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# Boundary layer theory

01 Jan 1955-

TL;DR: The flow laws of the actual flows at high Reynolds numbers differ considerably from those of the laminar flows treated in the preceding part, denoted as turbulence as discussed by the authors, and the actual flow is very different from that of the Poiseuille flow.

Abstract: The flow laws of the actual flows at high Reynolds numbers differ considerably from those of the laminar flows treated in the preceding part. These actual flows show a special characteristic, denoted as turbulence. The character of a turbulent flow is most easily understood the case of the pipe flow. Consider the flow through a straight pipe of circular cross section and with a smooth wall. For laminar flow each fluid particle moves with uniform velocity along a rectilinear path. Because of viscosity, the velocity of the particles near the wall is smaller than that of the particles at the center. i% order to maintain the motion, a pressure decrease is required which, for laminar flow, is proportional to the first power of the mean flow velocity. Actually, however, one ob~erves that, for larger Reynolds numbers, the pressure drop increases almost with the square of the velocity and is very much larger then that given by the Hagen Poiseuille law. One may conclude that the actual flow is very different from that of the Poiseuille flow.

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01 Jun 1978TL;DR: In this paper, the authors evaluated the applicability of the standard κ-ϵ equations and other turbulence models with respect to their applicability in swirling, recirculating flows.

Abstract: The standard κ-ϵ equations and other turbulence models are evaluated with respect to their applicability in swirling, recirculating flows. The turbulence models are formulated on the basis of two separate viewpoints. The first perspective assumes that an isotropic eddy viscosity and the modified Boussinesq hypothesis adequately describe the stress distributions, and that the source of predictive error is a consequence of the modeled terms in the κ-ϵ equations. Both stabilizing and destabilizing Richardson number corrections are incorporated to investigate this line of reasoning. A second viewpoint proposes that the eddy viscosity approach is inherently inadequate and that a redistribution of the stress magnitudes is necessary. Investigation of higher-order closure is pursued on the level of an algebraic stress closure. Various turbulence model predictions are compared with experimental data from a variety of isothermal, confined studies. Supportive swirl comparisons are also performed for a laminar flow case, as well as reacting flow cases. Parallel predictions or contributions from other sources are also consulted where appropriate. Predictive accuracy was found to be a partial function of inlet boundary conditions and numerical diffusion. Despite prediction sensitivity to inlet conditions and numerics, the data comparisons delineate the relative advantages and disadvantages of the various modifications. Possible research avenues in the area of computational modeling of strongly swirling, recirculating flows are reviewed and discussed.

5,396 citations

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25 May 1984TL;DR: An overview of diffusion and separation processes brings unsurpassed, engaging clarity to this complex topic as mentioned in this paper, which is a key part of the undergraduate chemical engineering curriculum and at the core of understanding chemical purification and reaction engineering.

Abstract: This overview of diffusion and separation processes brings unsurpassed, engaging clarity to this complex topic. Diffusion is a key part of the undergraduate chemical engineering curriculum and at the core of understanding chemical purification and reaction engineering. This spontaneous mixing process is also central to our daily lives, with importance in phenomena as diverse as the dispersal of pollutants to digestion in the small intestine. For students, Diffusion goes from the basics of mass transfer and diffusion itself, with strong support through worked examples and a range of student questions. It also takes the reader right through to the cutting edge of our understanding, and the new examples in this third edition will appeal to professional scientists and engineers. Retaining the trademark enthusiastic style, the broad coverage now extends to biology and medicine.

5,195 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors used a Brookfield rotating viscometer to measure the viscosities of the dispersed fluids with γ-alumina (Al2O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles at a 10% volume concentration.

Abstract: Turbulent friction and heat transfer behaviors of dispersed fluids (i.e., uttrafine metallic oxide particles suspended in water) in a circular pipe were investigated experimentally. Viscosity measurements were also conducted using a Brookfield rotating viscometer. Two different metallic oxide particles, γ-alumina (Al2O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2), with mean diameters of 13 and 27 nm, respectively, were used as suspended particles. The Reynolds and Prandtl numbers varied in the ranges l04-I05 and 6.5-12.3, respectively. The viscosities of the dispersed fluids with γ-Al2O3 and TiO2 particles at a 10% volume concentration were approximately 200 and 3 times greater than that of water, respectively. These viscosity results were significantly larger than the predictions from the classical theory of suspension rheology. Darcy friction factors for the dispersed fluids of the volume concentration ranging from 1% to 3% coincided well with Kays' correlation for turbulent flow of a single-phase fluid. The Nusselt n...

3,730 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a boundary condition formulation for the Navier-Stokes equations is proposed, which is compatible with non-disjoint algorithms applicable to direct simulations of turbulent flows.

3,214 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the thermaloxidation kinetics of silicon are examined in detail based on a simple model of oxidation which takes into account the reactions occurring at the two boundaries of the oxide layer as well as the diffusion process, the general relationship x02+Ax0=B(t+τ) is derived.

Abstract: The thermal‐oxidation kinetics of silicon are examined in detail. Based on a simple model of oxidation which takes into account the reactions occurring at the two boundaries of the oxide layer as well as the diffusion process, the general relationship x02+Ax0=B(t+τ) is derived. This relationship is shown to be in excellent agreement with oxidation data obtained over a wide range of temperature (700°–1300°C), partial pressure (0.1–1.0 atm) and oxide thickness (300–20 000 A) for both oxygen and water oxidants. The parameters A, B, and τ are shown to be related to the physico‐chemical constants of the oxidation reaction in the predicted manner. Such detailed analysis also leads to further information regarding the nature of the transported species as well as space‐charge effects on the initial phase of oxidation.

3,083 citations