Progress in Energy and Combustion Science
About: Progress in Energy and Combustion Science is an academic journal published by Elsevier BV. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Combustion & Coal. It has an ISSN identifier of 0360-1285. Over the lifetime, 847 publications have been published receiving 203509 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, a review of the production, characterization and current statuses of vegetable oil and biodiesel as well as the experimental research work carried out in various countries is presented.
Abstract: The increasing industrialization and motorization of the world has led to a steep rise for the demand of petroleum-based fuels. Petroleum-based fuels are obtained from limited reserves. These finite reserves are highly concentrated in certain regions of the world. Therefore, those countries not having these resources are facing energy/foreign exchange crisis, mainly due to the import of crude petroleum. Hence, it is necessary to look for alternative fuels which can be produced from resources available locally within the country such as alcohol, biodiesel, vegetable oils etc. This paper reviews the production, characterization and current statuses of vegetable oil and biodiesel as well as the experimental research work carried out in various countries. This paper touches upon well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions, well-to-wheel efficiencies, fuel versatility, infrastructure, availability, economics, engine performance and emissions, effect on wear, lubricating oil etc. Ethanol is also an attractive alternative fuel because it is a renewable bio-based resource and it is oxygenated, thereby providing the potential to reduce particulate emissions in compression-ignition engines. In this review, the properties and specifications of ethanol blended with diesel and gasoline fuel are also discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the factors critical to the potential commercial use of these blends. The effect of the fuel on engine performance and emissions (SI as well as compression ignition (CI) engines), and material compatibility is also considered. Biodiesel is methyl or ethyl ester of fatty acid made from virgin or used vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible) and animal fat. The main resources for biodiesel production can be non-edible oils obtained from plant species such as Jatropha curcas (Ratanjyot), Pongamia pinnata (Karanj), Calophyllum inophyllum (Nagchampa), Hevca brasiliensis (Rubber) etc. Biodiesel can be blended in any proportion with mineral diesel to create a biodiesel blend or can be used in its pure form. Just like petroleum diesel, biodiesel operates in compression ignition (diesel) engine, and essentially require very little or no engine modifications because biodiesel has properties similar to mineral diesel. It can be stored just like mineral diesel and hence does not require separate infrastructure. The use of biodiesel in conventional diesel engines result in substantial reduction in emission of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particulate. This review focuses on performance and emission of biodiesel in CI engines, combustion analysis, wear performance on long-term engine usage, and economic feasibility.
TL;DR: In this article, the mechanisms and rate parameters for the gas-phase reactions of nitrogen compounds that are applicable to combustion-generated air pollution are discussed and illustrated by comparison of results from detailed kinetics calculations with experimental data.
Abstract: Our current understanding of the mechanisms and rate parameters for the gas-phase reactions of nitrogen compounds that are applicable to combustion-generated air pollution is discussed and illustrated by comparison of results from detailed kinetics calculations with experimental data. In particular, the mechanisms and rate parameters for thermal and prompt NO formation, for fuel nitrogen conversion, for the Thermal De-NOx and RAPRENOx processes, and for NO2 and N2O formation and removal processes are considered. Sensitivity and rate-of-production analyses are applied in the calculations to determine which elementary reactions are of greatest importance in the nitrogen conversion process. Available information on the rate parameters for these important elementary reactions has been surveyed, and recommendations for the rate coefficients for these reactions are provided. The principal areas of uncertainty in nitrogen reaction mechanisms and rate parameters are outlined.
TL;DR: A survey of the various types of solar thermal collectors and applications is presented in this paper, where an analysis of the environmental problems related to the use of conventional sources of energy is presented and the benefits offered by renewable energy systems are outlined.
Abstract: In this paper a survey of the various types of solar thermal collectors and applications is presented. Initially, an analysis of the environmental problems related to the use of conventional sources of energy is presented and the benefits offered by renewable energy systems are outlined. A historical introduction into the uses of solar energy is attempted followed by a description of the various types of collectors including flat-plate, compound parabolic, evacuated tube, parabolic trough, Fresnel lens, parabolic dish and heliostat field collectors. This is followed by an optical, thermal and thermodynamic analysis of the collectors and a description of the methods used to evaluate their performance. Typical applications of the various types of collectors are presented in order to show to the reader the extent of their applicability. These include solar water heating, which comprise thermosyphon, integrated collector storage, direct and indirect systems and air systems, space heating and cooling, which comprise, space heating and service hot water, air and water systems and heat pumps, refrigeration, industrial process heat, which comprise air and water systems and steam generation systems, desalination, thermal power systems, which comprise the parabolic trough, power tower and dish systems, solar furnaces, and chemistry applications. As can be seen solar energy systems can be used for a wide range of applications and provide significant benefits, therefore, they should be used whenever possible.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors extensively review the principles of anaerobic digestion, the process parameters and their interaction, the design methods, the biogas utilisation, the possible problems and potential pro-active cures, and the recent developments to reduce the impact of the problems.
Abstract: When treating municipal wastewater, the disposal of sludge is a problem of growing importance, representing up to 50% of the current operating costs of a wastewater treatment plant. Although different disposal routes are possible, anaerobic digestion plays an important role for its abilities to further transform organic matter into biogas (60–70 vol% of methane, CH 4 ), as thereby it also reduces the amount of final sludge solids for disposal whilst destroying most of the pathogens present in the sludge and limiting odour problems associated with residual putrescible matter. Anaerobic digestion thus optimises WWTP costs, its environmental footprint and is considered a major and essential part of a modern WWTP. The potential of using the biogas as energy source has long been widely recognised and current techniques are being developed to upgrade quality and to enhance energy use. The present paper extensively reviews the principles of anaerobic digestion, the process parameters and their interaction, the design methods, the biogas utilisation, the possible problems and potential pro-active cures, and the recent developments to reduce the impact of the problems. After having reviewed the basic principles and techniques of the anaerobic digestion process, modelling concepts will be assessed to delineate the dominant parameters. Hydrolysis is recognised as rate-limiting step in the complex digestion process. The microbiology of anaerobic digestion is complex and delicate, involving several bacterial groups, each of them having their own optimum working conditions. As will be shown, these groups are sensitive to and possibly inhibited by several process parameters such as pH, alkalinity, concentration of free ammonia, hydrogen, sodium, potassium, heavy metals, volatile fatty acids and others. To accelerate the digestion and enhance the production of biogas, various pre-treatments can be used to improve the rate-limiting hydrolysis. These treatments include mechanical, thermal, chemical and biological interventions to the feedstock. All pre-treatments result in a lysis or disintegration of sludge cells, thus releasing and solubilising intracellular material into the water phase and transforming refractory organic material into biodegradable species. Possible techniques to upgrade the biogas formed by removing CO 2 , H 2 S and excess moisture will be summarised. Special attention will be paid to the problems associated with siloxanes (SX) possibly present in the sludge and biogas, together with the techniques to either reduce their concentration in sludge by preventive actions such as peroxidation, or eliminate the SX from the biogas by adsorption or other techniques. The reader will finally be guided to extensive publications concerning the operation, control, maintenance and troubleshooting of anaerobic digestion plants.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a joint probability density function (pdf) of the three components of velocity and of the composition variables (species mass fractions and enthalpy) to calculate the properties of turbulent reactive flow fields.
Abstract: The aim of the methods described is to calculate the properties of turbulent reactive flow fields. At each point in the flow field, a complete statistical description of the state of the fluid is provided by the velocity-composition joint pdf. This is the joint probability density function (pdf) of the three components of velocity and of the composition variables (species mass fractions and enthalpy). The principal method described is to solve a modelled transport equation for the velocity-composition joint pdf. For a variable-density flow with arbitrarily complex and nonlinear reactions, it is remarkable that in this equation the effects of convection, reaction, body forces and the mean pressure gradient appear exactly and so do not have to be modelled. Even though the joint pdf is a function of many independent variables, its transport equation can be solved by a Monte Carlo method for the inhomogeneous flows of practical interest. A second method that is described briefly is to solve a modelled transport equation for the composition joint pdf. The objective of the paper is to provide a comprehensive and understandable of the theoretical foundations of the pdf approach.