scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Book ChapterDOI

Biofuels from Renewable Biomass Resources: An Overview of Technologies for Production, Environmental and Economic Impacts

01 Jan 2020-pp 25-47
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present an analysis of various green methods reported for the production of alcohols and esters from renewable energy sources, and provide a broad overview of the environmental and economic impacts of bio-fuels.
Abstract: In recent years, there is a great deal of social obligation involve with scientists to common people that a sustainable chemical processes having industrial importance which is associated with greener concept and environmentally benign methodology is the need of the hour. This trends of technology driven greener process will continues to roll on for next few decades. With this aspects in mind, biomass, a sustainable alternative feedstock, can be processed into liquid and solid fuels via thermal, light-induced, catalytic and bio-based techniques. Conversion of biomass materials into value added products and energy can address environmental sustainability and recycling of waste materials. Utilization of bio-based energy has not been explored fully. We continue to rely on fossil fuels, nuclear energy and hydroelectricity to meet our energy demands. Alcohols and its derivatives are the important source of bioenergy that are hidden in biomass. In this context, the production of alcohols or esters is an extremely important industrial process as they are useful as precursors, reagents, solvents or additives in perfumes, essential oils, food flavorings, cosmetics, etc. Even though there have been numerous methods available for the production of alcohols and esters, designing non-hazardous methods to generate chemical products that limit the usage of hazardous substances is highly required. The present chapter aims at the analysis of various green methods reported for the production of alcohols and esters from renewable energy sources. Also provide a broad overview of the environmental and economic impacts of biofuels. The major environmental impacts are conceived under two headings, viz. direct emissions those that are expelled during the biofuels production and consumption and indirect emissions those that are associated with their land use.
Citations
More filters
Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2023
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors highlight waste management methods focused on waste-to-energy conversion technologies for bio-jet fuel production from waste materials as feedstocks and further analyze and discuss toward a greener and more sustainable future of aviation industry.
Abstract: Global climate change and depletion of resources are crucial issues for modern societies. Moreover, population growth and rapid industrialization result in increased energy demand. To meet ongoing energy demand, developed and developing countries must adopt sustainable waste management methods. In addition to prevention and recycling, waste-to-energy technologies could certainly be beneficial. Except for heat and electricity generation, biofuels can also be produced from waste. Aviation sector is expanding and its greenhouse gas emissions account for about 2% of total global emissions. Aircraft emissions are more persistent in higher altitudes having a greater environmental impact. Hence, decarbonization of the sector is an ongoing challenge. Sustainable aviation fuels comprise a promising solution over the following years. Utilization of waste materials will contribute to the total production of biojet fuels. To date, eight pathways have been certified by the American Society for Testing Materials standards for blending limits up to 50% with conventional jet fuels. The current chapter highlights sustainable waste management methods focused on waste-to-energy conversion technologies for biojet fuel production from waste materials as feedstocks. Current conversion pathways are further analyzed and discussed toward a “greener” and more sustainable future of aviation industry. Hydrotreated esters and fatty acids pathway is the most mature and promising production method fοr oleochemical feedstocks, including waste oils. Thermochemical methods and alcohol-to-jet pathway will contribute to biojet fuel production in the following years.
References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of catalytic strategies to produce bio-fuels from aqueous solutions of carbohydrates, which are isolated through biomass pretreatment and hydrolysis is presented in this paper.

2,008 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the status of fat and oil derived diesel fuels with respect to fuel properties, engine performance, and emissions is reviewed, and it is concluded that the price of the feedstock fat or oil is the major factor determining biodiesel price.

1,869 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of the research related to biodiesel can be found in this paper, where solid acid catalysts are used to replace liquid acids, reducing the corrosion and environmental problems associated with them.
Abstract: Biodiesel is synthesized via the transesterification of lipid feedstocks with low molecular weight alcohols. Currently, alkaline bases are used to catalyze the reaction. These catalysts require anhydrous conditions and feedstocks with low levels of free fatty acids (FFAs). Inexpensive feedstocks containing high levels of FFAs cannot be directly used with the base catalysts currently employed. Strong liquid acid catalysts are less sensitive to FFAs and can simultaneously conduct esterification and transesterification. However, they are slower and necessitate higher reaction temperatures. Nonetheless, acid-catalyzed processes could produce biodiesel from low-cost feedstocks, lowering production costs. Better yet, if solid acid catalysts could replace liquid acids, the corrosion and environmental problems associated with them could be avoided and product purification protocols reduced, significantly simplifying biodiesel production and reducing cost. This article reviews some of the research related to biodi...

1,606 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors reviewed the opportunities associated with renewable energy sources which include: Energy Security, Energy Access, Social and Economic development, Climate Change Mitigation, and reduction of environmental and health impacts.
Abstract: The world is fast becoming a global village due to the increasing daily requirement of energy by all population across the world while the earth in its form cannot change. The need for energy and its related services to satisfy human social and economic development, welfare and health is increasing. Returning to renewables to help mitigate climate change is an excellent approach which needs to be sustainable in order to meet energy demand of future generations. The study reviewed the opportunities associated with renewable energy sources which includes: Energy Security, Energy Access, Social and Economic development, Climate Change Mitigation, and reduction of environmental and health impacts. Despite these opportunities, there are challenges that hinder the sustainability of renewable energy sources towards climate change mitigation. These challenges include Market failures, lack of information, access to raw materials for future renewable resource deployment, and our daily carbon footprint. The ...

1,545 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Plant capacity and prices of feedstock oils and biodiesel were found to be the most significant factors affecting the economic viability of biodiesel manufacture.

1,190 citations