deaminase enzyme. The benzene ring, after subsequent methylation, was transformed into o-xylene, while 3, 4-diaminobezeminium chloride was converted to p-xylene by enzymatic action. These findings suggest that Escherichia coli is a capable strain to be used in the bioremediation of textile effluents containing azo dyes. However, the selected bacterial strain may need to be further investigated for other dyes as well.

Journal ArticleDOI
25 Jul 2022-Water
TL;DR: In this paper , a comprehensive examination of 173 groundwater samples were carried out in Makkah Al-Mukarramah Province, Saudi Arabia, where physicochemical parameters, water quality indices, and spectral reflectance indices (SRIs) were combined to investigate water quality and controlling factors using multivariate modeling techniques, such as partial least-square regression (PLSR) and principal component regression (PCR).
Abstract: Combining hydrogeochemical characterization and a hyperspectral reflectance measurement can provide knowledge for groundwater security under different conditions. In this study, comprehensive examinations of 173 groundwater samples were carried out in Makkah Al-Mukarramah Province, Saudi Arabia. Physicochemical parameters, water quality indices (WQIs), and spectral reflectance indices (SRIs) were combined to investigate water quality and controlling factors using multivariate modeling techniques, such as partial least-square regression (PLSR) and principal component regression (PCR). To measure water quality status, the drinking water quality index (DWQI), total dissolved solids (TDS), heavy metal index (HPI), contamination degree (Cd), and pollution index (PI) were calculated. Standard analytical methods were used to assess nineteen physicochemical parameters. The typical values of ions and metals were as follows: Na2+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+, Cl− > SO42− > HCO3− > NO3− > CO32−; and Cu > Fe > Al > Zn > Mn > Ni, respectively. The hydrogeochemical characteristics of the examined groundwater samples revealed that Ca-HCO3, Na-Cl, mixed Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4, and Na-Ca-HCO3 were the main mechanisms governing groundwater chemistry and quality under the load of seawater intrusion, weathering, and water-rock interaction. According to the WQIs results, the DWQI values revealed that 2.5% of groundwater samples were categorized as excellent, 18.0% as good, 28.0% as poor, 21.5% as extremely poor, and 30.0% as unfit for drinking. The HPI and Cd values revealed that all groundwater samples had a low degree of contamination and better quality. Furthermore, the PI values showed that the groundwater resources were not affected by metals but were slightly affected by Mn in Wadi Fatimah due to rock–water interaction. Linear regression models demonstrated the significant relationships for the majority of SRIs paired with DWQI (R varied from −0.40 to 0. 75), and with TDS (R varied from 0.46 to 0.74) for the studied wadies. In general, the PLSR and PCR models provide better estimations for DWQI and TDS than the individual SRI. In conclusion, the grouping of WQIs, SRIs, PLSR, PCR, and GIS tools provides a clear image of groundwater suitability for drinking and its controlling elements.

Journal ArticleDOI
12 Jun 2022-Water
TL;DR: In this paper , the 3D velocity fields were measured through an acoustic Doppler velocimeter during flume-scale laboratory experimental runs over an emerging sand bar model, to reproduce the hydrodynamic conditions of real braided rivers, and 3D Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) components were analyzed and discussed in detail.
Abstract: The many hydrodynamic implications associated with the geomorphological evolution of braided rivers are still not profoundly examined in both experimental and numerical analyses, due to the generation of three-dimensional turbulence structures around sediment bars. In this experimental research, the 3D velocity fields were measured through an acoustic Doppler velocimeter during flume-scale laboratory experimental runs over an emerging sand bar model, to reproduce the hydrodynamic conditions of real braided rivers, and the 3D Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) components were analyzed and discussed here in detail. Given the three-dimensionality of the examined water flow in the proximity of the experimental bar, the statistical analysis of the octagonal bursting events was applied to analyze and discuss the different flume-scale 3D turbulence structures. The main novelty of this study is the proposal of the 3D Hole Size (3DHS) analysis, used for separating the extreme events observed in the experimental runs from the low-intensity events.

Journal ArticleDOI
16 Feb 2022-Water
TL;DR: In this article , the authors improved the current state of knowledge regarding hydrological drought patterns in Brazil, hydrometeorological factors, and their effects on the country's hydroelectric power plants.
Abstract: Brazil has endured the worst droughts in recorded history over the last decade, resulting in severe socioeconomic and environmental impacts. The country is heavily reliant on water resources, with 77.7% of water consumed for agriculture (irrigation and livestock), 9.7% for the industry, and 11.4% for human supply. Hydropower plants generate about 64% of all electricity consumed. The aim of this study was to improve the current state of knowledge regarding hydrological drought patterns in Brazil, hydrometeorological factors, and their effects on the country’s hydroelectric power plants. The results show that since the drought occurred in 2014/2015 over the Southeast region of Brazil, several basins were sharply impacted and remain in a critical condition until now. Following that event, other regions have experienced droughts, with critical rainfall deficit and high temperatures, causing a pronounced impact on water availability in many of the studied basins. Most of the hydropower plants end the 2020–2021 rainy season by operating at a fraction of their total capacity, and thus the country’s hydropower generation was under critical regime.

Journal ArticleDOI
10 May 2022-Water
TL;DR: Wang et al. as discussed by the authors presented a review of sponge city construction from its inception to systematic demonstration, and summarized the achievements obtained and lessons learned, which are valuable for future sponge city implementation.
Abstract: In recent years, China has been committed to strengthening environmental governance and trying to build a sustainable society in which humans and nature develop in harmony. As a new urban construction concept, sponge city uses natural and ecological methods to retain rainwater, alleviate flooding problems, reduce the damage to the water environment, and gradually restore the hydrological balance of the construction area. The paper presents a review of sponge city construction from its inception to systematic demonstration. In this paper, research gaps are discussed and future efforts are proposed. The main contents include: (1) China’s sponge city construction includes but is not limited to source control or a drainage system design. Sponge city embodies foreign experience and the wisdom of ancient Chinese philosophy. The core of sponge city construction is to combine various specific technologies to alleviate urban water problems such as flooding, water environment pollution, shortage of water resources and deterioration of water ecology; (2) this paper also introduces the sponge city pilot projects in China, and summarizes the achievements obtained and lessons learned, which are valuable for future sponge city implementation; (3) the objectives, corresponding indicators, key contents and needs of sponge city construction at various scales are different. The work at the facility level is dedicated to alleviating urban water problems through reasonable facility scale and layout, while the work at the plot level is mainly to improve the living environment through sponge city construction. The construction of urban and watershed scales is more inclined to ecological restoration and blue-green storage spaces construction. Besides, the paper also describes the due obligations in sponge city construction of various stakeholders.

Journal ArticleDOI
17 Mar 2022-Water
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors present a systematic review of machine learning methods for monitoring and prediction of groundwater resources at the local to global levels, and evaluate the accuracy of various models, following the protocol developed by the Center for Evidence Based Conservation.
Abstract: Groundwater is a vital source of freshwater, supporting the livelihood of over two billion people worldwide. The quantitative assessment of groundwater resources is critical for sustainable management of this strained resource, particularly as climate warming, population growth, and socioeconomic development further press the water resources. Rapid growth in the availability of a plethora of in-situ and remotely sensed data alongside advancements in data-driven methods and machine learning offer immense opportunities for an improved assessment of groundwater resources at the local to global levels. This systematic review documents the advancements in this field and evaluates the accuracy of various models, following the protocol developed by the Center for Evidence-Based Conservation. A total of 197 original peer-reviewed articles from 2010–2020 and from 28 countries that employ regression machine learning algorithms for groundwater monitoring or prediction are analyzed and their results are aggregated through a meta-analysis. Our analysis points to the capability of machine learning models to monitor/predict different characteristics of groundwater resources effectively and efficiently. Modeling the groundwater level is the most popular application of machine learning models, and the groundwater level in previous time steps is the most employed input data. The feed-forward artificial neural network is the most employed and accurate model, although the model performance does not exhibit a striking dependence on the model choice, but rather the information content of the input variables. Around 10–12 years of data are required to develop an acceptable machine learning model with a monthly temporal resolution. Finally, advances in machine and deep learning algorithms and computational advancements to merge them with physics-based models offer unprecedented opportunities to employ new information, e.g., InSAR data, for increased spatiotemporal resolution and accuracy of groundwater monitoring and prediction.

Journal ArticleDOI
24 Jan 2022-Water
TL;DR: In this paper , an aluminum-based electrocoagulation unit has been used to remove cephalexin antibiotics, as a model of the antibiotics, from water, and both artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) methods were applied for predicting the experimental training data.
Abstract: One of the most serious effects of micropollutants in the environment is biological magnification, which causes adverse effects on humans and the ecosystem. Among all of the micro-pollutants, antibiotics are commonly present in the aquatic environment due to their wide use in treating or preventing various diseases and infections for humans, plants, and animals. Therefore, an aluminum-based electrocoagulation unit has been used in this study to remove cephalexin antibiotics, as a model of the antibiotics, from water. Computational and statistical models were used to optimize the effects of key parameters on the electrochemical removal of cephalexin, including the initial cephalexin concentration (15–55 mg/L), initial pH (3–11), electrolysis time (20–40 min), and electrode type (insulated and non-insulated). The response surface methodology-central composite design (RSM-CCD) was used to investigate the dependency of the studied variables, while the artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) methods were applied for predicting the experimental training data. The results showed that the best experimental and predicted removals of cephalexin (CEX) were 88.21% and 93.87%, respectively, which were obtained at a pH of 6.14 and electrolysis time of 34.26 min. The results also showed that the ANFIS model predicts and interprets the experimental results better than the ANN and RSM-CCD models. Sensitivity analysis using the Garson method showed the comparative significance of the variables as follows: pH (30%) > electrode type (27%) > initial CEX concentration (24%) > electrolysis time (19%).

Journal ArticleDOI
23 Mar 2022-Water
TL;DR: In this paper , a review of the current issues, potential occurrences, and sources of the emerging problem of microplastic contamination in groundwater systems is presented, which sheds light on the interlinkage between sustainable development goals and groundwater contamination issues.
Abstract: Microplastic contamination has become widespread in natural ecosystems around the globe as a result of the tremendous rise in plastic production over the last 70 years. However, microplastic pollution in marine and riverine habitats has received more attention than that of terrestrial environments or even groundwater. This manuscript reviews the current issues, potential occurrences, and sources of the emerging problem of microplastic contamination in groundwater systems. The most prevalent types of plastic detected in groundwater are polyethylene and polyethylene terephthalate, and fibers and fragments represent the most commonly found shapes. The vertical transportation of microplastics in agricultural soils can affect groundwater aquifer systems, which is detrimental to those who use groundwater for drinking as well as to microorganisms present in the aquifers. Moreover, this review sheds light on the interlinkage between sustainable development goals and groundwater microplastic contamination issues as part of the strategies for the management of microplastic contamination in groundwater. Overall, this review reveals a lack of interest and a gap in knowledge regarding groundwater microplastic pollution and highlights future perspectives for research in this area.

Journal ArticleDOI
05 Jan 2022-Water
TL;DR: In this article , the color removal rate for methyl orange and alizarin yellow was investigated in the periodically reverse electrocoagulation (PREC) treatment of two typical azo dyes with different functional groups using Fe-Fe electrodes.
Abstract: Increasing attention has been paid to the widespread contamination of azo dyes in water bodies globally. These chemicals can present high toxicity, possibly causing severe irritation of the respiratory tract and even carcinogenic effects. The present study focuses on the periodically reverse electrocoagulation (PREC) treatment of two typical azo dyes with different functional groups, involving methyl orange (MO) and alizarin yellow (AY), using Fe-Fe electrodes. Based upon the comparative analysis of three main parameters, including current intensity, pH, and electrolyte, the optimal color removal rates for MO and AY could be achieved at a rate of up to 98.7% and 98.6%, respectively, when the current intensity is set to 0.6 A, the pH is set at 6.0, and the electrolyte is selected as NaCl. An accurate predicted method of response surface methodology (RSM) was established to optimize the PREC process involving the three parameters above. The reaction time was the main influence for both azo dyes, while the condition of PREC treatment for AY simulated wastewater was time-saving and energy conserving. According to the further UV–Vis spectrophotometry analysis throughout the procedure of the PREC process, the removal efficiency for AY was better than that of MO, potentially because hydroxyl groups might donate electrons to iron flocs or electrolyze out hydroxyl free radicals. The present study revealed that the functional groups might pose a vital influence on the removal efficiencies of the PREC treatment for those two azo dyes.

Journal ArticleDOI
09 Mar 2022-Water
TL;DR: In this article , the authors illustrate the application of a heat exchanger with a solar desalination system to enhance the distillate output and present future work and future challenges.
Abstract: Solar desalination is a process to convert saline water into potable water by the application of solar energy. The enhancement of the distillate output of the solar desalination is low, so it is not considered as a method to produce potable water. A heat exchanger is an important device used for heat transfer applications. The present review article illustrates the application of a heat exchanger with a solar desalination system to enhance the distillate output. In the current review, it is found that the heat exchanger is an important device to improve the distillate productivity of the solar desalination system. Finally, the future work and future challenges of using a heat exchanger with a solar desalination system are presented.

Journal ArticleDOI
24 Feb 2022-Water
TL;DR: In this article , the authors put factors such as water body location and elevation, which are used as inputs, into the different machine-learning techniques that predict the contamination, and the results are reviewed and analyzed according to groundwater contamination and the chemical composition of the groundwater location.
Abstract: One of the significant issues that the world has faced in recent decades has been the estimation of water quality and location where safe drinking water is available. Due to the unexpected nature of the mode of water contamination, it is not easy to analyze the quality and maintain it. Some machine-learning techniques are used for predicting contaminating factors but there is no technique that can predict the contamination using latitude, longitude, and elevation. The main aim of this paper is to put factors such as water body location and elevation, which are used as inputs, into the different machine-learning techniques that predict the contamination. The results are reviewed and analyzed according to groundwater contamination and the chemical composition of the groundwater location. Non-changeable factors such as latitude, longitude, and elevation are used to predict pH, temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen hardness, chlorides, alkalinity, and chemical oxygen demand. Such a study has not been conducted in the past where location-based factors are used to predict the water contamination of any area. This research focuses on creating a relationship between the location base factors affecting the water contamination in a given area.