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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/10253890.2020.1777970

N-acetyl cysteine treatment mitigates biomarkers of oxidative stress in different tissues of bile duct ligated rats.

04 Mar 2021-Stress (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 24, Iss: 2, pp 213-228
Abstract: Cholestasis is a multifaceted clinical complication. Obstructive jaundice induced by bile duct ligation (BDL) is known as an animal model to investigate cholestasis and its associated complications...

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Topics: Cholestasis (73%), Bile duct (70%), Bile acid (63%) ... show more
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11 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PHANU.2020.100212
01 Sep 2020-PharmaNutrition
Abstract: Background The cholestatic liver disease could develop in association with a wide range of etiologies. The liver is the most affected organ by cholestasis. It has also been found that the kidney is severely injured during cholestasis. Oxidative stress seems to play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of cholestasis-induced hepatic and renal injury. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of agmatine supplementation on hepatic and renal injury and its potential mechanisms of action. Methods Rats underwent bile duct ligation (BDL) surgery. BDL animals were treated with agmatine (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, gavage) for seven consecutive days. Results Significant reactive oxygen species formation, lipid peroxidation, increased oxidized glutathione level, decreased tissue antioxidant capacity and depleted reduced glutathione (GSH) were detected in cholestatic animals. Moreover, mitochondrial indices, including ATP level, membrane potential, lipid peroxidation, and swelling, were deteriorated in both liver and kidney of cholestatic rats. Liver fibrosis and renal tissue histopathological changes were also evident in BDL rats. It was found that agmatine supplementation significantly alleviated cholestasis-induced hepatic and renal injury. Conclusion The mechanism of action of agmatine could be related to its antioxidant properties and the positive effects of this amine on mitochondrial indices.

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Topics: Agmatine (59%), Kidney (56%), Cholestasis (55%) ... show more

11 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CRPHAR.2020.100006
Narges Abdoli1, Issa Sadeghian2, Khadijeh Mousavi2, Negar Azarpira2  +2 moreInstitutions (3)
01 Apr 2020-
Abstract: Cirrhosis-induced renal injury or cholemic nephropathy (CN) is a serious clinical complication with poor prognosis. CN could finally lead to renal failure and the need for organ transplantation. Unfortunately, there is no specific pharmacological intervention against CN to date. On the other hand, various studies mentioned the role of oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment in the pathogenesis of CN. The current study aimed to evaluate the potential protective effects of NAC as a thiol-reducing agent and antioxidant in CN. Bile duct ligation (BDL) was used as a reliable animal model of cholestasis. BDL animals received NAC (0.25% and 1% w: v) in drinking water for 28 consecutive days. Finally, urine, blood, and kidney samples were collected and analyzed. Significant elevation in serum biomarkers of renal injury, along with urine markers of kidney damage, was evident in the BDL group. Moreover, markers of oxidative stress, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and increased oxidized glutathione (GSSG) were evident detected in the kidney of cholestatic rats. Renal tissue antioxidant capacity and reduced glutathione (GSH) were also significantly depleted in the BDL group. Significant mitochondrial depolarization, depleted ATP content, and mitochondrial permeabilization was also detected in mitochondria isolated from the kidney of cholestatic animals. Renal histopathological alterations consisted of significant tissue fibrosis, interstitial inflammation, and tubular atrophy. It was found that NAC (0.25 and 1% in drinking water for 28 consecutive days) blunted histopathological changes, decreased markers of oxidative stress, and improved mitochondrial indices in the kidney of cirrhotic rats. Moreover, serum and urine biomarkers of renal injury were also mitigated in upon NAC treatment. These data indicate a potential renoprotective role for NAC in cholestasis. The effects of NAC on cellular redox state and mitochondrial function seem to play a fundamental role in its renoprotective effects during CN.

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Topics: Kidney (59%), Nephropathy (55%), Oxidative stress (54%) ... show more

3 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TOXLET.2021.05.012
Asrin Ahmadi1, Hossein Niknahad1, Huifeng Li2, Ali Mobasheri3  +10 moreInstitutions (4)
01 Oct 2021-Toxicology Letters
Abstract: The cholestatic liver injury could occur in response to a variety of diseases or xenobiotics. Although cholestasis primarily affects liver function, it has been well-known that other organs such as the kidney could be influenced in cholestatic patients. Severe cholestasis could lead to tissue fibrosis and organ failure. Unfortunately, there is no specific therapeutic option against cholestasis-induced organ injury. Hence, finding the mechanism of organ injury during cholestasis could lead to therapeutic options against this complication. The accumulation of potentially cytotoxic compounds such as hydrophobic bile acids is the most suspected mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of cholestasis-induced organ injury. A plethora of evidence indicates a role for the inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of several human diseases. Here, the role of nuclear factor-kB (NFkB)-mediated inflammatory response is investigated in an animal model of cholestasis. Bile duct ligated (BDL) animals were treated with sulfasalazine (SSLZ, 10 and 100 mg/kg, i.p) as a potent inhibitor of NFkB signaling. The NFkB proteins family activity in the liver and kidney, serum and tissue levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tissue biomarkers of oxidative stress, serum markers of organ injury, and the liver and kidney histopathological alterations and fibrotic changes. The oxidative stress-mediated inflammatory-related indices were monitored in the kidney and liver at scheduled time intervals (3, 7, and 14 days after BDL operation). Significant increase in serum and urine markers of organ injury, besides changes in biomarkers of oxidative stress and tissue histopathology, were evident in the liver and kidney of BDL animals. The activity of NFkB proteins (p65, p50, p52, c-Rel, and RelB) was significantly increased in the liver and kidney of cholestatic animals. Serum and tissue levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-12, IL-17, IL-18, IL-23, TNF-α, and INF-γ) were also higher than sham-operated animals. Moreover, TGF- β, α-SMA, and tissue fibrosis (Trichrome stain) were evident in cholestatic animals' liver and kidneys. It was found that SSLZ (10 and 100 mg/kg/day, i.p) alleviated cholestasis-induced hepatic and renal injury. The effect of SSLZ on NFkB signaling and suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines could play a significant role in its protective role in cholestasis. Based on these data, NFkB signaling could receive special attention to develop therapeutic options to blunt cholestasis-induced organ injury.

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Topics: Liver function (61%), Cholestasis (60%), Liver injury (58%) ... show more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.REDOX.2021.102047
Prasad Sulkshane1, Jonathan Ram1, Anita Thakur1, Noa Reis1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
17 Jun 2021-Redox biology
Abstract: The contribution of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS) to mitophagy has been largely attributed to the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin. Here we show that in response to the oxidative stress associated with hypoxia or the hypoxia mimic CoCl2, the damaged and fragmented mitochondria are removed by Parkin-independent mitophagy. Mitochondria isolated from hypoxia or CoCl2-treated cells exhibited extensive ubiquitination, predominantly Lysine 48-linked and involves the degradation of key mitochondrial proteins such as the mitofusins MFN1/2, or the import channel component TOM20. Reflecting the critical role of mitochondrial protein degradation, proteasome inhibition blocked CoCl2-induced mitophagy. The five conserved ubiquitin-binding autophagy receptors (p62, NDP52, Optineurin, NBR1, TAX1BP1) were dispensable for the ensuing mitophagy, suggesting that the mitophagy step itself was independent of ubiquitination. Instead, the expression of two ubiquitin-independent mitophagy receptor proteins BNIP3 and NIX was induced by hypoxia or CoCl2-treatment followed by their recruitment to the oxidation-damaged mitochondria. By employing BNIP3/NIX double knockout and DRP1-null cell lines, we confirmed that mitochondrial clearance relies on DRP1-dependent mitochondrial fragmentation and BNIP3/NIX-mediated mitophagy. General antioxidants such as N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) or the mitochondria-specific Mitoquinone prevented HIF-1α stabilization, ameliorated hypoxia-related mitochondrial oxidative stress, and suppressed mitophagy. We conclude that the UPS and receptor-mediated autophagy converge to eliminate oxidation-damaged mitochondria.

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Topics: Mitophagy (80%), Parkin (54%), Autophagy (52%) ... show more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.5114/CEH.2021.104675
01 Mar 2021-
Abstract: Aim of the study Cholestasis is a serious complication affecting other organs such as the liver and kidney. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment are proposed as the primary mechanisms for cholestasis-induced organ injury. Taurine (TAU) is the most abundant free amino acid in the human body, which is not incorporated in the structure of proteins. Several pharmacological effects have been attributed to TAU. It has been reported that TAU effectively mitigated oxidative stress and modulated mitochondrial function. The current study aimed to evaluate the impact of TAU on oxidative stress biomarkers and mitochondrial parameters in the kidney of cholestatic animals. Material and methods Bile duct ligated (BDL) rats were used as an antioxidant model of cholestasis. Animals were treated with TAU (500 and 1000 mg/kg, oral) for seven consecutive days. Animals were anesthetized (thiopental 80 mg/kg, i.p.), and kidney and blood specimens were collected. Results Severe elevation in serum and urine biomarkers of renal injury was evident in the BDL group. Significant lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and protein carbonylation were detected in the kidney of BDL animals. Furthermore, depleted glutathione reservoirs and a significant decrease in the antioxidant capacity of renal tissue were detected in cholestatic rats. Renal tubular atrophy and interstitial inflammation were evident in BDL animals. Cholestasis also caused significant mitochondrial dysfunction in the kidney. TAU significantly prevented cholestasis-induced renal injury by inhibiting oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment. Conclusions These data indicate TAU as a potential therapeutic agent in the management of cholestasis-induced renal injury.

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Topics: Kidney (57%), Cholestasis (56%), Oxidative stress (55%) ... show more

1 Citations


References
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94 results found


Book ChapterDOI: 10.1016/0076-6879(90)86141-H
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter discusses methods to determine carbonyl content in oxidatively modified proteins. The methods described are (1) reduction of the carbonyl group to an alcohol with tritiated borohydride; (2) reaction of the carbonyl group with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine to form the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone; (3) reaction of the carbonyl with fluorescein thiosemicarbazide to form the thiosemicarbazone; and (4) reaction of the carbonyl group with fluorescein amine to form a Schiff base followed by reduction to the secondary amine with cyanoborohydride. Van Poelje and Snell have also quantitated protein-bound pyruvoyl groups through formation of a Schiff base with p-aminobenzoic acid followed by reduction with cyanoborohydride. Although a systematic investigation has not appeared, this method should also be useful in detecting other protein-bound carbonyl groups. Carbonyl content of proteins is expressed as moles carbonyl/mole subunit for purified proteins of known molecular weight. For extracts, the results may be given as nanomoles carbonyl/milligram protein. For a protein having a molecular weight of 50,000, a carbonyl content of 1 mol carbonyl/mol protein corresponds to 20 nmol carbonyl/mg proteins.

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Topics: Protein Carbonyl Content (78%), Protein Carbonylation (55%), Schiff base (52%) ... show more

5,074 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0002-9343(00)00481-2
Bernard M. Babior1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Neutrophils and other phagocytes manufacture O(2)(-) (superoxide) by the one-electron reduction of oxygen at the expense of NADPH. Most of the O(2)(-) reacts with itself to form H(2)O(2) (hydrogen peroxide). From these agents a large number of highly reactive microbicidal oxidants are formed, including HOCl (hypochlorous acid), which is produced by the myeloperoxidase-catalyzed oxidation of Cl(-) by H(2)O(2); OH(*) (hydroxyl radical), produced by the reduction of H(2)O(2) by Fe(++) or Cu(+); ONOO(-) (peroxynitrite), formed by the reaction between O(2)(-) and NO(*); and many others. These reactive oxidants are manufactured for the purpose of killing invading microorganisms, but they also inflict damage on nearby tissues, and are thought to be of pathogenic significance in a large number of diseases. Included among these are emphysema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, atherosclerosis, reperfusion injury, malignancy and rheumatoid arthritis.

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Topics: Superoxide dismutase (52%), Superoxide (52%), Peroxynitrite (51%) ... show more

1,008 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.2174/187221309787158371
Abstract: Chronic inflammation is a pathological condition characterized by continued active inflammation response and tissue destruction. Many of the immune cells including macrophages, neutrophils and eosinophils are involved directly or by production of inflammatory cytokine production in pathology of chronic inflammation. From literatures, it is appear that there is a general concept that chronic inflammation can be a major cause of cancers and express aging processes. Moreover, many studies suggest that chronic inflammation could have serious role in wide variety of age-related diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases. Inflammatory process induces oxidative stress and reduces cellular antioxidant capacity. Overproduced free radicals react with cell membrane fatty acids and proteins impairing their function permanently. In addition, free radicals can lead to mutation and DNA damage that can be a predisposing factor for cancer and age-related disorders. This article reviews the antioxidant defense systems, free radicals production and their role in cancer and age related diseases and also some of the recent patent relevant to the field. Study of the role of free radicals in human diseases can help the investigators to consider the antioxidants as proper agents in preventive medicine, especially for cancer and aging processes.

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Topics: Oxidative stress (53%), Inflammation (53%), Cytokine (50%)

604 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1053/JHEP.2002.36088
Gustav Paumgartner1, Ulrich Beuers1Institutions (1)
01 Sep 2002-Hepatology
Abstract: Ursodeoxycholic acid (UCDA) is increasingly used for the treatment of cholestatic liver diseases. Experimental evidence suggests three major mechanisms of action: (1) protection of cholangiocytes against cytotoxicity of hydrophobic bile acids, resulting from modulation of the composition of mixed phospholipid-rich micelles, reduction of bile acid cytotoxicity of bile and, possibly, decrease of the concentration of hydrophobic bile acids in the cholangiocytes; (2) stimulation of hepatobiliary secretion, putatively via Ca2+- and protein kinase C-α–dependent mechanisms and/or activation of p38MAPK and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erk) resulting in insertion of transporter molecules (e.g., bile salt export pump, BSEP, and conjugate export pump, MRP2) into the canalicular membrane of the hepatocyte and, possibly, activation of inserted carriers; (3) protection of hepatocytes against bile acid–induced apoptosis, involving inhibition of mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MMPT), and possibly, stimulation of a survival pathway. In primary biliary cirrhosis, UDCA (13-15 mg/kg/d) improves serum liver chemistries, may delay disease progression to severe fibrosis or cirrhosis, and may prolong transplant-free survival. In primary sclerosing cholangitis, UDCA (13-20 mg/kg/d) improves serum liver chemistries and surrogate markers of prognosis, but effects on disease progression must be further evaluated. Anticholestatic effects of UDCA have also been reported in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, liver disease of cystic fibrosis, progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, and chronic graft-versus-host disease. Future efforts will focus on definition of additional clinical uses of UDCA, on optimized dosage regimens, as well as on further elucidation of mechanisms of action of UDCA at the molecular level. (H EPATOLOGY 2002;36:525-531.)

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582 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0098-2997(00)00004-2
Giuseppe Poli1Institutions (1)
Abstract: In the liver, the progressive accumulation of connective tissue, a complex and dynamic process termed fibrosis, represents a very frequent event following a repeated or chronic insult of sufficient intensity to trigger a "wound healing"-like reaction. The fibrotic process recognises the involvement of various cells and different factors in bringing about an excessive fibrogenesis with disruption of intercellular contacts and interactions and of extracellular matrix composition. However, Kupffer cells, together with recruited mononuclear cells, and hepatic stellate cells are by far the key-players in liver fibrosis. Their cross-talk is triggered and favoured by a series of chemical mediators, with a prominent role played by the transforming growth factor beta. Both expression and synthesis of this inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic cytokine are mainly modulated through redox-sensitive reactions. Further, involvement of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation products can be clearly demonstrated in other fundamental events of hepatic fibrogenesis, like activation and effects of stellate cells, expression of metalloproteinases and of their specific inhibitors. The important outcome of such findings as regards the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis derives from the observation of a consistent and marked oxidative stress condition in many if not all chronic disease processes affecting hepatic tissue. Hence, reactive oxidant species likely contribute to both onset and progression of fibrosis as induced by alcohol, viruses, iron or copper overload, cholestasis, hepatic blood congestion.

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Topics: Fibrosis (62%), Hepatic stellate cell (62%), Oxidative stress (53%) ... show more

573 Citations


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20217
20204