Author

# Nuria Llombart

Other affiliations: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, University of California, Los Angeles, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research ...read more

Bio: Nuria Llombart is an academic researcher from Delft University of Technology. The author has contributed to research in topics: Terahertz radiation & Antenna (radio). The author has an hindex of 31, co-authored 257 publications receiving 4343 citations. Previous affiliations of Nuria Llombart include Jet Propulsion Laboratory & University of California, Los Angeles.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

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TL;DR: A summary of the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory's 675 GHz imaging radar is presented, with an emphasis on several key design aspects that enable fast, reliable through-clothes imaging of person-borne concealed objects.

Abstract: A summary of the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory's 675 GHz imaging radar is presented, with an emphasis on several key design aspects that enable fast, reliable through-clothes imaging of person-borne concealed objects. Using the frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar technique with a nearly 30 GHz bandwidth, sub-centimeter range resolution is achieved. To optimize the radar's range resolution, a reliable software calibration procedure compensates for signal distortion from radar waveform nonlinearities. Low-noise, high dynamic range detection comes from the radar's heterodyne RF architecture, low-noise chirp source, and high-performance 675 GHz transceiver. The radar's optical design permits low-distortion fast beam scanning for single-pixel imaging, and a real-time radar image frame rate of 1 Hz is now possible. Still faster speeds are on the horizon as multi-beam THz transceivers are developed.

695 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a high-resolution imaging radar operating at 576-605 GHz is capable of detecting weapons concealed by clothing at standoff ranges of 4-25 m. The present system can image a torso with <1 cm resolution at 4 m standoff in about five minutes.

Abstract: We show experimentally that a high-resolution imaging radar operating at 576-605 GHz is capable of detecting weapons concealed by clothing at standoff ranges of 4-25 m. We also demonstrate the critical advantage of 3-D image reconstruction for visualizing hidden objects using active-illumination coherent terahertz imaging. The present system can image a torso with <1 cm resolution at 4 m standoff in about five minutes. Greater standoff distances and much higher frame rates should be achievable by capitalizing on the bandwidth, output power, and compactness of solid state Schottky-diode based terahertz mixers and multiplied sources.

345 citations

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Cardiff University

^{1}, California Institute of Technology^{2}, University of Toronto^{3}, Harvard University^{4}, Jet Propulsion Laboratory^{5}, University of Minnesota^{6}, University of British Columbia^{7}, Stanford University^{8}, University of California, San Diego^{9}, University of Chicago^{10}TL;DR: The BICEP2 telescope as mentioned in this paper measured the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on angular scales of 1 to 5 degrees, near the expected peak of the B-mode polarization signature of primordial gravitational waves from cosmic inflation.

Abstract: We report on the design and performance of the BICEP2 instrument and on its three-year data set. BICEP2 was designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on angular scales of 1 to 5 degrees ($\ell$=40-200), near the expected peak of the B-mode polarization signature of primordial gravitational waves from cosmic inflation. Measuring B-modes requires dramatic improvements in sensitivity combined with exquisite control of systematics. The BICEP2 telescope observed from the South Pole with a 26~cm aperture and cold, on-axis, refractive optics. BICEP2 also adopted a new detector design in which beam-defining slot antenna arrays couple to transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers, all fabricated on a common substrate. The antenna-coupled TES detectors supported scalable fabrication and multiplexed readout that allowed BICEP2 to achieve a high detector count of 500 bolometers at 150 GHz, giving unprecedented sensitivity to B-modes at degree angular scales. After optimization of detector and readout parameters, BICEP2 achieved an instrument noise-equivalent temperature of 15.8 $\mu$K sqrt(s). The full data set reached Stokes Q and U map depths of 87.2 nK in square-degree pixels (5.2 $\mu$K arcmin) over an effective area of 384 square degrees within a 1000 square degree field. These are the deepest CMB polarization maps at degree angular scales to date. The power spectrum analysis presented in a companion paper has resulted in a significant detection of B-mode polarization at degree scales.

253 citations

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Cardiff University

^{1}, California Institute of Technology^{2}, University of British Columbia^{3}, European Southern Observatory^{4}, University of Toronto^{5}, Harvard University^{6}, University of Minnesota^{7}, University of Grenoble^{8}, National Institute of Standards and Technology^{9}, Stanford University^{10}, University of California, San Diego^{11}, University of Chicago^{12}TL;DR: The BICEP2 telescope as discussed by the authors measured the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on angular scales of 1°-5° (l = 40-200), near the expected peak of the B-mode polarization signature of primordial gravitational waves from cosmic inflation.

Abstract: We report on the design and performance of the BICEP2 instrument and on its three-year data set. BICEP2 was designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on angular scales of 1°-5°(l = 40-200), near the expected peak of the B-mode polarization signature of primordial gravitational waves from cosmic inflation. Measuring B-modes requires dramatic improvements in sensitivity combined with exquisite control of systematics. The BICEP2 telescope observed from the South Pole with a 26 cm aperture and cold, on-axis, refractive optics. BICEP2 also adopted a new detector design in which beam-defining slot antenna arrays couple to transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers, all fabricated on a common substrate. The antenna-coupled TES detectors supported scalable fabrication and multiplexed readout that allowed BICEP2 to achieve a high detector count of 500 bolometers at 150 GHz, giving unprecedented sensitivity to B-modes at degree angular scales. After optimization of detector and readout parameters, BICEP2 achieved an instrument noise-equivalent temperature of $15.8\ \mu \mathrm{K}\sqrt{\mathrm{s}}$. The full data set reached Stokes Q and U map depths of 87.2 nK in square-degree pixels (5farcm2 μK) over an effective area of 384 deg2 within a 1000 deg2 field. These are the deepest CMB polarization maps at degree angular scales to date. The power spectrum analysis presented in a companion paper has resulted in a significant detection of B-mode polarization at degree scales.

199 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the design and analysis of planar circularly symmetric (PCS) electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structures for reducing the surface waves excited by printed antennas on dense dielectric substrates are discussed.

Abstract: This paper discusses the design and analysis of planar circularly symmetric (PCS) electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structures for reducing the surface waves excited by printed antennas on dense dielectric substrates. The key advantage of the circularly symmetric geometries is that a surface wave generated by a source located at its center experiences the same band gap effect in all radial directions. To obtain simple design rules of the PCS-EBGs for the optimization of the bandwidth, an equivalence is established between 2-D-EBGs and PCS-EBGs. Integrated planar printed antennas with bandwidths up to 20% are designed, manufactured and tested.

149 citations

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TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.

Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

33,785 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors report on the implications for cosmic inflation of the 2018 Release of the Planck CMB anisotropy measurements, which are fully consistent with the two previous Planck cosmological releases, but have smaller uncertainties thanks to improvements in the characterization of polarization at low and high multipoles.

Abstract: We report on the implications for cosmic inflation of the 2018 Release of the Planck CMB anisotropy measurements. The results are fully consistent with the two previous Planck cosmological releases, but have smaller uncertainties thanks to improvements in the characterization of polarization at low and high multipoles. Planck temperature, polarization, and lensing data determine the spectral index of scalar perturbations to be $n_\mathrm{s}=0.9649\pm 0.0042$ at 68% CL and show no evidence for a scale dependence of $n_\mathrm{s}.$ Spatial flatness is confirmed at a precision of 0.4% at 95% CL with the combination with BAO data. The Planck 95% CL upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, $r_{0.002}<0.10$, is further tightened by combining with the BICEP2/Keck Array BK15 data to obtain $r_{0.002}<0.056$. In the framework of single-field inflationary models with Einstein gravity, these results imply that: (a) slow-roll models with a concave potential, $V" (\phi) < 0,$ are increasingly favoured by the data; and (b) two different methods for reconstructing the inflaton potential find no evidence for dynamics beyond slow roll. Non-parametric reconstructions of the primordial power spectrum consistently confirm a pure power law. A complementary analysis also finds no evidence for theoretically motivated parameterized features in the Planck power spectrum, a result further strengthened for certain oscillatory models by a new combined analysis that includes Planck bispectrum data. The new Planck polarization data provide a stringent test of the adiabaticity of the initial conditions. The polarization data also provide improved constraints on inflationary models that predict a small statistically anisotropic quadrupolar modulation of the primordial fluctuations. However, the polarization data do not confirm physical models for a scale-dependent dipolar modulation.

3,438 citations

01 Jan 2016

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present the principles of optics electromagnetic theory of propagation interference and diffraction of light, which can be used to find a good book with a cup of coffee in the afternoon, instead of facing with some infectious bugs inside their computer.

Abstract: Thank you for reading principles of optics electromagnetic theory of propagation interference and diffraction of light. As you may know, people have search hundreds times for their favorite novels like this principles of optics electromagnetic theory of propagation interference and diffraction of light, but end up in harmful downloads. Rather than enjoying a good book with a cup of coffee in the afternoon, instead they are facing with some infectious bugs inside their computer.

2,213 citations

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Peter A. R. Ade

^{1}, Nabila Aghanim^{2}, Monique Arnaud^{3}, Frederico Arroja^{4}+321 more•Institutions (79)TL;DR: In this article, the authors present the implications for cosmic inflation of the Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies in both temperature and polarization based on the full Planck survey.

Abstract: We present the implications for cosmic inflation of the Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies in both temperature and polarization based on the full Planck survey, which includes more than twice the integration time of the nominal survey used for the 2013 release papers. The Planck full mission temperature data and a first release of polarization data on large angular scales measure the spectral index of curvature perturbations to be ns = 0.968 ± 0.006 and tightly constrain its scale dependence to dns/ dlnk = −0.003 ± 0.007 when combined with the Planck lensing likelihood. When the Planck high-l polarization data are included, the results are consistent and uncertainties are further reduced. The upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio is r0.002< 0.11 (95% CL). This upper limit is consistent with the B-mode polarization constraint r< 0.12 (95% CL) obtained from a joint analysis of the BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck data. These results imply that V(φ) ∝ φ2 and natural inflation are now disfavoured compared to models predicting a smaller tensor-to-scalar ratio, such as R2 inflation. We search for several physically motivated deviations from a simple power-law spectrum of curvature perturbations, including those motivated by a reconstruction of the inflaton potential not relying on the slow-roll approximation. We find that such models are not preferred, either according to a Bayesian model comparison or according to a frequentist simulation-based analysis. Three independent methods reconstructing the primordial power spectrum consistently recover a featureless and smooth over the range of scales 0.008 Mpc-1 ≲ k ≲ 0.1 Mpc-1. At large scales, each method finds deviations from a power law, connected to a deficit at multipoles l ≈ 20−40 in the temperature power spectrum, but at an uncompelling statistical significance owing to the large cosmic variance present at these multipoles. By combining power spectrum and non-Gaussianity bounds, we constrain models with generalized Lagrangians, including Galileon models and axion monodromy models. The Planck data are consistent with adiabatic primordial perturbations, and the estimated values for the parameters of the base Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model are not significantly altered when more general initial conditions are admitted. In correlated mixed adiabatic and isocurvature models, the 95% CL upper bound for the non-adiabatic contribution to the observed CMB temperature variance is | αnon - adi | < 1.9%, 4.0%, and 2.9% for CDM, neutrino density, and neutrino velocity isocurvature modes, respectively. We have tested inflationary models producing an anisotropic modulation of the primordial curvature power spectrum findingthat the dipolar modulation in the CMB temperature field induced by a CDM isocurvature perturbation is not preferred at a statistically significant level. We also establish tight constraints on a possible quadrupolar modulation of the curvature perturbation. These results are consistent with the Planck 2013 analysis based on the nominal mission data and further constrain slow-roll single-field inflationary models, as expected from the increased precision of Planck data using the full set of observations.

1,401 citations

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Peter A. R. Ade

^{1}, Nabila Aghanim^{2}, Zeeshan Ahmed^{3}, Randol W. Aikin^{4}+354 more•Institutions (75)TL;DR: Strong evidence for dust and no statistically significant evidence for tensor modes is found and various model variations and extensions are probe, including adding a synchrotron component in combination with lower frequency data, and find that these make little difference to the r constraint.

Abstract: We report the results of a joint analysis of data from BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck. BICEP2 and Keck Array have observed the same approximately 400 deg2 patch of sky centered on RA 0h, Dec. −57.5deg. The combined maps reach a depth of 57 nK deg in Stokes Q and U in a band centered at 150 GHz. Planck has observed the full sky in polarization at seven frequencies from 30 to 353 GHz, but much less deeply in any given region (1.2 μK deg in Q and U at 143 GHz). We detect 150×353 cross-correlation in B-modes at high significance. We fit the single- and cross-frequency power spectra at frequencies above 150 GHz to a lensed-ΛCDM model that includes dust and a possible contribution from inflationary gravitational waves (as parameterized by the tensor-to-scalar ratio r). We probe various model variations and extensions, including adding a synchrotron component in combination with lower frequency data, and find that these make little difference to the r constraint. Finally we present an alternative analysis which is similar to a map-based cleaning of the dust contribution, and show that this gives similar constraints. The final result is expressed as a likelihood curve for r, and yields an upper limit r0.05<0.12 at 95% confidence. Marginalizing over dust and r, lensing B-modes are detected at 7.0σ significance.

1,255 citations