Author

# Robert Quimby

Other affiliations: University of Texas at Austin, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of Tokyo

Bio: Robert Quimby is an academic researcher from California Institute of Technology. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Supernova & Gamma-ray burst. The author has an hindex of 38, co-authored 62 publication(s) receiving 20835 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Robert Quimby include University of Texas at Austin & Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

Topics: Supernova, Gamma-ray burst, Light curve, Galaxy, Redshift

##### Papers

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University of California, Berkeley

^{1}, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory^{2}, Instituto Superior Técnico^{3}, Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University^{4}, Stockholm University^{5}, European Southern Observatory^{6}, Collège de France^{7}, University of Cambridge^{8}, University of Barcelona^{9}, Yale University^{10}, Space Telescope Science Institute^{11}, European Space Agency^{12}, University of New South Wales^{13}TL;DR: In this paper, the mass density, Omega_M, and cosmological-constant energy density of the universe were measured using the analysis of 42 Type Ia supernovae discovered by the Supernova Cosmology project.

Abstract: We report measurements of the mass density, Omega_M, and
cosmological-constant energy density, Omega_Lambda, of the universe based on
the analysis of 42 Type Ia supernovae discovered by the Supernova Cosmology
Project. The magnitude-redshift data for these SNe, at redshifts between 0.18
and 0.83, are fit jointly with a set of SNe from the Calan/Tololo Supernova
Survey, at redshifts below 0.1, to yield values for the cosmological
parameters. All SN peak magnitudes are standardized using a SN Ia lightcurve
width-luminosity relation. The measurement yields a joint probability
distribution of the cosmological parameters that is approximated by the
relation 0.8 Omega_M - 0.6 Omega_Lambda ~= -0.2 +/- 0.1 in the region of
interest (Omega_M <~ 1.5). For a flat (Omega_M + Omega_Lambda = 1) cosmology we
find Omega_M = 0.28{+0.09,-0.08} (1 sigma statistical) {+0.05,-0.04}
(identified systematics). The data are strongly inconsistent with a Lambda = 0
flat cosmology, the simplest inflationary universe model. An open, Lambda = 0
cosmology also does not fit the data well: the data indicate that the
cosmological constant is non-zero and positive, with a confidence of P(Lambda >
0) = 99%, including the identified systematic uncertainties. The best-fit age
of the universe relative to the Hubble time is t_0 = 14.9{+1.4,-1.1} (0.63/h)
Gyr for a flat cosmology. The size of our sample allows us to perform a variety
of statistical tests to check for possible systematic errors and biases. We
find no significant differences in either the host reddening distribution or
Malmquist bias between the low-redshift Calan/Tololo sample and our
high-redshift sample. The conclusions are robust whether or not a
width-luminosity relation is used to standardize the SN peak magnitudes.

15,392 citations

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Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy

^{1}, Vanderbilt University^{2}, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory^{3}, Stockholm University^{4}, Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University^{5}, Colorado College^{6}, University of California, Berkeley^{7}, American Astronomical Society^{8}, University of Tokyo^{9}, California Institute of Technology^{10}, Instituto Superior Técnico^{11}, Space Telescope Science Institute^{12}, University of Oxford^{13}, European Southern Observatory^{14}, University of Barcelona^{15}, École Polytechnique^{16}, University of Texas at Austin^{17}, Durham University^{18}, University of Cambridge^{19}TL;DR: In this paper, a set of high-redshift supernovae were used to confirm previous supernova evidence for an accelerating universe, and the supernova results were combined with independent flat-universe measurements of the mass density from CMB and galaxy redshift distortion data, they provided a measurement of $w=-1.05^{+0.15}-0.09$ if w is assumed to be constant in time.

Abstract: We report measurements of $\Omega_M$, $\Omega_\Lambda$, and w from eleven supernovae at z=0.36-0.86 with high-quality lightcurves measured using WFPC-2 on the HST. This is an independent set of high-redshift supernovae that confirms previous supernova evidence for an accelerating Universe. Combined with earlier Supernova Cosmology Project data, the new supernovae yield a flat-universe measurement of the mass density $\Omega_M=0.25^{+0.07}_{-0.06}$ (statistical) $\pm0.04$ (identified systematics), or equivalently, a cosmological constant of $\Omega_\Lambda=0.75^{+0.06}_{-0.07}$ (statistical) $\pm0.04$ (identified systematics). When the supernova results are combined with independent flat-universe measurements of $\Omega_M$ from CMB and galaxy redshift distortion data, they provide a measurement of $w=-1.05^{+0.15}_{-0.20}$ (statistical) $\pm0.09$ (identified systematic), if w is assumed to be constant in time. The new data offer greatly improved color measurements of the high-redshift supernovae, and hence improved host-galaxy extinction estimates. These extinction measurements show no anomalous negative E(B-V) at high redshift. The precision of the measurements is such that it is possible to perform a host-galaxy extinction correction directly for individual supernovae without any assumptions or priors on the parent E(B-V) distribution. Our cosmological fits using full extinction corrections confirm that dark energy is required with $P(\Omega_\Lambda>0)>0.99$, a result consistent with previous and current supernova analyses which rely upon the identification of a low-extinction subset or prior assumptions concerning the intrinsic extinction distribution.

1,623 citations

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TL;DR: The Type IIn supernova (SN) 2006gy is the most luminous supernova known to date as discussed by the authors, with a peak visual magnitude of about -22, its very slow rise to maximum took ~70 days, and it stayed brighter than -21 mag for about 100 days.

Abstract: We report the discovery and early observations of the peculiar Type IIn supernova (SN) 2006gy in NGC 1260. With a peak visual magnitude of about -22, it is the most luminous supernova ever recorded. Its very slow rise to maximum took ~70 days, and it stayed brighter than -21 mag for about 100 days. It is not yet clear what powers the enormous luminosity and the total radiated energy of ~1051 erg, but we argue that any known mechanism—thermal emission, circumstellar interaction, or 56Ni decay—requires a very massive progenitor star. The circumstellar interaction hypothesis would require truly exceptional conditions around the star, which, in the decades before its death, must have experienced a luminous blue variable (LBV) eruption like the 19th century eruption of η Carinae. However, this scenario fails to explain the weak and unabsorbed soft X-rays detected by Chandra. Radioactive decay of 56Ni may be a less objectionable hypothesis, but it would imply a large Ni mass of ~22 M☉, requiring SN 2006gy to have been a pair-instability supernova where the star's core was obliterated. While this is still uncertain, SN 2006gy is the first supernova for which we have good reason to suspect a pair-instability explosion. Based on a number of lines of evidence, we eliminate the hypothesis that SN 2006gy was a ``Type IIa'' event, that is, a white dwarf exploding inside a hydrogen envelope. Instead, we propose that the progenitor was a very massive evolved object like η Carinae that, contrary to expectations, failed to shed its hydrogen envelope. SN 2006gy implies that some of the most massive stars can explode prematurely during the LBV phase, never becoming Wolf-Rayet stars. SN 2006gy also suggests that they can create brilliant supernovae instead of experiencing ignominious deaths through direct collapse to a black hole. If such a fate is common among the most massive stars, then observable supernovae from Population III stars in the early universe will be more numerous than previously believed.

540 citations

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TL;DR: The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) as mentioned in this paper is an international experiment designed to lay the foundation for the next generation of cosmology experiments (such as CFHTLS, wP, SNAP and LSST) which will measure the expansion history of the Universe using Type Ia supernovae.

Abstract: Overview of the Nearby Supernova Factory G. Aldering a , G. Adam b , P. Antilogus c , P. Astier d , R. Bacon b , S. Bongard c , C. Bonnaud b , Y. Copin c , D. Hardin d , F. Henault b , D. A. Howell a , J.-P. Lemonnier b , J.-M. Levy d , S. Loken a , P. Nugent a , R. Pain d , A. Pecontal b , E. Pecontal b , S. Perlmutter a , R. Quimby a , K. Schahmaneche d , G. Smadja c , and W.M. Wood-Vasey a , the Nearby Supernova Factory collaboration Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA, USA de Recherche Astronomique, Universite Lyon I and Ecole Normale Superieure, Lyon, France c Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Lyon I, Lyon, France d Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Energies, Universites Paris VI and VII, Paris, France b Centre a Lawrence ABSTRACT The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) is an international experiment designed to lay the foundation for the next generation of cosmology experiments (such as CFHTLS, wP, SNAP and LSST) which will measure the expansion history of the Universe using Type Ia supernovae. The SNfactory will discover and obtain frequent lightcurve spectrophotome- try covering 3200-10000 A for roughly 300 Type Ia supernovae at the low-redshift end of the smooth Hubble ﬂow. The quantity, quality, breadth of galactic environments, and homogeneous nature of the SNfactory dataset will make it the premier source of calibration for the Type Ia supernova width-brightness relation and the intrinsic supernova colors used for K-correction and correction for extinction by host-galaxy dust. This dataset will also allow an extensive investiga- tion of additional parameters which possibly inﬂuence the quality of Type Ia supernovae as cosmological probes. The SNfactory search capabilities and follow-up instrumentation include wide-ﬁeld CCD imagers on two 1.2-m telescopes (via collaboration with the Near Earth Asteroid Tracking team at JPL and the QUEST team at Yale), and a two-channel integral-ﬁeld-unit optical spectrograph/imager being fabricated for the University of Hawaii 2.2-m telescope. In addition to ground-based follow-up, UV spectra for a subsample of these supernovae will be obtained with HST. The pipeline to obtain, transfer via wireless and standard internet, and automatically process the search images is in operation. Software and hardware development is now underway to enable the execution of follow-up spectroscopy of supernova candidates at the Hawaii 2.2-m telescope via automated remote control of the telescope and the IFU spectrograph/imager. Keywords: supernova, survey, cosmology, integral-ﬁeld-unit, spectrograph 1. PROBING DARK ENERGY WITH SUPERNOVAE A coherent view of the universe is emerging in which a mysterious form of “dark energy” accounts for about 2/3 of the total energy density in the Universe. Direct evidence for this radical conclusion comes from distance measurements of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia; see Fig. 1) which indicate the expansion of the Universe is not slowing down as would be expected in a Universe ﬁlled with only matter and radiation. 1, 2 Further support for this result has come from recent measurements of the CMB indicating a ﬂat universe, 3 combined with determinations of Ω M ∼ 0.3 from structure formation. SNe Ia remain the most mature cosmological distance indicator, and therefore, offer the best current means of exper- imentally probing the properties of the dark energy. Their cosmological use was developed in the early 1990’s, paving the way for the discovery of dark energy. 1, 4–10 Now similar developmental efforts are needed so that the next order of magnitude improvement of the experimental constraints on the properties of dark energy can be made. Progress must be made on two fronts, at a level which cannot be pursued with existing programs alone. First a large number of nearby SNe must be observed in an appropriate fashion since they provide the fulcrum of the lever-arm needed to make cosmological inferences from high-redshift SNe observations. Furthermore, these SNe provide the critical Correspondence: e-mail galdering@lbl.gov; telephone 510-495-2203

295 citations

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TL;DR: The Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) provides multiple epoch imaging for a large fraction of the celestial sphere as discussed by the authors, which enables the calibration of fields that are outside the SDSS footprint.

Abstract: The Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) provides multiple epoch imaging for a large fraction of the celestial sphere. Here, we describe the photometric calibration of the PTF data products that allows the PTF magnitudes to be related to other magnitude systems. The calibration process utilizes Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) r ∼ 16 mag point-source objects as photometric standards. During photometric conditions, this allows us to solve for the extinction coefficients and color terms and to estimate the camera illumination correction. This also enables the calibration of fields that are outside the SDSS footprint. We test the precision and repeatability of the PTF photometric calibration. Given that PTF is observing in a single filter each night, we define a PTF calibrated magnitude system for the R band and g band. We show that, in this system, ≈59% (47%) of the photometrically calibrated PTF R-band (g-band) data achieve a photometric precision of 0.02–0.04 mag and have color terms and extinction coefficients that are close to their average values. Given the objects’ color, the PTF magnitude system can be converted to other systems. Moreover, a night-by-night comparison of the calibrated magnitudes of individual stars observed on multiple nights shows that they are consistent to a level of ≈0.02 mag. Most of the data that were taken under nonphotometric conditions can be calibrated relative to other epochs of the same sky footprint obtained during photometric conditions. We provide a concise guide describing how to use the PTF photometric-calibration data products, as well as the transformations between the PTF magnitude system and the SDSS and Johnson-Cousins systems.

177 citations

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University of Texas at Austin

^{1}, Princeton University^{2}, University of Oxford^{3}, Johns Hopkins University^{4}, Goddard Space Flight Center^{5}, University of Toronto^{6}, University of British Columbia^{7}, University of Chicago^{8}, Brown University^{9}, University of California, Los Angeles^{10}TL;DR: In this article, a combination of seven-year data from WMAP and improved astrophysical data rigorously tests the standard cosmological model and places new constraints on its basic parameters and extensions.

Abstract: The combination of seven-year data from WMAP and improved astrophysical data rigorously tests the standard cosmological model and places new constraints on its basic parameters and extensions. By combining the WMAP data with the latest distance measurements from the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in the distribution of galaxies and the Hubble constant (H0) measurement, we determine the parameters of the simplest six-parameter ΛCDM model. The power-law index of the primordial power spectrum is ns = 0.968 ± 0.012 (68% CL) for this data combination, a measurement that excludes the Harrison–Zel’dovich–Peebles spectrum by 99.5% CL. The other parameters, including those beyond the minimal set, are also consistent with, and improved from, the five-year results. We find no convincing deviations from the minimal model. The seven-year temperature power spectrum gives a better determination of the third acoustic peak, which results in a better determination of the redshift of the matter-radiation equality epoch. Notable examples of improved parameters are the total mass of neutrinos, � mν < 0.58 eV (95% CL), and the effective number of neutrino species, Neff = 4.34 +0.86 −0.88 (68% CL), which benefit from better determinations of the third peak and H0. The limit on a constant dark energy equation of state parameter from WMAP+BAO+H0, without high-redshift Type Ia supernovae, is w =− 1.10 ± 0.14 (68% CL). We detect the effect of primordial helium on the temperature power spectrum and provide a new test of big bang nucleosynthesis by measuring Yp = 0.326 ± 0.075 (68% CL). We detect, and show on the map for the first time, the tangential and radial polarization patterns around hot and cold spots of temperature fluctuations, an important test of physical processes at z = 1090 and the dominance of adiabatic scalar fluctuations. The seven-year polarization data have significantly improved: we now detect the temperature–E-mode polarization cross power spectrum at 21σ , compared with 13σ from the five-year data. With the seven-year temperature–B-mode cross power spectrum, the limit on a rotation of the polarization plane due to potential parity-violating effects has improved by 38% to Δα =− 1. 1 ± 1. 4(statistical) ± 1. 5(systematic) (68% CL). We report significant detections of the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ) effect at the locations of known clusters of galaxies. The measured SZ signal agrees well with the expected signal from the X-ray data on a cluster-by-cluster basis. However, it is a factor of 0.5–0.7 times the predictions from “universal profile” of Arnaud et al., analytical models, and hydrodynamical simulations. We find, for the first time in the SZ effect, a significant difference between the cooling-flow and non-cooling-flow clusters (or relaxed and non-relaxed clusters), which can explain some of the discrepancy. This lower amplitude is consistent with the lower-than-theoretically expected SZ power spectrum recently measured by the South Pole Telescope Collaboration.

10,928 citations

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Peter A. R. Ade

^{1}, Nabila Aghanim^{2}, Monique Arnaud^{3}, M. Ashdown^{4}+334 more•Institutions (82)TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a cosmological analysis based on full-mission Planck observations of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation.

Abstract: This paper presents cosmological results based on full-mission Planck observations of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Our results are in very good agreement with the 2013 analysis of the Planck nominal-mission temperature data, but with increased precision. The temperature and polarization power spectra are consistent with the standard spatially-flat 6-parameter ΛCDM cosmology with a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations (denoted “base ΛCDM” in this paper). From the Planck temperature data combined with Planck lensing, for this cosmology we find a Hubble constant, H0 = (67.8 ± 0.9) km s-1Mpc-1, a matter density parameter Ωm = 0.308 ± 0.012, and a tilted scalar spectral index with ns = 0.968 ± 0.006, consistent with the 2013 analysis. Note that in this abstract we quote 68% confidence limits on measured parameters and 95% upper limits on other parameters. We present the first results of polarization measurements with the Low Frequency Instrument at large angular scales. Combined with the Planck temperature and lensing data, these measurements give a reionization optical depth of τ = 0.066 ± 0.016, corresponding to a reionization redshift of . These results are consistent with those from WMAP polarization measurements cleaned for dust emission using 353-GHz polarization maps from the High Frequency Instrument. We find no evidence for any departure from base ΛCDM in the neutrino sector of the theory; for example, combining Planck observations with other astrophysical data we find Neff = 3.15 ± 0.23 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom, consistent with the value Neff = 3.046 of the Standard Model of particle physics. The sum of neutrino masses is constrained to ∑ mν < 0.23 eV. The spatial curvature of our Universe is found to be very close to zero, with | ΩK | < 0.005. Adding a tensor component as a single-parameter extension to base ΛCDM we find an upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r0.002< 0.11, consistent with the Planck 2013 results and consistent with the B-mode polarization constraints from a joint analysis of BICEP2, Keck Array, and Planck (BKP) data. Adding the BKP B-mode data to our analysis leads to a tighter constraint of r0.002 < 0.09 and disfavours inflationarymodels with a V(φ) ∝ φ2 potential. The addition of Planck polarization data leads to strong constraints on deviations from a purely adiabatic spectrum of fluctuations. We find no evidence for any contribution from isocurvature perturbations or from cosmic defects. Combining Planck data with other astrophysical data, including Type Ia supernovae, the equation of state of dark energy is constrained to w = −1.006 ± 0.045, consistent with the expected value for a cosmological constant. The standard big bang nucleosynthesis predictions for the helium and deuterium abundances for the best-fit Planck base ΛCDM cosmology are in excellent agreement with observations. We also constraints on annihilating dark matter and on possible deviations from the standard recombination history. In neither case do we find no evidence for new physics. The Planck results for base ΛCDM are in good agreement with baryon acoustic oscillation data and with the JLA sample of Type Ia supernovae. However, as in the 2013 analysis, the amplitude of the fluctuation spectrum is found to be higher than inferred from some analyses of rich cluster counts and weak gravitational lensing. We show that these tensions cannot easily be resolved with simple modifications of the base ΛCDM cosmology. Apart from these tensions, the base ΛCDM cosmology provides an excellent description of the Planck CMB observations and many other astrophysical data sets.

10,334 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors find that the emerging standard model of cosmology, a flat -dominated universe seeded by a nearly scale-invariant adiabatic Gaussian fluctuations, fits the WMAP data.

Abstract: WMAP precision data enable accurate testing of cosmological models. We find that the emerging standard model of cosmology, a flat � -dominated universe seeded by a nearly scale-invariant adiabatic Gaussian fluctuations, fits the WMAP data. For the WMAP data only, the best-fit parameters are h ¼ 0:72 � 0:05, � bh 2 ¼ 0:024 � 0:001, � mh 2 ¼ 0:14 � 0:02, � ¼ 0:166 þ0:076 � 0:071 , ns ¼ 0:99 � 0:04, and � 8 ¼ 0:9 � 0:1. With parameters fixed only by WMAP data, we can fit finer scale cosmic microwave background (CMB) measure- ments and measurements of large-scale structure (galaxy surveys and the Lyforest). This simple model is also consistent with a host of other astronomical measurements: its inferred age of the universe is consistent with stellar ages, the baryon/photon ratio is consistent with measurements of the (D/H) ratio, and the inferred Hubble constant is consistent with local observations of the expansion rate. We then fit the model parameters to a combination of WMAP data with other finer scale CMB experiments (ACBAR and CBI), 2dFGRS measurements, and Lyforest data to find the model's best-fit cosmological parameters: h ¼ 0:71 þ0:04 � 0:03 , � bh 2 ¼ 0:0224 � 0:0009, � mh 2 ¼ 0:135 þ0:008 � 0:009 , � ¼ 0:17 � 0:06, ns(0.05 Mpc � 1 )=0 :93 � 0:03, and � 8 ¼ 0:84 � 0:04. WMAP's best determination of � ¼ 0:17 � 0:04 arises directly from the temperature- polarization (TE) data and not from this model fit, but they are consistent. These parameters imply that the age of the universe is 13:7 � 0:2 Gyr. With the Lyforest data, the model favors but does not require a slowly varying spectral index. The significance of this running index is sensitive to the uncertainties in the Ly� forest. By combining WMAP data with other astronomical data, we constrain the geometry of the universe, � tot ¼ 1:02 � 0:02, and the equation of state of the dark energy, w < � 0:78 (95% confidence limit assuming w �� 1). The combination of WMAP and 2dFGRS data constrains the energy density in stable neutrinos: � � h 2 < 0:0072 (95% confidence limit). For three degenerate neutrino species, this limit implies that their mass is less than 0.23 eV (95% confidence limit). The WMAP detection of early reionization rules out warm dark matter. Subject headings: cosmic microwave background — cosmological parameters — cosmology: observations — early universe On-line material: color figure

10,236 citations

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Peter A. R. Ade

^{1}, Nabila Aghanim^{2}, C. Armitage-Caplan^{3}, Monique Arnaud^{4}+324 more•Institutions (70)TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present the first cosmological results based on Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and lensing-potential power spectra, which are extremely well described by the standard spatially-flat six-parameter ΛCDM cosmology with a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations.

Abstract: This paper presents the first cosmological results based on Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and lensing-potential power spectra. We find that the Planck spectra at high multipoles (l ≳ 40) are extremely well described by the standard spatially-flat six-parameter ΛCDM cosmology with a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations. Within the context of this cosmology, the Planck data determine the cosmological parameters to high precision: the angular size of the sound horizon at recombination, the physical densities of baryons and cold dark matter, and the scalar spectral index are estimated to be θ∗ = (1.04147 ± 0.00062) × 10-2, Ωbh2 = 0.02205 ± 0.00028, Ωch2 = 0.1199 ± 0.0027, and ns = 0.9603 ± 0.0073, respectively(note that in this abstract we quote 68% errors on measured parameters and 95% upper limits on other parameters). For this cosmology, we find a low value of the Hubble constant, H0 = (67.3 ± 1.2) km s-1 Mpc-1, and a high value of the matter density parameter, Ωm = 0.315 ± 0.017. These values are in tension with recent direct measurements of H0 and the magnitude-redshift relation for Type Ia supernovae, but are in excellent agreement with geometrical constraints from baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) surveys. Including curvature, we find that the Universe is consistent with spatial flatness to percent level precision using Planck CMB data alone. We use high-resolution CMB data together with Planck to provide greater control on extragalactic foreground components in an investigation of extensions to the six-parameter ΛCDM model. We present selected results from a large grid of cosmological models, using a range of additional astrophysical data sets in addition to Planck and high-resolution CMB data. None of these models are favoured over the standard six-parameter ΛCDM cosmology. The deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity isinsensitive to the addition of tensor modes and to changes in the matter content of the Universe. We find an upper limit of r0.002< 0.11 on the tensor-to-scalar ratio. There is no evidence for additional neutrino-like relativistic particles beyond the three families of neutrinos in the standard model. Using BAO and CMB data, we find Neff = 3.30 ± 0.27 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom, and an upper limit of 0.23 eV for the sum of neutrino masses. Our results are in excellent agreement with big bang nucleosynthesis and the standard value of Neff = 3.046. We find no evidence for dynamical dark energy; using BAO and CMB data, the dark energy equation of state parameter is constrained to be w = -1.13-0.10+0.13. We also use the Planck data to set limits on a possible variation of the fine-structure constant, dark matter annihilation and primordial magnetic fields. Despite the success of the six-parameter ΛCDM model in describing the Planck data at high multipoles, we note that this cosmology does not provide a good fit to the temperature power spectrum at low multipoles. The unusual shape of the spectrum in the multipole range 20 ≲ l ≲ 40 was seen previously in the WMAP data and is a real feature of the primordial CMB anisotropies. The poor fit to the spectrum at low multipoles is not of decisive significance, but is an “anomaly” in an otherwise self-consistent analysis of the Planck temperature data.

6,641 citations

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Princeton University

^{1}, Cornell University^{2}, University of Toronto^{3}, Goddard Space Flight Center^{4}, Johns Hopkins University^{5}, University of Texas at Austin^{6}, University of Chicago^{7}, University of Pennsylvania^{8}, University of British Columbia^{9}, Brown University^{10}TL;DR: In this article, a simple cosmological model with only six parameters (matter density, Omega_m h^2, baryon density, BH density, Hubble Constant, H_0, amplitude of fluctuations, sigma_8, optical depth, tau, and a slope for the scalar perturbation spectrum, n_s) was proposed to fit the three-year WMAP temperature and polarization data.

Abstract: A simple cosmological model with only six parameters (matter density, Omega_m h^2, baryon density, Omega_b h^2, Hubble Constant, H_0, amplitude of fluctuations, sigma_8, optical depth, tau, and a slope for the scalar perturbation spectrum, n_s) fits not only the three year WMAP temperature and polarization data, but also small scale CMB data, light element abundances, large-scale structure observations, and the supernova luminosity/distance relationship. Using WMAP data only, the best fit values for cosmological parameters for the power-law flat LCDM model are (Omega_m h^2, Omega_b h^2, h, n_s, tau, sigma_8) = 0.1277+0.0080-0.0079, 0.02229+-0.00073, 0.732+0.031-0.032, 0.958+-0.016, 0.089+-0.030, 0.761+0.049-0.048). The three year data dramatically shrink the allowed volume in this six dimensional parameter space. Assuming that the primordial fluctuations are adiabatic with a power law spectrum, the WMAP data_alone_ require dark matter, and favor a spectral index that is significantly less than the Harrison-Zel'dovich-Peebles scale-invariant spectrum (n_s=1, r=0). Models that suppress large-scale power through a running spectral index or a large-scale cut-off in the power spectrum are a better fit to the WMAP and small scale CMB data than the power-law LCDM model: however, the improvement in the fit to the WMAP data is only Delta chi^2 = 3 for 1 extra degree of freedom. The combination of WMAP and other astronomical data yields significant constraints on the geometry of the universe, the equation of state of the dark energy, the gravitational wave energy density, and neutrino properties. Consistent with the predictions of simple inflationary theories, we detect no significant deviations from Gaussianity in the CMB maps.

5,799 citations