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Giulio Di Mizio

Bio: Giulio Di Mizio is a academic researcher from Magna Græcia University. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Population & Migraine. The author has an hindex of 11, co-authored 36 publication(s) receiving 505 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Giulio Di Mizio include American Board of Legal Medicine & University of Catania. more

Topics: Population, Migraine, Brain damage more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS21093104
Giovanni Messina1, Rita Polito1, Vincenzo Monda2, Luigi Cipolloni1  +11 moreInstitutions (6)
Abstract: Background: On the 31 December 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) was informed of a cluster of cases of pneumonia of unknown origin detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. The infection spread first in China and then in the rest of the world, and on the 11th of March, the WHO declared that COVID-19 was a pandemic. Taking into consideration the mortality rate of COVID-19, about 5–7%, and the percentage of positive patients admitted to intensive care units being 9–11%, it should be mandatory to consider and take all necessary measures to contain the COVID-19 infection. Moreover, given the recent evidence in different hospitals suggesting IL-6 and TNF-α inhibitor drugs as a possible therapy for COVID-19, we aimed to highlight that a dietary intervention could be useful to prevent the infection and/or to ameliorate the outcomes during therapy. Considering that the COVID-19 infection can generate a mild or highly acute respiratory syndrome with a consequent release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6 and TNF-α, a dietary regimen modification in order to improve the levels of adiponectin could be very useful both to prevent the infection and to take care of patients, improving their outcomes. more

Topics: Intensive care (57%), Ascorbic acid (50%)

83 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.32074/1591-951X-13-20
Vittorio Fineschi1, Anna Aprile2, Isabella Aquila3, Mauro Arcangeli4  +33 moreInstitutions (16)
01 Jun 2020-Pathologica
Abstract: The COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease-19) is the most urgent health emergency worldwide and all professionals are called to give support in the diagnosis and treatment of patients affected by this disease. The Scientific Society of Hospital Legal Medicine of the National Health System (COMLAS) and the Italian Society of Anatomical Pathology and Cytology (SIAPEC) produced this document with the intent of offering a technical support to professional involved in the autoptic activities during the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic infection. more

Topics: Respiratory infection (60%), Morgue (52%)

61 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1365-2559.2011.03977.X
Ida Perrotta1, Emilio Russo, Caterina Camastra, Gemma Filice  +7 moreInstitutions (1)
01 Sep 2011-Histopathology
Abstract: Perrotta I, Russo E, Camastra C, Filice G, Di Mizio G, Colosimo F, Ricci P, Tripepi S, Amorosi A, Triumbari F & Donato G (2011) Histopathology59, 504–513 New evidence for a critical role of elastin in calcification of native heart valves: immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study with literature review Aims: Calcific aortic stenosis is a progressive disease characterized by massive fibrosis andmineralization of the valve leaflets The aim of this study was to determine whether the onset of native calcific aortic stenosis is associated primarily with matrix remodelling events, and particularly with elastin degradation Methods and results: The immunohistochemical expression profile of matrix degradating enzymes and tenascin-C was investigated in both healthy and native calcified aortic valves Collagen and elastic tissue were studied by light microscopy and electron microscopy Immunophenotypic analysis of inflammatory cells was carried out by using monoclonal antibodies to macrophages, T and B lymphocytes Immunoreactivity for tenascin-C and matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12) was associated with areas of dense mineralization, which were characterized by fibrosis, fragmentation and calcification of elastic fibres a positive reaction was also found around small islands of calcification MMP-11 was not detected in the diseased valves Osteopontin and osteonectin were also found at sites of mineralization All calcified valves examined showed inflammatory cell infiltration Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the direct involvement of MMP-12 in native aortic valve stenosis MMP-mediated degradation of elastic fibres might contribute actively to valve mineralization by inducing calcium deposition onto fragmented elastin more

Topics: Elastin (58%), Calcification (55%), Aortic valve (54%)

61 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/DIAGNOSTICS10080575
09 Aug 2020-
Abstract: (1) Background: The current outbreak of COVID-19 infection is an ongoing challenge and a major threat to public health that requires surveillance, prompt diagnosis, as well as research efforts to understand the viral pathogenesis. Despite this, to date, very few studies have been performed concerning autoptic specimens. Therefore, this study aimed: (i) to reiterate the importance of the autoptic examination, the only method able to precisely define the cause of death; (ii) to provide a complete post-mortem histological and immunohistochemical investigation pattern capable of diagnosing death from COVID-19 infection. (2) Methods: In this paper, the lung examination of two subjects who died from COVID-19 are discussed, comparing the obtained data with those of the control, a newborn who died from pneumonia in the same pandemic period. (3) Results: The results of the present study suggest that COVID-19 infection can cause different forms of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), due to diffuse alveolar damage and diffuse endothelial damage. Nevertheless, different patterns of cellular and cytokine expression are associated with anti-COVID-19 antibody positivity, compared to the control case. Moreover, in both case studies, it is interesting to note that COVID-19, ACE2 and FVIII positivity was detected in the same fields. (4) Conclusions: COVID-19 infection has been initially classified as exclusively interstitial pneumonia with varying degrees of severity. Subsequently, vascular biomarkers showed that it can also be considered a vascular disease. The data on Factor VIII discussed in this paper, although preliminary and limited in number, seem to suggest that the thrombogenicity of Sars-CoV2 infection might be linked to widespread endothelial damage. In this way, it would be very important to investigate the pro-coagulative substrate both in all subjects who died and in COVID-19 survivors. This is because it may be hypothesized that the different patterns with which the pathology is expressed could depend on different individual susceptibility to infection or a different personal genetic-clinical background. In light of these findings, it would be important to perform more post-mortem investigations in order to clarify all aspects of the vascular hypothesis in the COVID-19 infection. more

Topics: Diffuse alveolar damage (59%), ARDS (52%), Vascular disease (50%)

38 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/JCM9072026
Abstract: The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 was identified for the first time in China, in December 2019 Confirmed cases of COVID-19 have been reported around the world; indeed, this infection has been declared a pandemic Consequently, the scientific community is working hard to gain useful information about the history of this virus, its transmission, diagnosis, clinical features, radiological findings, research and development of candidate therapeutics as well as vaccines This review aims to analyze the diagnostic techniques used to ascertain the COVID-19 infection, critically reviewing positive points and criticism for forensic implications, obviously including autopsy Finally, this review proposes a practical workflow to be applied in the management of corpses during this outbreak of the COVID-19 infection, which could be useful in cases of future infectious disease emergencies Analyzing the diagnostic methods, to date, virus nucleic acid RT-PCR represents the standard method used to ascertain the COVID-19 infection in living subjects and corpses, even if this technique has several criticisms: mainly, the staff should be highly specialized, working in high-throughput settings, able to handle high workloads and aware of health risks and the importance of the results Thus, IgG/IgM serological tests have been developed, overcoming RT-qPCR duration, costs, and management, not requiring highly trained personnel Nevertheless, serological tests present problems; the WHO recommends the use of these new point-of-care immunodiagnostic tests only in research settings Furthermore, nothing has yet been published regarding the possibility of applying these methods during post-mortem investigations In light of this scenario, in this review, we suggest a flow chart for the pathologist called on to ascertain the cause of death of a subject with historical and clinical findings of COVID-19 status or without any anamnestic, diagnostic, or exposure information Indeed, the literature data confirmed the analytical vulnerabilities of the kits used for laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19, particularly during postmortem examinations For these reasons, autopsy remains the gold standard method to ascertain the exact cause of death (from or with COVID-19 infection, or other causes), to consequently provide real data for statistical evaluations and to take necessary measures to contain the risks of the infection Moreover, performing autopsies could provide information on the pathogenesis of the COVID-19 infection with obvious therapeutic implications more

27 Citations

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30434-5
Abstract: Summary Background COVID-19 is characterised by respiratory symptoms, which deteriorate into respiratory failure in a substantial proportion of cases, requiring intensive care in up to a third of patients admitted to hospital. Analysis of the pathological features in the lung tissues of patients who have died with COVID-19 could help us to understand the disease pathogenesis and clinical outcomes. Methods We systematically analysed lung tissue samples from 38 patients who died from COVID-19 in two hospitals in northern Italy between Feb 29 and March 24, 2020. The most representative areas identified at macroscopic examination were selected, and tissue blocks (median seven, range five to nine) were taken from each lung and fixed in 10% buffered formalin for at least 48 h. Tissues were assessed with use of haematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemical staining for inflammatory infiltrate and cellular components (including staining with antibodies against CD68, CD3, CD45, CD61, TTF1, p40, and Ki-67), and electron microscopy to identify virion localisation. Findings All cases showed features of the exudative and proliferative phases of diffuse alveolar damage, which included capillary congestion (in all cases), necrosis of pneumocytes (in all cases), hyaline membranes (in 33 cases), interstitial and intra-alveolar oedema (in 37 cases), type 2 pneumocyte hyperplasia (in all cases), squamous metaplasia with atypia (in 21 cases), and platelet–fibrin thrombi (in 33 cases). The inflammatory infiltrate, observed in all cases, was largely composed of macrophages in the alveolar lumina (in 24 cases) and lymphocytes in the interstitium (in 31 cases). Electron microscopy revealed that viral particles were predominantly located in the pneumocytes. Interpretation The predominant pattern of lung lesions in patients with COVID-19 patients is diffuse alveolar damage, as described in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronaviruses. Hyaline membrane formation and pneumocyte atypical hyperplasia are frequent. Importantly, the presence of platelet–fibrin thrombi in small arterial vessels is consistent with coagulopathy, which appears to be common in patients with COVID-19 and should be one of the main targets of therapy. Funding None. more

Topics: Diffuse alveolar damage (59%), Hyaline (54%), Lung (53%) more

689 Citations

Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: municable disease control to the newer responsibilities of the hazards of ionizing radiation and medical defense against atomic attack. The individual topics are adequately developed with emphasis, in the majority, on brevity of presentation rather than complete and exhaustive detail. References are listed after each chapter for the reader desiring more definitive information. \"Epidemiologic Methods and Inferences\" by Dr. Dienfeld and \"Official and Voluntary Health Agencies\" by Dr. Hilleboe are two chapters which offer especially well-organized, succinct, and effective discussions of their respective subjects. The editors state in their preface that they are presenting \". . a new way to look at preventive medicine for the medical students, general practitioners, specialists, and professional workers in official and voluntary health agencies.\" In the opinion of the reviewer, the authors have achieved their purpose by editing a book which is more an introductory text than a reference tome. more

519 Citations

Book ChapterDOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-7893-1_3
Abstract: Collagens are the most abundant components of the extracellular matrix and many types of soft tissues. Elastin is another major component of certain soft tissues, such as arterial walls and ligaments. Many other molecules, though lower in quantity, function as essential components of the extracellular matrix in soft tissues. Some of these are reviewed in this chapter. Besides their basic structure, biochemistry and physiology, their roles in disorders of soft tissues are discussed only briefly as most chapters in this volume deal with relevant individual compounds. Fibronectin with its muldomain structure plays a role of “master organizer” in matrix assembly as it forms a bridge between cell surface receptors, e.g., integrins, and compounds such collagen, proteoglycans and other focal adhesion molecules. It also plays an essential role in the assembly of fibrillin-1 into a structured network. Laminins contribute to the structure of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and modulate cellular functions such as adhesion, differentiation, migration, stability of phenotype, and resistance towards apoptosis. Though the primary role of fibrinogen is in clot formation, after conversion to fibrin by thrombin, it also binds to a variety of compounds, particularly to various growth factors, and as such fibrinogen is a player in cardiovascular and extracellular matrix physiology. Elastin, an insoluble polymer of the monomeric soluble precursor tropoelastin, is the main component of elastic fibers in matrix tissue where it provides elastic recoil and resilience to a variety of connective tissues, e.g., aorta and ligaments. Elastic fibers regulate activity of TGFβs through their association with fibrillin microfibrils. Elastin also plays a role in cell adhesion, cell migration, and has the ability to participate in cell signaling. Mutations in the elastin gene lead to cutis laxa. Fibrillins represent the predominant core of the microfibrils in elastic as well as non-elastic extracellular matrixes, and interact closely with tropoelastin and integrins. Not only do microfibrils provide structural integrity of specific organ systems, but they also provide a scaffold for elastogenesis in elastic tissues. Fibrillin is important for the assembly of elastin into elastic fibers. Mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene are closely associated with Marfan syndrome. Fibulins are tightly connected with basement membranes, elastic fibers and other components of extracellular matrix and participate in formation of elastic fibers. Tenascins are ECM polymorphic glycoproteins found in many connective tissues in the body. Their expression is regulated by mechanical stress both during development and in adulthood. Tenascins mediate both inflammatory and fibrotic processes to enable effective tissue repair and play roles in pathogenesis of Ehlers-Danlos, heart disease, and regeneration and recovery of musculo-tendinous tissue. One of the roles of thrombospondin 1 is activation of TGFβ. Increased expression of thrombospondin and TGFβ activity was observed in fibrotic skin disorders such as keloids and scleroderma. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) or thrombospondin-5 is primarily present in the cartilage. High levels of COMP are present in fibrotic scars and systemic sclerosis of the skin, and in tendon, especially with physical activity, loading and post-injury. It plays a role in vascular wall remodeling and has been found in atherosclerotic plaques as well. more

Topics: Fibrillin (70%), Fibrillin Microfibrils (65%), Elastin (64%) more

302 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3109/10408444.2013.835786
Abstract: The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) are important nuclear receptors involved in the regulation of cellular responses from exposure to many xenobiotics and various physiological processes. Phenobarbital (PB) is a non-genotoxic indirect CAR activator, which induces cytochrome P450 (CYP) and other xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and is known to produce liver foci/tumors in mice and rats. From literature data, a mode of action (MOA) for PB-induced rodent liver tumor formation was developed. A MOA for PXR activators was not established owing to a lack of suitable data. The key events in the PB-induced liver tumor MOA comprise activation of CAR followed by altered gene expression specific to CAR activation, increased cell proliferation, formation of altered hepatic foci and ultimately the development of liver tumors. Associative events in the MOA include altered epigenetic changes, induction of hepatic CYP2B enzymes, liver hypertrophy and decreased apoptosis; with inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication being an associative event or modulating factor. The MOA was evaluated using the modified Bradford Hill criteria for causality and other possible MOAs were excluded. While PB produces liver tumors in rodents, important species differences were identified including a lack of cell proliferation in cultured human hepatocytes. The MOA for PB-induced rodent liver tumor formation was considered to be qualitatively not plausible for humans. This conclusion is supported by data from a number of epidemiological studies conducted in human populations chronically exposed to PB in which there is no clear evidence for increased liver tumor risk. more

Topics: Constitutive androstane receptor (61%), Pregnane X receptor (55%), Liver tumor (54%) more

181 Citations


Author's H-index: 11

No. of papers from the Author in previous years

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Author's top 5 most impactful journals


4 papers, 16 citations

Journal of Clinical Medicine

3 papers, 45 citations


2 papers, 1 citations

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