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Journal ArticleDOI

Reliability of Box and Block Test for manual dexterity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a pilot study.

01 Dec 2016-International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases (Int J Rheum Dis)-Vol. 19, Iss: 12, pp 1272-1277

TL;DR: The reliability of the Box and Block Test for manual dexterity of upper extremity function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis is determined and the results with age‐ and sex‐matched healthy controls, and also with available normative data are compared.

AbstractObjective This study is aimed to determine the reliability of the Box and Block (B&B) Test for manual dexterity of upper extremity function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to compare the results with age- and sex-matched healthy controls, and also with available normative data. Methods The reliability of B&B Test was assessed within and between testers using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) in patients with RA attending rheumatology clinics of Christian Medical College Hospital, India. The dexterity scores of patients were then compared with age- and sex-matched controls and the Mathiowetz's population-based normative data by Student's independent t-test. Results The interrater and intrarater reliability of the BB contralateral hand 52.65 vs. 65.6, P < 0.001) and population-based normative score (dominant hand 54.87 vs. 80.02, P < 0.001; contralateral hand 52.65 vs. 77.23; P < 0.001). The control group scores were also lower than the normative data. Higher age of patient, longer disease duration and higher disease activity reflected by Disease Activity Score of 28 joints (DAS-28) also correlated well with lower dexterity score. Conclusions The B&B Test is a reliable tool for assessing upper extremity function in patients with RA and the dexterity scores are lower for RA patients. The scores had correlation with age, disease duration and disease activity.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results of this investigation suggest that programs designed to prevent the decline, as well as improve, handgrip strength and manual dexterity might improve the oral hygiene of older adults.
Abstract: Background The Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence-Digital (QLF-D) system visualizes old and mature dental biofilm as red fluorescence. Risk factors for poor oral hygiene have been identified, however, few studies have evaluated the relationship between mature dental biofilm and hand motor functions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of two important manual motor functions for object manipulation —handgrip strength and manual dexterity— on the presence of red fluorescent dental biofilm in older community-dwelling Koreans using QLF-D, an optical device that reveals dental biofilm. Methods This cross-sectional study included 70 Korean participants aged ≥65 years, all of whom completed questionnaires and were tested for handgrip strength and manual dexterity. In total, 840 dental surfaces were photographed using QLF-D, and ΔR20 values, which reflect mature dental biofilm accumulation, were calculated. The t-test was performed to analyze the differences in the ∆R20 values according to sociodemographic characteristics, health-related characteristics and hand motor functions, while multiple linear regression analysis was used to investigate the effects of hand motor functions on the ∆R20 values. Results Multivariate regression analysis revealed that handgrip strength (β = −0.294) was the factor most strongly affecting mature dental biofilm accumulation (ΔR20), followed by tooth-brushing time (β = −0.262) and manual dexterity (β = −0.241). Conclusions Reductions in handgrip strength and manual dexterity were independent risk factors for pathogenic dental biofilm accumulation. The results of this investigation suggest that programs designed to prevent the decline, as well as improve, handgrip strength and manual dexterity might improve the oral hygiene of older adults.

5 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were formulated from a computerized analysis of 262 contemporary, consecutively studied patients with RA and 262 control subjects with rheumatic diseases other than RA (non-RA).
Abstract: The revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were formulated from a computerized analysis of 262 contemporary, consecutively studied patients with RA and 262 control subjects with rheumatic diseases other than RA (non-RA). The new criteria are as follows: 1) morning stiffness in and around joints lasting at least 1 hour before maximal improvement; 2) soft tissue swelling (arthritis) of 3 or more joint areas observed by a physician; 3) swelling (arthritis) of the proximal interphalangeal, metacarpophalangeal, or wrist joints; 4) symmetric swelling (arthritis); 5) rheumatoid nodules; 6) the presence of rheumatoid factor; and 7) radiographic erosions and/or periarticular osteopenia in hand and/or wrist joints. Criteria 1 through 4 must have been present for at least 6 weeks. Rheumatoid arthritis is defined by the presence of 4 or more criteria, and no further qualifications (classic, definite, or probable) or list of exclusions are required. In addition, a "classification tree" schema is presented which performs equally as well as the traditional (4 of 7) format. The new criteria demonstrated 91-94% sensitivity and 89% specificity for RA when compared with non-RA rheumatic disease control subjects.

18,828 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The purpose of this study was to develop normative data for adults to enable clinicians to objectively compare a patient's score to a normal population parameter.
Abstract: The Box and Block Test, a test of manual dexterity, has been used by occupational therapists and others to evaluate physically handicapped individuals. Because the test lacked normative data for adults, the results of the test have been interpreted subjectively. The purpose of this study was to develop normative data for adults. Test subjects were 628 Normal adults (310 males and 318 females) from the seven-county Milwaukee area. Data on males and females 20 to 94 years old were divided into 12 age groups. Means, standard deviations, standard error, and low and high scores are reported for each five-year age group. These data will enable clinicians to objectively compare a patient's score to a normal population parameter.

1,345 citations

Book
01 Jan 1987
Abstract: Developed to help students master the essential content, principles, and concepts that will make them effective evaluators, this text provides the practical skills and materials they will need--whether they become teachers or work in exercise science.

452 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results show that the test-retest reliability is high and the validity of theBBT is shown by significant correlations between the BBT, an upper limb performance measurement and a functional independence measurement, which will help rehabilitation clinicians to differentiate better between real difficulties and those that may be attributed to normal aging.
Abstract: Manual dexterity is a skill frequently evaluated in rehabilitation to estimate hand function Several tests have been developed for this purpose, including the Box and Block Test (BBT) that measures gross manual dexterity The goal of the present study was to verify the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the BBT with subjects aged 60 and over with upper limb impairment The second objective of this research was to develop normative data based on a random sample of healthy elderly community-living individuals The results show that the test-retest reliability is high (intraclass correlations coefficients of 089 to 097) and the validity of the test is shown by significant correlations between the BBT, an upper limb performance measurement and a functional independence measurement The norms will help rehabilitation clinicians to differentiate better between real difficulties and those that may be attributed to normal aging

348 citations