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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Multi-objective optimization for peer-to-peer multipoint video conferencing using layered video

06 Dec 2007-pp 182-190

TL;DR: A new peer-to-peer architecture for multipoint video conferencing is presented, based on use of layered video coding with two layers at the end points, which allows each conference participant to see any other participant at any given time under all multipoint configurations of any number of users.

AbstractWe present a multi-objective approach and corresponding formulations for the optimal operation of a peer-to-peer multipoint video conferencing system. The system aims end-points with low bandwidth connections (i.e., single full-quality video in and out) and makes use of layered video to achieve that each participant can view any other participant’s video at anytime. This may cause some of the peers receive lower quality video. Moreover, since the peers may have to forward the video they receive, this may cause larger delays for the peers that receive the video after it is forwarded by several peers. Objective formulations to determine the number of lower quality video receiving peers and the delay experienced by the peers are derived. A multi-objective optimization approach for minimizing both simultaneously is described. An extension that allows multiple video requests from the participants with sufficient bandwidth is proposed. Formulations to minimize the number of lower quality video receivers while maximizing the number of additional video requests are presented. A multi-objective optimization technique assigning importance weights to each of these objectives and its sensitivity to changes in the weights are shown. The use of multi-objective optimization techniques within a system is demonstrated through example scenarios. The effects of our optimization approach on the percentage of base quality receiving peers are examined through simulations.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Oct 2006
TL;DR: A new peer-to-peer architecture for multipoint video conferencing that targets end points with low bandwidth network connections (single video in and out) is presented, which allows each conference participant to see any other participant at any given time under all multipoint configurations of any number of users.
Abstract: A new peer-to-peer architecture for multipoint video conferencing that targets end points with low bandwidth network connections (single video in and out) is presented. It enables end points to create a multipoint conference without any additional networking and computing resources than what is needed for a point-to-point conference. The new architecture is based on layered video coding with two layers at the end points. It allows each conference participant to see any other participant at any given time under all multipoint configurations of any number of users, with a caveat that some participants may have to receive only the base layer video. Layered encoding techniques usable within this architecture are described. A protocol for implementation of the new approach has been developed and simulated. Its performance is analyzed.

39 citations


Cites methods or result from "Multi-objective optimization for pe..."

  • ...If we were to use the same quality for both layers, the bandwidth use of the enhancement layer would be less (Akkus et al., 2006)....

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  • ...In contrast to the prior work, our approach does not assume high bandwidth connections and it makes use of layers of video with low bandwidth requirements (Akkus et al., 2006)....

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  • ...NICE clusters peers into a hierarchical structure....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The feasibility of a pure P2P solution for one-view MPVC is explored, the video source rate region achievable through video relays between peers is characterized, and the proposed bandwidth allocation algorithm can achieve a close-to-optimal peer upload bandwidth utilization.
Abstract: Multiparty video conferencing (MPVC) facilitates real-time group interaction between users. While P2P is a natural delivery solution for MPVC, a peer often does not have enough bandwidth to deliver her video to all other peers in the conference. Recently, we have witnessed the popularity of one-view MPVC, where each user only watches full video of another user. One-view MPVC opens up the design space for P2P delivery. In this paper, we explore the feasibility of a pure P2P solution for one-view MPVC. We characterize the video source rate region achievable through video relays between peers. For both homogeneous and heterogeneous MPVC systems, we establish tight universal video rate lower bounds that are independent of the number of peers, the number of video sources, and the specific viewing relations between peers. We further propose, P2P video relay designs to approach the maximal video rate region. Through numerical simulations, we verified that the derived lower bounds are indeed tight bounds, and the proposed bandwidth allocation algorithm can achieve a close-to-optimal peer upload bandwidth utilization. Our results demonstrate that P2P is a promising solution for one-view MPVC. Insights obtained from our study can be used to guide the design of P2P MPVC systems.

18 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
27 Aug 2009
TL;DR: In DiffStream, each channel disseminates partial streaming data instead of all, using MDC technology, and service differentiation is also achieved by treating different channels with varying priorities and regulating allocation of network resource to different channels in application layer.
Abstract: Recently multi-channel multimedia broadcast systems on P2P network have emerged in applications such as long-distance education and multimedia broadcast television. With the conflict between huge amounts of streaming data and limited available bandwidth over the Internet seemingly irreconcilable, we observe 1) some channels demand disseminating rapidly, having no requirement for high presentation quality at receivers and 2) some channels expect better quality of service metrics such as bit rate and delay than others while bandwidth contention of multiple channels makes it difficult to realize. Existing proposals have not done enough work based on the two observations. In this paper, we propose DiffStream, a multi-channel dissemination strategy. In DiffStream, each channel disseminates partial streaming data instead of all, using MDC technology. Meanwhile, service differentiation is also achieved by treating different channels with varying priorities and regulating allocation of network resource to different channels in application layer. Furthermore, an extensive mechanism of vacant bandwidth preemption for improving bandwidth utilization is also raised. Experiments are constructed on NS2 and the results have demonstrated DiffStream’s effectiveness in achieving our design objectives.

1 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: An effective low-delay multicast routing algorithm that supports multipoint interaction synchronization is proposed and both simulation experiments and practical applications demonstrate that the algorithm is correct and effective.
Abstract: This paper introduces an idea that solves the synchronization problem in the process of application-level multicast routing without using the dedicated synchronizing controller.Furthermore,the low-delay multicast communication is achieved on base of an idea.The contributions of this paper include:(1) The process of multipoint synchronizing interaction is modeled,and the theorem of application-level multicast routing algorithms supporting multipoint interaction synchronization is proved;(2) An effective low-delay multicast routing algorithm that supports multipoint interaction synchronization is proposed;(3) Performance analysis of this algorithm and the existing similar algorithm is carried out by mathematic methods.Both simulation experiments and practical applications demonstrate that the algorithm is correct and effective.

Posted Content
TL;DR: It is proved that, in case of one user watching only one video, 5/6 is a lower bound of the capacity which is much larger than 1/2, the achievable rate of chained approach in [2].
Abstract: In this paper, The structure of video conference is formulated and the peer-assisted distribution scheme is constructed to achieve optimal video delivery rate in each sub-conference. The capacity of conference is proposed to referee the video rate that can be supported in every possible scenario. We have proved that, in case of one user watching only one video, 5/6 is a lower bound of the capacity which is much larger than 1/2, the achievable rate of chained approach in [2]. Almost all proofs in this paper are constructive. They can be applied into real implementation directly with a few modifications.

References
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Journal ArticleDOI

1,010 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...In order to determine the best solution, we use the weighted sum method [7]....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
27 Aug 2001
TL;DR: An extensive evaluation study of schemes for constructing overlay networks on a wide-area test-bed of about twenty hosts distributed around the Internet shows that it is important to adapt to both latency and bandwidth while constructing overlays optimized for conferencing applications.
Abstract: In response to the serious scalability and deployment concerns with IP Multicast, we and other researchers have advocated an alternate architecture for supporting group communication applications over the Internet where all multicast functionality is pushed to the edge. We refer to such an architecture as End System Multicast. While End System Multicast has several potential advantages, a key concern is the performance penalty associated with such a design. While preliminary simulation results conducted in static environments are promising, they have yet to consider the challenging performance requirements of real world applications in a dynamic and heterogeneous Internet environment.In this paper, we explore how Internet environments and application requirements can influence End System Multicast design. We explore these issues in the context of audio and video conferencing: an important class of applications with stringent performance requirements. We conduct an extensive evaluation study of schemes for constructing overlay networks on a wide-area test-bed of about twenty hosts distributed around the Internet. Our results demonstrate that it is important to adapt to both latency and bandwidth while constructing overlays optimized for conferencing applications. Further, when relatively simple techniques are incorporated into current self-organizing protocols to enable dynamic adaptation to latency and bandwidth, the performance benefits are significant. Our results indicate that End System Multicast is a promising architecture for enabling performance-demanding conferencing applications in a dynamic and heterogeneous Internet environment.

543 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...In [ 5 ], an implementation of video conferencing through an end system multicast has been presented....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In Zigzag, the multicast tree has a height logarithmic with the number of clients, and a node degree bounded by a constant, so that the end-to-end delay is kept small.
Abstract: Given that the Internet does not widely support Internet protocol multicast while content-distribution-network technologies are costly, the concept of peer-to-peer could be a promising start for enabling large-scale streaming systems In our so-called Zigzag approach, we propose a method for clustering peers into a hierarchy called the administrative organization for easy management, and a method for building the multicast tree atop this hierarchy for efficient content transmission In Zigzag, the multicast tree has a height logarithmic with the number of clients, and a node degree bounded by a constant This helps reduce the number of processing hops on the delivery path to a client while avoiding network bottlenecks Consequently, the end-to-end delay is kept small Although one could build a tree satisfying such properties easily, an efficient control protocol between the nodes must be in place to maintain the tree under the effects of network dynamics Zigzag handles such situations gracefully, requiring a constant amortized worst-case control overhead Especially, failure recovery is done regionally with impact on, at most, a constant number of existing clients and with mostly no burden on the server

386 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...In ZigZag [4], a P2P architecture for distributing media from a single source is described and analyzed....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2003
TL;DR: The proposed peer-to-peer streaming solution to address the on-demand media distribution problem is efficient at utilizing bandwidth resource of supplying peers, scalable at saving server bandwidth consumption, and optimal at maximizing streaming qualities of all peers.
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a peer-to-peer streaming solution to address the on-demand media distribution problem. We identify two issues, namely the asynchrony of user requests and heterogeneity of peer network bandwidth. Our key techniques to address these two issues are cache-and-relay and layer-encoded streaming. A unique challenge of layered peer-to-peer streaming is that the bandwidth and data availability (number of layers received) of each receiving peer are constrained and heterogeneous, which further limits the bandwidth and data availability of its downstream node when it acts as the supplying peer. This challenge distinguishes our work from existing studies on layered multicast. Our experiments show that our solution is efficient at utilizing bandwidth resource of supplying peers, scalable at saving server bandwidth consumption, and optimal at maximizing streaming qualities of all peers.

179 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...In [3], a layered P2P streaming scheme for on-demand media distribution is proposed....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In response to the serious scalability and deployment concerns with IP Multicast, we and other researchers have advocated an alternate architecture for supporting group communication applications o...

109 citations