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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/19390211.2020.1741484

Pharmacological evaluation of Ashwagandha highlighting its healthcare claims, safety, and toxicity aspects.

04 Mar 2021-Journal of Dietary Supplements (J Diet Suppl)-Vol. 18, Iss: 2, pp 183-226
Abstract: Withania somnifera, commonly known as “Ashwagandha” or “Indian ginseng” is an essential therapeutic plant of Indian subcontinent regions. It is regularly used, alone or in combination with other pl...

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Topics: Withania somnifera (62%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPHAR.2021.623795
Abstract: As the COVID-19 pandemic is progressing, the therapeutic gaps in conventional management have highlighted the need for the integration of traditional knowledge systems with modern medicine. Ayurvedic medicines, especially Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, WS), may be beneficial in the management of COVID-19. WS is a widely prescribed Ayurvedic botanical known as an immunomodulatory, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and adaptogenic agent. The chemical profile and pharmacological activities of WS have been extensively reported. Several clinical studies have reported its safety for use in humans. This review presents a research synthesis of in silico, in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies on Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (WS) and discusses its potential for prophylaxis and management of COVID-19. We have collated the data from studies on WS that focused on viral infections (HIV, HSV, H1N1 influenza, etc.) and noncommunicable diseases (hypertension, diabetes, cancer, etc.). The experimental literature indicates that WS has the potential for 1) maintaining immune homeostasis, 2) regulating inflammation, 3) suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokines, 4) organ protection (nervous system, heart, lung, liver, and kidney), and 5) anti-stress, antihypertensive, and antidiabetic activities. Using these trends, the review presents a triangulation of Ayurveda wisdom, pharmacological properties, and COVID-19 pathophysiology ranging from viral entry to end-stage acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The review proposes WS as a potential therapeutic adjuvant for various stages of COVID-19 management. WS may also have beneficial effects on comorbidities associated with the COVID-19. However, systematic studies are needed to realize the potential of WS for improving clinical outcome of patients with COVID-19.

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Topics: Withania somnifera (54%), Modern medicine (51%)

8 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2021.110402
Manish Dhawan1, Manisha Parmar2, Khan Sharun3, Ruchi Tiwari  +2 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of the potentially fatal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has currently affected over 87 million people with worldwide deaths nearing 1 9 million Amidst the developing vaccines and effective therapies, there is a need to develop alternative and supportive strategies for ameliorating the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infections in humans and treat COVID-19 patients Several medicinal plants and herbs contain useful phytochemicals, which are being explored to develop medicines and drugs to counter the COVID-19 pandemic Withania somnifera is a medicinal herb of growing importance that is extensively utilized in Ayurveda The medicinal attributes of W somnifera are owing to a broad range of bioactive secondary metabolites including steroidal lactones [withanone, withanolide D, withanolide A, and withaferin A (WFA)] Among these, WFA is one of the most interesting naturally occurring bioactive compounds that possess potent anti-tumorigenic, antiinflammatory, pro-apoptotic, anti-angiogenic, and anti-invasive activities It might bind to SARS-CoV-2 S protein and alter the S protein, thereby hindering its access into the host cells Withanone and Withanoside V can impede the functional activities of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) Withanolides have been found to control cytokine secretions during infection and could alleviate the cytokine storm in the lungs The combined use of withanolides are several other drugs or therapeutic modalities, such as hydroxychloroquine and dexamethasone, has been demonstrated as an efficient strategy to improve the effectiveness of standard chemotherapy or design a robust therapeutic regime for COVID-19 treatment Nevertheless, exhaustive research efforts are required to explore the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory potentialities of withanolides for alleviating the severity of the disease during SARS-CoV-2 infections This review highlights the medicinal and therapeutic potential of withanolides against COVID-19 © 2021 Manish Dhawan et al This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4 0 International License (https://creativecommons org/licenses/by/4 0/)

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Topics: Withania somnifera (55%)

6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.BIOPHA.2020.110754
Prerna Singh1, Archita Gupta2, Irfan Qayoom1, Sneha Singh2  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Bone injuries occur due to various traumatic and disease conditions. Healing of bone injury occurs via a multi-stage intricate process. Body has the potential to rectify most of the bone injuries but some severe traumatic cases with critical size defects may require interventions. Autografts are still considered the "gold standard" for fracture healing but due to limitations associated with it, new alternatives are warranted. The field of orthobiologics has provided novel approaches using scaffolds, bioactive molecules, stem cells for the treatment of bone defects. Phyto-bioactives have been widely used in alternative medicine and folklore practices for curing bone ailments. It is believed that different bioactive constituents in plants work synergistically to give the therapeutic efficacy. Bioactives in plants extracts act upon different signal transduction pathways aiding in bone healing. The present review focuses on the use, chemical composition, mode of delivery, mechanism of action, and possible future strategies of three medicinal plants popularly used in traditional medicine for bone healing: Cissus quadrangularis, Withania somnifera and Tinospora cordifolia. Plants extracts seem to be a natural and non-toxic therapeutic alternative in treating bone injuries. Most of the studies on bone healing for these plants have reported oral administration of the extracts and presented them as a safe alternative without any side effects despite giving higher doses. Forthcoming studies could be directed towards the local delivery of extracts at the defect site. Unification of herbal extracts and orthobiologics could be an interesting direction in the field of bone healing in future. The present review intends to provide a bird's eye view of different strategies used in bone healing, mechanisms involved and future direction of advancements using phytobioactives and orthobiologics.

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Topics: Bone regeneration (64%), Bone healing (57%), Bone Injury (56%)

5 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.52586/4924
Leena Sapra1, Asha Bhardwaj1, Zaffar Azam1, Deekhsha Madhry1  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: In 2020, a novel strain of coronavirus (COVID-19) has led to a significant morbidity and mortality worldwide As of the date of this writing, a total of 116 M cases has been diagnosed worldwide leading to 25 M deaths The number of mortalities is directly correlated with the rise of innate immune cells (especially macrophages) in the lungs that secrete inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and IL-6) leading to the development of "Cytokine Storm Syndrome" (CSS), multi-organ-failure and death Given that currently the treatment of this condition is rare and release of effective vaccine might be months away, here, we review the plants and their pharmacologically active-compounds as potential phytopharmaceuticals for the virus induced inflammatory response Experimental validation of the effectiveness of these natural compounds to prevent or reduce the cytokine storm might be beneficial as an adjunct treatment of SARS-CoV-2

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5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.4155/FDD-2020-0024
01 Oct 2020-
Abstract: Vivek K Kashyap1,2, Anupam Dhasmana1,2, Murali M Yallapu1,2, Subhash C Chauhan1,2 & Meena Jaggi*,1,2 1Department of Immunology & Microbiology, School of Medicine, The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, McAllen, TX 78504, USA 2South Texas Center of Excellence in Cancer Research, School of Medicine, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, McAllen, TX 78504, USA *Author for correspondence: Tel.: +1 956 296 2008; meena.jaggi@utrgv.edu

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Topics: Withania somnifera (65%)

4 Citations


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209 results found


Open accessBook
01 Jan 1990-
Topics: Compendium (63%)

1,375 Citations


Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to review the literature regarding Withania somnifera (ashwagandha, WS) a commonly used herb in Ayurvedic medicine. Specifically, the literature was reviewed for articles pertaining to chemical properties, therapeutic benefits, and toxicity. DESIGN: This review is in a narrative format and consists of all publications relevant to ashwagandha that were identified by the authors through a systematic search of major computerized medical databases; no statistical pooling of results or evaluation of the quality of the studies was performed due to the widely different methods employed by each study. RESULTS: Studies indicate ashwagandha possesses anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antistress, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, hemopoetic, and rejuvenating properties. It also appears to exert a positive influence on the endocrine, cardiopulmonary, and central nervous systems. The mechanisms of action for these properties are not fully understood. Toxicity studies reveal that ashwagandha appears to be a safe compound. CONCLUSION: Preliminary studies have found various constituents of ashwagandha exhibit a variety of therapeutic effects with little or no associated toxicity. These results are very encouraging and indicate this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects. Clinical trials using ashwagandha for a variety of conditions should also be conducted. (Altern Med Rev 2000;5(4) 334-346)

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Topics: Withania somnifera (55%)

693 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/156350B0
01 Sep 1945-Nature
Abstract: THIS text-book of pharmacognosy has already found wide recognition among teachers and students of pharmacy. Its subject matter has grown from a laboratory manual intended for use in practical classes, and now comprises the requirements for the Chemist and Druggist Qualifying Examination of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. A Textbook of Pharmacognosy By T. C. Denston. Fourth edition. Pp. xviii + 594. (London: Sir Isaac Pitman and Sons, Ltd., 1945.) 27s. 6d. net.

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637 Citations


Abstract: Plants from all over the world such as Eleutherococcus senticosus, Panax ginseng, Raponticum carthamoides, Rhodiola rosea, Withania somnifera and Ocimum sanctum have been extensively evaluated for their adaptogenic potential. However, none of them has been successfully introduced as an adaptogen in the clinic. This paper discusses some of the problems in evaluation of adaptogens which have precluded their inclusion as clinically useful drugs. We further discuss our results with six rasayana plants from Ayurveda, which were studied for their adaptogenic potential. The whole, aqueous, standardized extracts of selected plants (Tinospora cordifolia, Asparagus racemosus, Emblica officinalis, Withania somnifera, Piper longum and Terminalia chebula) were administered orally to experimental animals, in a dose extrapolated from the human dose, following which they were exposed to a variety of biological, physical and chemical stressors. These plants were found to offer protection against these stressors, as judged by using markers of stress responses and objective parameters for stress manifestations. Using a model of cisplatin induced alterations in gastrointestinal motility, the ability of these plants to exert a normalizing effect, irrespective of direction of pathological change was tested. All the plants reversed the effects of cisplatin on gastric emptying, while Tinospora cordifolia and Asparagus racemosus also normalized cisplatin induced intestinal hypermotility. Tinospora cordifolia was also tested for its ability to modulate the changes occurring in the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages after exposure of rats to either carbon tetrachloride or horse serum. It was found to normalize the phagocytic function irrespective to the direction of change, complying to the definition of an adaptogen. All the plant drugs were found to be safe in both acute and subacute toxicity studies. Studies on the mechanisms of action of the plants revealed that they all produced immunostimulation. The protection offered by Tinospora cordifolia against stress induced gastric mucosal damage was lost if macrophage activity was blocked. Emblica officinalis strengthened the defence mechanisms against free radical damage induced during stress. The effect of Emblica officinalis appeared to depend on the ability of target tissues to synthesize prostaglandins. Recent data obtained with Tinospora cordifolia suggest that it may induce genotypic adaptation, further opening the arena for more research and experimentation.

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Topics: Tinospora cordifolia (61%), Adaptogen (57%), Withania somnifera (55%) ... show more

461 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MOLECULES14072373
03 Jul 2009-Molecules
Abstract: Withania somnifera, commonly known as Ashwagandha, is an important medicinal plant that has been used in Ayurvedic and indigenous medicine for over 3,000 years. In view of its varied therapeutic potential, it has also been the subject of considerable modern scientific attention. The major chemical constituents of the Withania genus, the withanolides, are a group of naturally occurring C28-steroidal lactone triterpenoids built on an intact or rearranged ergostane framework, in which C-22 and C-26 are appropriately oxidized to form a six-membered lactone ring. In recent years, numerous pharmacological investigations have been carried out into the components of W. somnifera extracts. We present here an overview of the chemical structures of triterpenoid components and their biological activity, focusing on two novel activities, tumor inhibition and antiangiogenic properties of withaferin A and the effects of withanolide A on Alzheimer's disease. The most recent attempts in biotechnological production of withanolides are also discussed.

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Topics: Withania somnifera (69%), Withanolide (56%), Withaferin A (55%) ... show more

392 Citations


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