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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/15213269.2019.1685393

Everyday functioning-related cognitive correlates of media multitasking: a mini meta-analysis

04 Mar 2021-Media Psychology (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD)-Vol. 24, Iss: 2, pp 276-303
Abstract: A recent meta-analysis has shown that media multitasking behavior, or consuming multiple streams of media simultaneously, might not be associated with less efficient cognitive processing, as measur...

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Topics: Human multitasking (65%), Cognition (54%)
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Open access
01 Jan 2007-
Abstract: This article reviews the hypothesis that mind wandering can be integrated into executive models of attention. Evidence suggests that mind wandering shares many similarities with traditional notions of executive control. When mind wandering occurs, the executive components of attention appear to shift away from the primary task, leading to failures in task performance and superficial representations of the external environment. One challenge for incorporating mind wandering into standard executive models is that it often occurs in the absence of explicit intention--a hallmark of controlled processing. However, mind wandering, like other goal-related processes, can be engaged without explicit awareness; thus, mind wandering can be seen as a goal-driven process, albeit one that is not directed toward the primary task.

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77 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.5817/CP2021-2-7
Douglas A. Parry1, Daniel B. le RouxInstitutions (1)
Abstract: In the decade since Ophir, Nass, and Wagner’s (2009) seminal study numerous researchers have investigated possible associations between media multitasking and cognitive control. Extending recent reviews, the present study provides a synthesis of extant research into this association across measurement approachs and cognitive functions. Following a systematic search and selection process, 118 assessments were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, the pooled effect size of the association, across measurement approaches and cognitive control functions, is small. This association is moderated both by the measurement approach as well as by the outcome variables targeted. These differences are tested and explained in detail. Building on the findings, it is recommended that research be conducted to determine the sources of heterogeneity in outcomes, understand differences between measurement approaches, and address causality and theoretical mechanisms. Overall, the review suggests that, ten years on, we are no closer to understanding ‘cognitive control in media multitaskers.’

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Topics: Cognition (52%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CHBR.2021.100068
03 Mar 2021-
Abstract: Previous research on media multitasking has often focussed on the frequency with which people perform this type of behaviour. Heavy media multitaskers have been found to differ from light media multitaskers in their performance of tasks involving executive functioning (although these differences have not always been found consistently). The aim of the present study was to explore individuals’ executive functioning in relation to their ability to media multitask (i.e., their ability to recall information presented during the session), rather than their propensity to media multitask. Participants (N= 116, aged 18-25, male N= 32) completed an executive function task battery, inclusive of working memory, inhibition and cognitive flexibility tasks, followed by a studious media multitasking situation. Individual executive function task performance scores were correlated with media multitasking ability scores. Greater cognitive flexibility was significantly associated with greater ability to media multitask, in terms of recall of information from a media multitasking situation. Furthermore, media multitasking had a fatiguing effect on mood, reducing levels of self-reported arousal. Thus, the present study provides some elucidation as to what cognitive characteristics are involved in being able to effectively media multitask, whilst also indicating a possible cognitive mechanism for negative associations found between media multitasking and academic performance.

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Topics: Human multitasking (68%), Cognitive flexibility (56%), Cognition (51%)

2 Citations


Book ChapterDOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-72802-1_3
11 Dec 2020-
Abstract: Home-based online learning is a typical application of personal learning environment. Understanding the adaptability and characteristics of college students in the personal learning environment (PLE) can effectively tap the potential of online courses and provide valuable references for learners' online and lifelong learning. In this single-group study, 80 college students received a 90-min self-regulated learning training. In pre- and post-class evaluations, media multi-tasking self-efficacy, perceived attention problems, self-regulation strategies and learning satisfaction are used as key variables in online learning to assess their personal learning environment adaptability and characteristics. Using descriptive statistics and one-dimensional intra-group variance to analyze the data, it was found that: Learners have a moderate degree of attention deficit in their personal learning environment, which is manifested in three aspects: perceived attention discontinuity, lingering thought, social media notification.; Under simple training or natural conditions, students have poor adaptability in the personal learning environment, and their behavior perception and behavior adjustment levels have improved, but they have not yet reached expectations; Participation in online learning has significantly increased the application of learners' self-regulation strategies, especially the application of behavior strategies.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPSYG.2021.623643
Abstract: Media multitasking became increasingly popular over the past decade. As this behavior is intensely taxing cognitive resources, it has raised interest and concerns among academics in a variety of fields. Consequently, in recent years, research on how, when, and why people media multitask has strongly emerged, and the consequences of the behavior for a great variety of outcomes (such as working memory, task performance, or socioemotional outcomes) have been explored. While efforts are made to summarize the findings of media multitasking research until date, these meta, and literature studies focused on specific research subdomains. Therefore, the current study adopted a quantitative method to map all studies in the broad field of media multitasking research. The bibliometric and thematic content analyses helped us identifying five major research topics and trends in the overall media multitasking domain. While media multitasking research started by studying its prevalence, appearance, and predictors, early research within the domain was also interested in the impact of this media consumption behavior on individuals' cognitive control and academic performance. Later on in 2007, scholars investigated the implications of media multitasking on the processing of media- and persuasive content, while its impact on socioemotional well-being received attention ever since 2009. Our analyses indicate that research within the field of media multitasking knows a dominant focus on adolescents, television watching, and cognitive depletion. Based on these findings, the paper concludes by discussing directions for future research.

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Topics: Human multitasking (68%), Media consumption (60%), Content analysis (52%) ... show more

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106 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1136/BMJ.315.7109.629
13 Sep 1997-BMJ
Abstract: Objective: Funnel plots (plots of effect estimates against sample size) may be useful to detect bias in meta-analyses that were later contradicted by large trials. We examined whether a simple test of asymmetry of funnel plots predicts discordance of results when meta-analyses are compared to large trials, and we assessed the prevalence of bias in published meta-analyses. Design: Medline search to identify pairs consisting of a meta-analysis and a single large trial (concordance of results was assumed if effects were in the same direction and the meta-analytic estimate was within 30% of the trial); analysis of funnel plots from 37 meta-analyses identified from a hand search of four leading general medicine journals 1993-6 and 38 meta-analyses from the second 1996 issue of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews . Main outcome measure: Degree of funnel plot asymmetry as measured by the intercept from regression of standard normal deviates against precision. Results: In the eight pairs of meta-analysis and large trial that were identified (five from cardiovascular medicine, one from diabetic medicine, one from geriatric medicine, one from perinatal medicine) there were four concordant and four discordant pairs. In all cases discordance was due to meta-analyses showing larger effects. Funnel plot asymmetry was present in three out of four discordant pairs but in none of concordant pairs. In 14 (38%) journal meta-analyses and 5 (13%) Cochrane reviews, funnel plot asymmetry indicated that there was bias. Conclusions: A simple analysis of funnel plots provides a useful test for the likely presence of bias in meta-analyses, but as the capacity to detect bias will be limited when meta-analyses are based on a limited number of small trials the results from such analyses should be treated with considerable caution. Key messages Systematic reviews of randomised trials are the best strategy for appraising evidence; however, the findings of some meta-analyses were later contradicted by large trials Funnel plots, plots of the trials9 effect estimates against sample size, are skewed and asymmetrical in the presence of publication bias and other biases Funnel plot asymmetry, measured by regression analysis, predicts discordance of results when meta-analyses are compared with single large trials Funnel plot asymmetry was found in 38% of meta-analyses published in leading general medicine journals and in 13% of reviews from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Critical examination of systematic reviews for publication and related biases should be considered a routine procedure

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Topics: Funnel plot (73%), Publication bias (58%), Meta-analysis (55%)

31,295 Citations


Open accessBook
27 Apr 2009-

9,339 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.84.4.822
Kirk Warren Brown1, Richard M. Ryan1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Mindfulness is an attribute of consciousness long believed to promote well-being. This research provides a theoretical and empirical examination of the role of mindfulness in psychological well-being. The development and psychometric properties of the dispositional Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) are described. Correlational, quasi-experimental, and laboratory studies then show that the MAAS measures a unique quality of consciousness that is related to a variety of well-being constructs, that differentiates mindfulness practitioners from others, and that is associated with enhanced selfawareness. An experience-sampling study shows that both dispositional and state mindfulness predict self-regulated behavior and positive emotional states. Finally, a clinical intervention study with cancer patients demonstrates that increases in mindfulness over time relate to declines in mood disturbance and stress. Many philosophical, spiritual, and psychological traditions emphasize the importance of the quality of consciousness for the maintenance and enhancement of well-being (Wilber, 2000). Despite this, it is easy to overlook the importance of consciousness in human well-being because almost everyone exercises its primary capacities, that is, attention and awareness. Indeed, the relation between qualities of consciousness and well-being has received little empirical attention. One attribute of consciousness that has been much-discussed in relation to well-being is mindfulness. The concept of mindfulness has roots in Buddhist and other contemplative traditions where conscious attention and awareness are actively cultivated. It is most commonly defined as the state of being attentive to and aware of what is taking place in the present. For example, Nyanaponika Thera (1972) called mindfulness “the clear and single-minded awareness of what actually happens to us and in us at the successive moments of perception” (p. 5). Hanh (1976) similarly defined mindfulness as “keeping one’s consciousness alive to the present reality” (p. 11). Recent research has shown that the enhancement of mindfulness through training facilitates a variety of well-being outcomes (e.g., Kabat-Zinn, 1990). To date, however, there has been little work examining this attribute as a naturally occurring characteristic. Recognizing that most everyone has the capacity to attend and to be aware, we nonetheless assume (a) that individuals differ in their propensity or willingness to be aware and to sustain attention to what is occurring in the present and (b) that this mindful capacity varies within persons, because it can be sharpened or dulled by a variety of factors. The intent of the present research is to reliably identify these inter- and intrapersonal variations in mindfulness, establish their relations to other relevant psychological constructs, and demonstrate their importance to a variety of forms of psychological well-being.

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8,335 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.18637/JSS.V036.I03
Wolfgang Viechtbauer1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The metafor package provides functions for conducting meta-analyses in R. The package includes functions for fitting the meta-analytic fixed- and random-effects models and allows for the inclusion of moderators variables (study-level covariates) in these models. Meta-regression analyses with continuous and categorical moderators can be conducted in this way. Functions for the Mantel-Haenszel and Peto's one-step method for meta-analyses of 2 x 2 table data are also available. Finally, the package provides various plot functions (for example, for forest, funnel, and radial plots) and functions for assessing the model fit, for obtaining case diagnostics, and for tests of publication bias.

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8,019 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1146/ANNUREV.NE.13.030190.000325
Abstract: : The concept of attention as central to human performance extends back to the start of experimental psychology, yet even a few years ago, it would not have been possible to outline in even a preliminary form a functional anatomy of the human attentional system. New developments in neuroscience have opened the study of higher cognition to physiological analysis, and have revealed a system of anatomical areas that appear to be basic to the selection of information for focal (conscious) processing. The importance of attention is its unique role in connecting the mental level of description of processes used in cognitive science with the anatomical level common in neuroscience. Sperry describes the central role that mental concepts play in understanding brain function. As is the case for sensory and motor systems of the brain, our knowledge of the anatomy of attention is incomplete. Nevertheless, we can now begin to identify some principles of organization that allow attention to function as a unified system for the control of mental processing. Although many of our points are still speculative and controversial, we believe they constitute a basis for more detailed studies of attention from a cognitive-neuroscience viewpoint. Perhaps even more important for furthering future studies, multiple methods of mental chronometry, brain lesions, electrophysiology, and several types of neuro-imaging have converged on common findings.

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Topics: Directed attention fatigue (59%), Test of everyday attention (55%), Cognition (54%) ... show more

6,827 Citations


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