Abstract: Inspired by the formulation of quantum-electrodynamical time-dependent density functional theory (QED-TDDFT) by Rubio and co-workers [Flick et al., ACS Photonics 6, 2757-2778 (2019)], we propose an implementation that uses dimensionless amplitudes for describing the photonic contributions to QED-TDDFT electron–photon eigenstates. This leads to a Hermitian QED-TDDFT coupling matrix that is expected to facilitate the future development of analytic derivatives. Through a Gaussian atomic basis implementation of the QED-TDDFT method, we examined the effect of dipole self-energy, rotating-wave approximation, and the Tamm–Dancoff approximation on the QED-TDDFT eigenstates of model compounds (ethene, formaldehyde, and benzaldehyde) in an optical cavity. We highlight, in the strong coupling regime, the role of higher-energy and off-resonance excited states with large transition dipole moments in the direction of the photonic field, which are automatically accounted for in our QED-TDDFT calculations and might substantially affect the energies and compositions of polaritons associated with lower-energy electronic states.
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