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Journal ArticleDOI

Repair scars on Mactra violacea from the eastern coast of India: A new classification and a model for describing shell breakage on bivalves

12 Dec 2014-Palaeontologia Electronica (Paleontological Society)-Vol. 17, Iss: 3, pp 1-13
TL;DR: A classificatory scheme to categorize the repaired traces on the basis of intensity of the damage is developed and a model to analyze how the severity of scars can be effectively used to study species’ adaptation against shell breaking causes is provided, by using Mactra violacea as a studied species.
Abstract: Non-lethal shell damage, which is preserved as repair scars on the bivalve shell, can be predatory or non-predatory in origin. When the peeling crabs are the main predatory groups, non-predatory damages are produced by impact from the saltating clasts or by wear and tear during burrowing. In both cases, these repair scars almost look alike, and it is difficult to identify which factor is causally responsible. Because survival of an individual is related to the severity of the shell-break irrespective of the cause, here, we have developed a classificatory scheme to categorize the repaired traces on the basis of intensity of the damage. Moreover, we have provided a model to analyze how the severity of scars can be effectively used to study species’ adaptation against shell breaking causes, by using Mactra violacea as a studied species. Individuals who survive shell breakage may adapt to escalated morphological traits to resist damage in the long term. Subhronil Mondal. School of Geosciences, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave. NES107, Tampa, FL 33620-5250, USA. subhronil.m@gmail.com Subhendu Bardhan. Department of Geological Sciences, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032, India. sbardhan12@gmail.com Sumanta Mallick. Department of Geological Sciences, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032, India. sumanta.geol87@gmail.com Arindam Roy. Department of Geological Sciences, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032, India. addy.geol@gmail.com

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors conducted a study of the Carolia -bearing beds in the Qasr El-Sagha Formation at Nile-Fayum Divide and revealed the presences of thirteen species (three gastropods, six oysters and four Carolias).

11 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 2019-PALAIOS
TL;DR: In this article, the authors studied the latitudinal pattern of gastropod drilling predation from the late Early Cretaceous to the Pleistocene based on a new compilation of global data on mollusks mostly from the northern hemisphere.
Abstract: Despite an expectation that predation pressure decreases with increasing latitude, studies on latitudinal variation in gastropod drilling predation through space and time have revealed equivocal trends. Here, we study the latitudinal pattern of gastropod drilling predation from the late Early Cretaceous to the Pleistocene based on a new compilation of global data on mollusks mostly from the northern hemisphere. The study finds a mid-latitudinal (i.e., 21–40°) peak in drilling predation intensity during the Miocene (the only time interval with sufficient data from all latitudinal bins), and a possible mid-latitudinal peak during the Cretaceous. For the Eocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene the middle—and either the lower or higher latitudinal—bins show the highest drilling intensity, therefore suggesting a much flatter latitudinal gradient in drilling predation pattern; the Paleocene and Oligocene lack sufficient data for statistical comparison. The Miocene mid-latitudinal peak remains almost unchanged when analyses are restricted to certain ecological and taxonomic groups. Different abiotic (e.g., temperature) and biotic factors (e.g., generic abundances of the predatory gastropods) alone cannot explain the observed trend. The area of shallow shelf might have played a positive but statistically insignificant role in determining the observed pattern.

11 citations


Cites background or result from "Repair scars on Mactra violacea fro..."

  • ...…has been observed, both in the laboratory and in the field, that drilling gastropods can kill their molluscan prey either by suffocation or by consuming the prey by other non-drilling modes (for review see Visaggi et al. 2013; see also Ansell and Morton 1987; Mondal et al. 2014; Rojas et al. 2015)....

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  • ...However, in the present study, the correlation is positive (q ¼ 0.50), and although not statistically significant, the p value is much closer to the standard, albeit arbitrary (e.g., McDonald 2008; Beninger et al. 2012; also Mondal et al. 2014), 95% significance level....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results of the orthogonal compression tests demonstrated that the fracture force of clams varies from approximately 100’N to 400 N, the effect of the clams´ age on fracture force is more significant than loading orientation and loading speed, therefore, the clam age and ultimate load of fracture should be taken into account during clam production mechanization.
Abstract: In order to provide reference for the development of relevant dredging and processing machinery of the manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum), the clam shell´s microstructure, phase composition, microhardness, nanoindentation hardness and elastic modulus were investigated, the quasi static compression and orthogonal compression tests of live clams were carried out as well. The shell consists of the outer, middle, and inner layer, which correspond with the composite prismatic structure, crossed-lamellar structure, and homogeneous structure, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicated that all the three layers are made up of pure aragonite phase, the outer layer of the shell displays greater intensity and more diffraction peaks than the middle and inner layer. The microhardness of the inner layer, ~ 3.00 GPa, is harder than the middle and outer layer. Both in the middle and outer layers, the microhardnesses of the vertical section perpendicular to the growth lines are obviously higher than that of the cross section parallel to the growth lines. The similar trend was observed in nanoindentation hardness (H) and elastic modulus (E), but the H/E ratios between three layers and two sections are close to 0.05. The quasi static compressive strengths of live clams with loading along the X (beak horizontal), Y (beak upward and umbo downward), and Z (beak vertical) orientations were tested, and the differences were identified. The lowest strength was found with loading orientation Z, the Weibull strength at 50% probabilities of fracture force is just 153 N. The results of the orthogonal compression tests demonstrated that the fracture force of clams varies from approximately 100 N to 400 N, the effect of the clams´ age on fracture force is more significant (p < 0.01) than loading orientation and loading speed. Therefore, the clams´ age and ultimate load of fracture should be taken into account during clam production mechanization, for the purpose of maintaining the clams´ integrity and survival prior to sale.

9 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Body size appears to have evolved as anti-predatory traits in Recent terebrids in terebrid gastropods, and temporally, DF showed fluctuating pattern, with modern values showing declining trend.
Abstract: Predator-prey interaction, especially drilling and shell-breaking predation pressure, caused significant evolutionary changes within these predator-prey communities. Although temporal trends are well understood in prey assemblages, studies to trace such changes within taxonspecific clades up to Recent times have been rare. Here, we studied both the drilling and shell-breaking predation on Recent terebrid gastropods from the Indian subcontinent and compared the results with a newly updated, global database. The major part of our data came from a large collection reposited in the archive of the Zoological Survey of India in Kolkata for more than 100 years. Detailed analyses of this study based on a newly raised, global database revealed the following findings: (1) Drilling frequency (DF) of Indian terebrids was low, but consistent with the DF of only available but limited data provided by Vermeij et al. (1980). In comparison, peeling frequency (PF) in Indian terebrids appeared to be highest in the ...

8 citations


Cites background from "Repair scars on Mactra violacea fro..."

  • ...…may be faulty, use of both the failed (as identified by repaired scars) and successful attack (identified by unrepaired shell breaks) components of predation in tandem are more reliable to better constrain potential paleoecological interpretations (Mondal et al., 2014b; Mondal & Harries, 2015)....

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  • ...In the similar way, for peeling frequency (PF), we calculated the ratio between the total numbers of repaired scars divided by the total numbers of specimens (Vermeij et al., 1980, 1982; Paul et al., 2013; Mondal et al., 2014b, c)....

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  • ...…also studied peeling predation on Recent terebrids and disputed the hypothesis of Vermeij et al. (1980), suggesting “that repair marks are not an adequate index of turritelliform shell’s vulnerability to durophagous predators” (for similar suggestion: Mondal et al., 2014b; Mondal & Harries, 2015)....

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  • ...…Harper & Kelly, 2012), has been extensively studied to test several aspects of predator-prey evolutionary dynamics in modern (Vermeij et al., 1980; Mondal et al., 2010a, 2014a; Paul et al., 2013; Das et al., 2014) as well as in the fossil record (Allmon et al., 1990; Kelley & Hansen, 1993, 2003;…...

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  • ...…Mondal et al., 2010a, 2014a; Paul et al., 2013; Das et al., 2014) as well as in the fossil record (Allmon et al., 1990; Kelley & Hansen, 1993, 2003; Mondal et al., 2014b; Mondal & Harries, 2015; Mallick et al., 2014, & references 1Department of Applied Geology, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad,…...

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The substantial increase of snail-shell sturdiness beginning in the Early Cretaceous has accompanied, and was perhaps in response to, the evolution of powerful, relatively small, shell-destroying predators such as teleosts, stomatopods, and decapod crustaceans.
Abstract: Tertiary and Recent marine gastropods include in their ranks a complement of mechanically sturdy forms unknown in earlier epochs. Open coiling, planispiral coiling, and umbilici detract from shell sturdiness, and were commoner among Paleozoic and Early Meso- zoic gastropods than among younger forms. Strong external sculpture, narrow elongate aper- tures, and apertural dentition promote resistance to crushing predation and are primarily as- sociated with post-Jurassic mesogastropods, neogastropods, and neritaceans. The ability to remodel the interior of the shell, developed primarily in gastropods with a non-nacreous shell structure, has contributed greatly to the acquisition of these antipredatory features. The substantial increase of snail-shell sturdiness beginning in the Early Cretaceous has accompanied, and was perhaps in response to, the evolution of powerful, relatively small, shell-destroying predators such as teleosts, stomatopods, and decapod crustaceans. A simul- taneous intensification of grazing, also involving skeletal destruction, brought with it other fundamental changes in benthic community structure in the Late Mesozoic, including a trend toward infaunalization and the disappearance or environmental restriction of sessile animals which cannot reattach once they are dislodged. The rise and diversification of angiosperms and the animals dependent on them for food coincides with these and other Mesozoic events in the marine benthos and plankton. The new predators and prey which evolved in conjunction with the Mesozoic reorganiza- tion persisted through episodes of extinction and biological crisis. Possibly, continental breakup and the wide extent of climatic belts during the Late Mesozoic contributed to the conditions favorable to the evolution of skeleton-destroying consumers. This tendency may have been exaggerated by an increase in shelled food supply resulting from the occupation of new adaptive zones by infaunal bivalves and by shell-inhabiting hermit crabs. Marine communities have not remained in equilibrium over their entire geological history. Biotic revolutions made certain modes of life obsolete and resulted in other adaptive zones becoming newly occupied.

923 citations


"Repair scars on Mactra violacea fro..." refers background in this paper

  • ...…and neontological studies (Vermeij, 1982; Alexander and Dietl, 2001; Paul et al., 2013; Mondal et al., 2014b), peeling predators use their claws to chip away small portion of the shell during feeding (Vermeij, 1977; Zipser and Vermeij, 1978; Seed and Hughes, 1995; Sanford et al., 2003)....

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  • ..., 2014b), peeling predators use their claws to chip away small portion of the shell during feeding (Vermeij, 1977; Zipser and Vermeij, 1978; Seed and Hughes, 1995; Sanford et al., 2003)....

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Book ChapterDOI

834 citations


"Repair scars on Mactra violacea fro..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Shallow burrower bivalves evolved thicker shell to avoid boring gastropods and physical shell breakage (Carter, 1968; Stanley, 1970)....

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  • ...Depth of pallial sinus was calculated for different growth stages in order to examine the relative change in burrowing depth with age (Stanley, 1970)....

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  • ...Second, M. violacea has quite large and thick shell, which is related to shallow depth of burial (Stanley, 1970, figure 30)....

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  • ...M. Violacea burrows a considerable depth (the adult length may exceed 8.5 cm.) to make it fully infaunal and for this reason may be alternatively considered as a deep burrowing bivalve (cf. Stanley, 1970; Ingole, 2002; Laxmilatha et al., 2010)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Patterns in antipredatory selection from high to low latitudes and altitudes, from fresh to salt water, and from Paleozoic to Recent time, and accord with previous evidence and predictions are revealed.
Abstract: The theory of evolution by natural selection requires the recognition of aptations. A given genetic variant can be shown to have an advantage over another with respect to an individual's viability in a given environment if (1) some individuals in the population reproduce after an encounter with the agent of selection for which the variant is believed to be beneficial, and (2) the beneficial variant has a higher frequency among individuals which have survived encounters with the agent than among those which died as a result of the encounter or among those which did not encounter the agent. In the special case of evolution of antipredatory features, unsuccessful predation is a necessary condition. A literature survey of 60 predaceous species reveals that unsuccessful predation is widespread; only 19 of 100 prey species (19%) were attacked in one or more vulnerable size classes with an efficiency (measured after the prey was detected) of 90% or more. The nature and effectiveness of antipredatory defenses can...

391 citations


"Repair scars on Mactra violacea fro..." refers background in this paper

  • ..., 2010b for references), which might be responsible for this jagged scars (Vermeij, 1982; Boulding, 1984)....

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  • ...As reported by many paleontological and neontological studies (Vermeij, 1982; Alexander and Dietl, 2001; Paul et al., 2013; Mondal et al., 2014b), peeling predators use their claws to chip away small portion of the shell during feeding (Vermeij, 1977; Zipser and Vermeij, 1978; Seed and Hughes, 1995; Sanford et al....

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  • ...As reported by many paleontological and neontological studies (Vermeij, 1982; Alexander and Dietl, 2001; Paul et al., 2013; Mondal et al., 2014b), peeling predators use their claws to chip away small portion of the shell during feeding (Vermeij, 1977; Zipser and Vermeij, 1978; Seed and Hughes,…...

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  • ...Chandipur has diverse groups of durophagous predators, including crabs (see Mondal et al., 2010b for references), which might be responsible for this jagged scars (Vermeij, 1982; Boulding, 1984)....

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  • ...Survival may enhance the chances of reproduction of the individuals of the species and contribute to the adaptation against shell breaks in the long run (Vermeij, 1982)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 2002
TL;DR: A survey of sampling protocols (data collecting strategy, sieve size, and sample size) and analytical approaches (predation intensity metrics, strategies for evaluating behavioral selectivity of predators, and taphonomic tests) reveals that various approaches can be fruitful depending on logistic circumstances and scientific goals of paleoecological projects as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Paleontological research on predation has been expanding rapidly in scope, methods, and goals. The growing assortment of research strategies and goals has led to increasing differences in sampling strategies, types of data collected, definition of variables, and even reporting style. This methodological overview serves as a starting point for erecting some general methodological guidelines for studying the fossil record of predation. I focus here on trace fossils left by predators in the skeleton of their prey, arguably one of the most powerful sources of direct data on predator-prey interactions available in the fossil record. A critical survey of sampling protocols (data collecting strategy, sieve size, and sample size) and analytical approaches (predation intensity metrics, strategies for evaluating behavioral selectivity of predators, and taphonomic tests) reveals that various approaches can be fruitful depending on logistic circumstances and scientific goals of paleoecological projects. Despite numerous caveats and uncertainties, trace fossils left by predators on skeletons of their prey remain one of the most promising directions of research in paleoecology and evolutionary paleobiology.

274 citations


"Repair scars on Mactra violacea fro..." refers background in this paper

  • ...It now appears that various abiotic processes can result in shell breaks that can be very similar in morphology with breaks produced by the shellbreaking predators (Alexander and Dietl, 2001, 2003; Dietl, 2003, 2004; see also Kowalewski, 2002)....

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  • ...As Kowalewski (2002) has pointed out, identification of causes of scarring is not always required, because “…such identification efforts can only distract us from the real strength of trace fossils” (p. 10)....

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  • ...In most cases, it is difficult to identify the taxonomic affinity of the ‘culprit’ just by looking at these scars (Kowalewski, 2002)....

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  • ...Irrespective of the cause (i.e., abiotic or biotic) these breaks will affect survival during subsequent encounters with enemies and the environment (see Kowalewski, 2002)....

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  • ...Even more, different predators can produce similar type of breakage (Kowalewski, 2002), and members of the same species of predator can produce morphologically variable traces (e.g., Bromley, 1970; Zipser and Vermeij, 1978; Alexander,...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors define a fragment as being a piece of shell having less than 90% of its original form and outline the potential characteristics, pathways, and fates that shells and their fragments can have.

253 citations


"Repair scars on Mactra violacea fro..." refers background in this paper

  • ...There are multiple causes which can create this kind of damage in modern bivalve assemblages (Zuschin et al., 2003)....

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