Other affiliations: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Indian Institutes of Technology, University of Calcutta ...read more
Bio: Mainak Sengupta is an academic researcher from Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur. The author has contributed to research in topics: Switched reluctance motor & Albinism. The author has an hindex of 14, co-authored 107 publications receiving 1003 citations. Previous affiliations of Mainak Sengupta include Council of Scientific and Industrial Research & Indian Institutes of Technology.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: High levels of genetic divergence are observed between groups of populations that cluster largely on the basis of ethnicity and language in diverse populations of India.
Abstract: Analyses of frequency profiles of markers on disease or drug-response related genes in diverse populations are important for the dissection of common diseases. We report the results of analyses of data on 405 SNPs from 75 such genes and a 5.2 Mb chromosome, 22 genomic region in 1871 individuals from diverse 55 endogamous Indian populations. These include 32 large (>10 million individuals) and 23 isolated populations, representing a large fraction of the people of India. We observe high levels of genetic divergence between groups of populations that cluster largely on the basis of ethnicity and language. Indian populations not only overlap with the diversity of HapMap populations, but also contain population groups that are genetically distinct. These data and results are useful for addressing stratification and study design issues in complex traits especially for heterogeneous populations.
TL;DR: Results show a protective role of GSTM1 null in arsenic toxicity and indicate that asymptomatic individuals are sub clinically affected and are also significantly susceptible to arsenic‐induced genotoxicity.
Abstract: In West Bengal, India, more than 300,000 arsenic-exposed people are showing symptoms of arsenic toxicity, which include cancers of skin and different internal organs. Since only 15-20% of the exposed population manifest arsenic-induced skin lesions, it is thought that genetic variation might play an important role in arsenic toxicity and carcinogenicity. A total of 422 unrelated arsenic-exposed subjects (244 skin-symptomatic and 178 asymptomatic) were recruited for this study. Cytogenetic damage, as measured by chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes and micronuclei formation in oral mucosa cells, urothelial cells and binucleated lymphocytes, was studied in unexposed, skin-symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals with similar socioeconomic status. Identification of null mutations in GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes were carried out by PCR amplification. GSTP1 SNPs, implicated in susceptibility to various cancers, were assessed by PCR-RFLP method. Symptomatic individuals had higher level of cytogenetic damage compared to asymptomatic individuals and asymptomatic individuals had significantly higher genotoxicity than unexposed individuals. No difference in allelic variants in GSTT1 and GSTP1 was observed between these 2 groups. Incidence of GSTM1 null gene frequencies was significantly higher in the asymptomatic group. Individuals with GSTM1-positive (at least one allele) had significantly higher risk of arsenic-induced skin lesions (odds ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-2.22). These results show a protective role of GSTM1 null in arsenic toxicity. This study also indicates that asymptomatic individuals are sub clinically affected and are also significantly susceptible to arsenic-induced genotoxicity.
TL;DR: Two additional possibilities are proposed, which on further investigations might shed light on the molecular basis of UCMs in TYR of OCA1 patients; partial deletion of the exons 4 and 5 region of TYR that is homologous with TYRL and variations in the polymorphic GA complex repeat located between distal and proximal elements of the human TYR promoter that can modulate the expression of the gene leading to disease pathogenesis.
Abstract: Tyrosinase (TYR) is a multifunctional copper-containing glycoenzyme (approximately 80 kDa), which plays a key role in the rate-limiting steps of the melanin biosynthetic pathway. This membrane-bound protein, possibly evolved by the fusion of two different copper-binding proteins, is mainly expressed in epidermal, ocular and follicular melanocytes. In the melanocytes, TYR functions as an integrated unit with other TYR-related proteins (TYRP1, TYRP2), lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1) and melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptors; thus forming a melanogenic complex. Mutations in the TYR gene (TYR, 11q14-21, MIM 606933) cause oculocutaneous albinism type 1 (OCA1, MIM 203100), a developmental disorder having an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. In addition, TYR can act as a modifier locus for primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) and it also contributes significantly in the eye developmental process. Expression of TYR during neuroblast division helps in later pathfinding by retinal ganglion cells from retina to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. However, mutation screening of TYR is complicated by the presence of a pseudogene-TYR like segment (TYRL, 11p11.2, MIM 191270), sharing approximately 98% sequence identity with the 3' region of TYR. Thus, in absence of a full-proof strategy, any nucleotide variants identified in the 3' region of TYR could actually be present in TYRL. Interestingly, despite extensive search, the second TYR mutation in 15% of the OCA1 cases remains unidentified. Several possible locations of these "uncharacterized mutations" (UCMs) have been speculated so far. Based on the structure of TYR gene, its sequence context and some experimental evidences, we propose two additional possibilities, which on further investigations might shed light on the molecular basis of UCMs in TYR of OCA1 patients; (i) partial deletion of the exons 4 and 5 region of TYR that is homologous with TYRL and (ii) variations in the polymorphic GA complex repeat located between distal and proximal elements of the human TYR promoter that can modulate the expression of the gene leading to disease pathogenesis.
TL;DR: The neurological involvement score was devised to capture the spectrum of neurological involvement in WD patients and generated a genotype-phenotype matrix that could be effectively used to depict the phenotypic spectra of WD affected individuals and serve as a platform to identify prospective "outliers" to be investigated for their remarkable phenotypesic divergence.
Abstract: Wilson disease (WD) is caused by defects in ATP7B gene due to impairment of normal function of the copper transporting P-type ATPase. This study describes a comprehensive genetic analysis of 199 Indian WD patients including mutations detected in our previous studies, undertakes functional assessment of the nucleotide variants in ATP7B promoter and correlates genotype with disease phenotype. The patient cohort harbors a total of 10 common and 48 rare mutations in the coding region of ATP7B including 21 novel changes. The common mutations represent 74% of characterized coding mutant alleles with p.C271X (63/260) and p.G1101R (7/31) being the most prevalent in eastern and western Indian patients, respectively. The mutation spectrum between east and west is mostly different with only three mutations (p.G1061E, p.N1270S and p.A1049A-fs) being shared between both the groups. Eight novel and 10 reported variants have been detected in the promoter and non-coding regions (5' and 3'UTRs) of ATP7B. Promoter reporter assay demonstrated that 3 novel variants and 5 reported polymorphisms alter the gene expression to a considerable extent; hence might play important role in ATP7B gene regulation. We devised the neurological involvement score to capture the spectrum of neurological involvement in WD patients. By utilizing the age at onset, neurological involvement score and ATP7B mutation background, we generated a genotype-phenotype matrix that could be effectively used to depict the phenotypic spectra of WD affected individuals and serve as a platform to identify prospective "outliers" to be investigated for their remarkable phenotypic divergence.
01 Feb 2015
TL;DR: In this article, the authors describe the integrative analysis of 111 reference human epigenomes generated as part of the NIH Roadmap Epigenomics Consortium, profiled for histone modification patterns, DNA accessibility, DNA methylation and RNA expression.
Abstract: The reference human genome sequence set the stage for studies of genetic variation and its association with human disease, but epigenomic studies lack a similar reference. To address this need, the NIH Roadmap Epigenomics Consortium generated the largest collection so far of human epigenomes for primary cells and tissues. Here we describe the integrative analysis of 111 reference human epigenomes generated as part of the programme, profiled for histone modification patterns, DNA accessibility, DNA methylation and RNA expression. We establish global maps of regulatory elements, define regulatory modules of coordinated activity, and their likely activators and repressors. We show that disease- and trait-associated genetic variants are enriched in tissue-specific epigenomic marks, revealing biologically relevant cell types for diverse human traits, and providing a resource for interpreting the molecular basis of human disease. Our results demonstrate the central role of epigenomic information for understanding gene regulation, cellular differentiation and human disease.
01 Sep 2010
TL;DR: It is predicted that there will be an excess of recessive diseases in India, which should be possible to screen and map genetically and is higher in traditionally upper caste and Indo-European speakers.
Abstract: India has been underrepresented in genome-wide surveys of human variation. We analyse 25 diverse groups in India to provide strong evidence for two ancient populations, genetically divergent, that are ancestral to most Indians today. One, the 'Ancestral North Indians' (ANI), is genetically close to Middle Easterners, Central Asians, and Europeans, whereas the other, the 'Ancestral South Indians' (ASI), is as distinct from ANI and East Asians as they are from each other. By introducing methods that can estimate ancestry without accurate ancestral populations, we show that ANI ancestry ranges from 39-71% in most Indian groups, and is higher in traditionally upper caste and Indo-European speakers. Groups with only ASI ancestry may no longer exist in mainland India. However, the indigenous Andaman Islanders are unique in being ASI-related groups without ANI ancestry. Allele frequency differences between groups in India are larger than in Europe, reflecting strong founder effects whose signatures have been maintained for thousands of years owing to endogamy. We therefore predict that there will be an excess of recessive diseases in India, which should be possible to screen and map genetically.
TL;DR: This review presents in depth discussions of all these classes of Cu enzymes and the correlations within and among these classes, as well as the present understanding of the enzymology, kinetics, geometric structures, electronic structures and the reaction mechanisms these have elucidated.
Abstract: Based on its generally accessible I/II redox couple and bioavailability, copper plays a wide variety of roles in nature that mostly involve electron transfer (ET), O2 binding, activation and reduction, NO2− and N2O reduction and substrate activation. Copper sites that perform ET are the mononuclear blue Cu site that has a highly covalent CuII-S(Cys) bond and the binuclear CuA site that has a Cu2S(Cys)2 core with a Cu-Cu bond that keeps the site delocalized (Cu(1.5)2) in its oxidized state. In contrast to inorganic Cu complexes, these metalloprotein sites transfer electrons rapidly often over long distances, as has been previously reviewed.1–4 Blue Cu and CuA sites will only be considered here in their relation to intramolecular ET in multi-center enzymes. The focus of this review is on the Cu enzymes (Figure 1). Many are involved in O2 activation and reduction, which has mostly been thought to involve at least two electrons to overcome spin forbiddenness and the low potential of the one electron reduction to superoxide (Figure 2).5,6 Since the Cu(III) redox state has not been observed in biology, this requires either more than one Cu center or one copper and an additional redox active organic cofactor. The latter is formed in a biogenesis reaction of a residue (Tyr) that is also Cu catalyzed in the first turnover of the protein. Recently, however, there have been a number of enzymes suggested to utilize one Cu to activate O2 by 1e− reduction to form a Cu(II)-O2•− intermediate (an innersphere redox process) and it is important to understand the active site requirements to drive this reaction. The oxidases that catalyze the 4e−reduction of O2 to H2O are unique in that they effectively perform this reaction in one step indicating that the free energy barrier for the second two-electron reduction of the peroxide product of the first two-electron step is very low. In nature this requires either a trinuclear Cu cluster (in the multicopper oxidases) or a Cu/Tyr/Heme Fe cluster (in the cytochrome oxidases). The former accomplishes this with almost no overpotential maximizing its ability to oxidize substrates and its utility in biofuel cells, while the latter class of enzymes uses the excess energy to pump protons for ATP synthesis. In bacterial denitrification, a mononuclear Cu center catalyzes the 1e- reduction of nitrite to NO while a unique µ4S2−Cu4 cluster catalyzes the reduction of N2O to N2 and H2O, a 2e− process yet requiring 4Cu’s. Finally there are now several classes of enzymes that utilize an oxidized Cu(II) center to activate a covalently bound substrate to react with O2. Figure 1 Copper active sites in biology. Figure 2 Latimer Diagram for Oxygen Reduction at pH = 7.0 Adapted from References 5 and 6. This review presents in depth discussions of all these classes of Cu enzymes and the correlations within and among these classes. For each class we review our present understanding of the enzymology, kinetics, geometric structures, electronic structures and the reaction mechanisms these have elucidated. While the emphasis here is on the enzymology, model studies have significantly contributed to our understanding of O2 activation by a number of Cu enzymes and are included in appropriate subsections of this review. In general we will consider how the covalency of a Cu(II)–substrate bond can activate the substrate for its spin forbidden reaction with O2, how in binuclear Cu enzymes the exchange coupling between Cu’s overcomes the spin forbiddenness of O2 binding and controls electron transfer to O2 to direct catalysis either to perform two e− electrophilic aromatic substitution or 1e− H-atom abstraction, the type of oxygen intermediate that is required for H-atom abstraction from the strong C-H bond of methane (104 kcal/mol) and how the trinuclear Cu cluster and the Cu/Tyr/Heme Fe cluster achieve their very low barriers for the reductive cleavage of the O-O bond. Much of the insight available into these mechanisms in Cu biochemistry has come from the application of a wide range of spectroscopies and the correlation of spectroscopic results to electronic structure calculations. Thus we start with a tutorial on the different spectroscopic methods utilized to study mononuclear and multinuclear Cu enzymes and their correlations to different levels of electronic structure calculations.