Author

# Warrick J. Couch

Other affiliations: Australian National University, Australian Astronomical Observatory, University of New South Wales

Bio: Warrick J. Couch is an academic researcher from Swinburne University of Technology. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Galaxy & Galaxy cluster. The author has an hindex of 109, co-authored 410 publication(s) receiving 63088 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Warrick J. Couch include Australian National University & Australian Astronomical Observatory.

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Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

^{1}, University of California, Berkeley^{2}, Instituto Superior Técnico^{3}, Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University^{4}, Stockholm University^{5}, European Southern Observatory^{6}, Collège de France^{7}, University of Cambridge^{8}, University of Barcelona^{9}, Yale University^{10}, Space Telescope Science Institute^{11}, European Space Agency^{12}, University of New South Wales^{13}TL;DR: In this paper, the mass density, Omega_M, and cosmological-constant energy density of the universe were measured using the analysis of 42 Type Ia supernovae discovered by the Supernova Cosmology project.

Abstract: We report measurements of the mass density, Omega_M, and
cosmological-constant energy density, Omega_Lambda, of the universe based on
the analysis of 42 Type Ia supernovae discovered by the Supernova Cosmology
Project. The magnitude-redshift data for these SNe, at redshifts between 0.18
and 0.83, are fit jointly with a set of SNe from the Calan/Tololo Supernova
Survey, at redshifts below 0.1, to yield values for the cosmological
parameters. All SN peak magnitudes are standardized using a SN Ia lightcurve
width-luminosity relation. The measurement yields a joint probability
distribution of the cosmological parameters that is approximated by the
relation 0.8 Omega_M - 0.6 Omega_Lambda ~= -0.2 +/- 0.1 in the region of
interest (Omega_M <~ 1.5). For a flat (Omega_M + Omega_Lambda = 1) cosmology we
find Omega_M = 0.28{+0.09,-0.08} (1 sigma statistical) {+0.05,-0.04}
(identified systematics). The data are strongly inconsistent with a Lambda = 0
flat cosmology, the simplest inflationary universe model. An open, Lambda = 0
cosmology also does not fit the data well: the data indicate that the
cosmological constant is non-zero and positive, with a confidence of P(Lambda >
0) = 99%, including the identified systematic uncertainties. The best-fit age
of the universe relative to the Hubble time is t_0 = 14.9{+1.4,-1.1} (0.63/h)
Gyr for a flat cosmology. The size of our sample allows us to perform a variety
of statistical tests to check for possible systematic errors and biases. We
find no significant differences in either the host reddening distribution or
Malmquist bias between the low-redshift Calan/Tololo sample and our
high-redshift sample. The conclusions are robust whether or not a
width-luminosity relation is used to standardize the SN peak magnitudes.

15,392 citations

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Australian National University

^{1}, University of Oxford^{2}, University of Nottingham^{3}, University of St Andrews^{4}, Durham University^{5}, Liverpool John Moores University^{6}, University of New South Wales^{7}, University of Cambridge^{8}, California Institute of Technology^{9}, Johns Hopkins University^{10}, University of Leeds^{11}, University of Edinburgh^{12}TL;DR: The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) as mentioned in this paper uses the 2DF multifibre spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope, which is capable of observing 400 objects simultaneously over a 2° diameter field.

Abstract: The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) is designed to measure redshifts for approximately 250 000 galaxies. This paper describes the survey design, the spectroscopic observations, the redshift measurements and the survey data base. The 2dFGRS uses the 2dF multifibre spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope, which is capable of observing 400 objects simultaneously over a 2° diameter field. The source catalogue for the survey is a revised and extended version of the APM galaxy catalogue, and the targets are galaxies with extinction-corrected magnitudes brighter than b J = 19.45. The main survey regions are two declination strips, one in the southern Galactic hemisphere spanning 80° × 15° around the SGP, and the other in the northern Galactic hemisphere spanning 75° × 10° along the celestial equator; in addition, there are 99 fields spread over the southern Galactic cap. The survey covers 2000 deg 2 and has a median depth of z = 0.11. Adaptive tiling is used to give a highly uniform sampling rate of 93 per cent over the whole survey region. Redshifts are measured from spectra covering 3600-8000 A at a two-pixel resolution of 9.0 A and a median S/N of 13 pixel - 1 . All redshift identifications are visually checked and assigned a quality parameter Q in the range 1-5; Q ≥ 3 redshifts are 98.4 per cent reliable and have an rms uncertainty of 85 km s - 1 . The overall redshift completeness for Q ≥ 3 redshifts is 91.8 per cent, but this varies with magnitude from 99 per cent for the brightest galaxies to 90 per cent for objects at the survey limit. The 2dFGRS data base is available on the World Wide Web at http://www. mso.anu.edu.au/2dFGRS.

2,221 citations

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TL;DR: The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) as discussed by the authors uses the 2DF multi-fibre spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope, which is capable of observing 400 objects simultaneously over a 2-degree diameter field.

Abstract: The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) is designed to measure redshifts for approximately 250000 galaxies. This paper describes the survey design, the spectroscopic observations, the redshift measurements and the survey database. The 2dFGRS uses the 2dF multi-fibre spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope, which is capable of observing 400 objects simultaneously over a 2-degree diameter field. The source catalogue for the survey is a revised and extended version of the APM galaxy catalogue, and the targets are galaxies with extinction-corrected magnitudes brighter than b_J=19.45. The main survey regions are two declination strips, one in the southern Galactic hemisphere spanning 80deg x 15deg around the SGP, and the other in the northern Galactic hemisphere spanning 75deg x 10deg along the celestial equator; in addition, there are 99 fields spread over the southern Galactic cap. The survey covers 2000 sq.deg and has a median depth of z=0.11. Adaptive tiling is used to give a highly uniform sampling rate of 93% over the whole survey region. Redshifts are measured from spectra covering 3600A-8000A at a two-pixel resolution of 9.0A and a median S/N of 13 per pixel. All redshift identifications are visually checked and assigned a quality parameter Q in the range 1-5; Q>=3 redshifts are 98.4% reliable and have an rms uncertainty of 85 km/s. The overall redshift completeness for Q>=3 redshifts is 91.8%, but this varies with magnitude from 99% for the brightest galaxies to 90% for objects at the survey limit. The 2dFGRS database is available on the WWW at this http URL

1,916 citations

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Durham University

^{1}, University of Edinburgh^{2}, ETH Zurich^{3}, Johns Hopkins University^{4}, Queen's University^{5}, Liverpool John Moores University^{6}, University of New South Wales^{7}, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory^{8}, University of Bristol^{9}, Australian National University^{10}, University of Cambridge^{11}, California Institute of Technology^{12}, Australia Telescope National Facility^{13}, University College London^{14}, University of Nottingham^{15}TL;DR: In this paper, a power-spectrum analysis of the final 2DF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) employing a direct Fourier method is presented, and the covariance matrix is determined using two different approaches to the construction of mock surveys, which are used to demonstrate that the input cosmological model can be correctly recovered.

Abstract: We present a power-spectrum analysis of the final 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS), employing a direct Fourier method. The sample used comprises 221 414 galaxies with measured redshifts. We investigate in detail the modelling of the sample selection, improving on previous treatments in a number of respects. A new angular mask is derived, based on revisions to the photometric calibration. The redshift selection function is determined by dividing the survey according to rest-frame colour, and deducing a self-consistent treatment of k-corrections and evolution for each population. The covariance matrix for the power-spectrum estimates is determined using two different approaches to the construction of mock surveys, which are used to demonstrate that the input cosmological model can be correctly recovered. We discuss in detail the possible differences between the galaxy and mass power spectra, and treat these using simulations, analytic models and a hybrid empirical approach. Based on these investigations, we are confident that the 2dFGRS power spectrum can be used to infer the matter content of the universe. On large scales, our estimated power spectrum shows evidence for the ‘baryon oscillations’ that are predicted in cold dark matter (CDM) models. Fitting to a CDM model, assuming a primordial n s = 1 spectrum, h = 0.72 and negligible neutrino mass, the preferred

1,813 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors used a light-curve width-corrected magnitudes as a function of redshift of distant (z = 0.35-0.46) supernovae to obtain a global measurement of the mass density.

Abstract: We have developed a technique to systematically discover and study high-redshift supernovae that can be used to measure the cosmological parameters. We report here results based on the initial seven of more than 28 supernovae discovered to date in the high-redshift supernova search of the Supernova Cosmology Project. We find an observational dispersion in peak magnitudes of ? -->MB=0.27; this dispersion narrows to ?MB, corr=0.19 after correcting the magnitudes using the light-curve width-luminosity relation found for nearby (z ? 0.1) Type Ia supernovae from the Cal?n/Tololo survey (Hamuy et al.). Comparing light-curve width-corrected magnitudes as a function of redshift of our distant (z = 0.35-0.46) supernovae to those of nearby Type Ia supernovae yields a global measurement of the mass density, ?M${r M}$ -->=0.88 -->+ 0.69?0.60 for a ? = 0 cosmology. For a spatially flat universe (i.e., ?M + ?? = 1), we find ?M${r M}$ -->=0.94 -->+ 0.34?0.28 or, equivalently, a measurement of the cosmological constant, ??=0.06 -->+ 0.28?0.34 ( < 0.51 at the 95% confidence level). For the more general Friedmann-Lema?tre cosmologies with independent ?M and ??, the results are presented as a confidence region on the ?M-?? plane. This region does not correspond to a unique value of the deceleration parameter q0. We present analyses and checks for statistical and systematic errors and also show that our results do not depend on the specifics of the width-luminosity correction. The results for ??-versus-?M are inconsistent with ?-dominated, low-density, flat cosmologies that have been proposed to reconcile the ages of globular cluster stars with higher Hubble constant values.

1,207 citations

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University of California, Berkeley

^{1}, Harvard University^{2}, Pontifical Catholic University of Chile^{3}, University of Washington^{4}, Space Telescope Science Institute^{5}, European Southern Observatory^{6}, Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy^{7}, University of Michigan^{8}, University of Hawaii^{9}TL;DR: In this article, the authors used spectral and photometric observations of 10 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the redshift range 0.16 " z " 0.62.

Abstract: We present spectral and photometric observations of 10 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the redshift range 0.16 " z " 0.62. The luminosity distances of these objects are determined by methods that employ relations between SN Ia luminosity and light curve shape. Combined with previous data from our High-z Supernova Search Team and recent results by Riess et al., this expanded set of 16 high-redshift supernovae and a set of 34 nearby supernovae are used to place constraints on the following cosmo- logical parameters: the Hubble constant the mass density the cosmological constant (i.e., the (H 0 ), () M ), vacuum energy density, the deceleration parameter and the dynamical age of the universe ) " ), (q 0 ), ) M \ 1) methods. We estimate the dynamical age of the universe to be 14.2 ^ 1.7 Gyr including systematic uncer- tainties in the current Cepheid distance scale. We estimate the likely e†ect of several sources of system- atic error, including progenitor and metallicity evolution, extinction, sample selection bias, local perturbations in the expansion rate, gravitational lensing, and sample contamination. Presently, none of these e†ects appear to reconcile the data with and ) " \ 0 q 0 " 0.

15,427 citations

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University of California, Berkeley

^{1}, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory^{2}, Instituto Superior Técnico^{3}, Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University^{4}, Stockholm University^{5}, European Southern Observatory^{6}, Collège de France^{7}, University of Cambridge^{8}, University of Barcelona^{9}, Yale University^{10}, Space Telescope Science Institute^{11}, European Space Agency^{12}, University of New South Wales^{13}TL;DR: In this paper, the mass density, Omega_M, and cosmological-constant energy density of the universe were measured using the analysis of 42 Type Ia supernovae discovered by the Supernova Cosmology project.

Abstract: We report measurements of the mass density, Omega_M, and
cosmological-constant energy density, Omega_Lambda, of the universe based on
the analysis of 42 Type Ia supernovae discovered by the Supernova Cosmology
Project. The magnitude-redshift data for these SNe, at redshifts between 0.18
and 0.83, are fit jointly with a set of SNe from the Calan/Tololo Supernova
Survey, at redshifts below 0.1, to yield values for the cosmological
parameters. All SN peak magnitudes are standardized using a SN Ia lightcurve
width-luminosity relation. The measurement yields a joint probability
distribution of the cosmological parameters that is approximated by the
relation 0.8 Omega_M - 0.6 Omega_Lambda ~= -0.2 +/- 0.1 in the region of
interest (Omega_M <~ 1.5). For a flat (Omega_M + Omega_Lambda = 1) cosmology we
find Omega_M = 0.28{+0.09,-0.08} (1 sigma statistical) {+0.05,-0.04}
(identified systematics). The data are strongly inconsistent with a Lambda = 0
flat cosmology, the simplest inflationary universe model. An open, Lambda = 0
cosmology also does not fit the data well: the data indicate that the
cosmological constant is non-zero and positive, with a confidence of P(Lambda >
0) = 99%, including the identified systematic uncertainties. The best-fit age
of the universe relative to the Hubble time is t_0 = 14.9{+1.4,-1.1} (0.63/h)
Gyr for a flat cosmology. The size of our sample allows us to perform a variety
of statistical tests to check for possible systematic errors and biases. We
find no significant differences in either the host reddening distribution or
Malmquist bias between the low-redshift Calan/Tololo sample and our
high-redshift sample. The conclusions are robust whether or not a
width-luminosity relation is used to standardize the SN peak magnitudes.

15,392 citations

••

University of Texas at Austin

^{1}, Princeton University^{2}, University of Oxford^{3}, Johns Hopkins University^{4}, Goddard Space Flight Center^{5}, University of Toronto^{6}, University of British Columbia^{7}, University of Chicago^{8}, Brown University^{9}, University of California, Los Angeles^{10}TL;DR: In this article, a combination of seven-year data from WMAP and improved astrophysical data rigorously tests the standard cosmological model and places new constraints on its basic parameters and extensions.

Abstract: The combination of seven-year data from WMAP and improved astrophysical data rigorously tests the standard cosmological model and places new constraints on its basic parameters and extensions. By combining the WMAP data with the latest distance measurements from the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in the distribution of galaxies and the Hubble constant (H0) measurement, we determine the parameters of the simplest six-parameter ΛCDM model. The power-law index of the primordial power spectrum is ns = 0.968 ± 0.012 (68% CL) for this data combination, a measurement that excludes the Harrison–Zel’dovich–Peebles spectrum by 99.5% CL. The other parameters, including those beyond the minimal set, are also consistent with, and improved from, the five-year results. We find no convincing deviations from the minimal model. The seven-year temperature power spectrum gives a better determination of the third acoustic peak, which results in a better determination of the redshift of the matter-radiation equality epoch. Notable examples of improved parameters are the total mass of neutrinos, � mν < 0.58 eV (95% CL), and the effective number of neutrino species, Neff = 4.34 +0.86 −0.88 (68% CL), which benefit from better determinations of the third peak and H0. The limit on a constant dark energy equation of state parameter from WMAP+BAO+H0, without high-redshift Type Ia supernovae, is w =− 1.10 ± 0.14 (68% CL). We detect the effect of primordial helium on the temperature power spectrum and provide a new test of big bang nucleosynthesis by measuring Yp = 0.326 ± 0.075 (68% CL). We detect, and show on the map for the first time, the tangential and radial polarization patterns around hot and cold spots of temperature fluctuations, an important test of physical processes at z = 1090 and the dominance of adiabatic scalar fluctuations. The seven-year polarization data have significantly improved: we now detect the temperature–E-mode polarization cross power spectrum at 21σ , compared with 13σ from the five-year data. With the seven-year temperature–B-mode cross power spectrum, the limit on a rotation of the polarization plane due to potential parity-violating effects has improved by 38% to Δα =− 1. 1 ± 1. 4(statistical) ± 1. 5(systematic) (68% CL). We report significant detections of the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ) effect at the locations of known clusters of galaxies. The measured SZ signal agrees well with the expected signal from the X-ray data on a cluster-by-cluster basis. However, it is a factor of 0.5–0.7 times the predictions from “universal profile” of Arnaud et al., analytical models, and hydrodynamical simulations. We find, for the first time in the SZ effect, a significant difference between the cooling-flow and non-cooling-flow clusters (or relaxed and non-relaxed clusters), which can explain some of the discrepancy. This lower amplitude is consistent with the lower-than-theoretically expected SZ power spectrum recently measured by the South Pole Telescope Collaboration.

10,928 citations

••

Peter A. R. Ade

^{1}, Nabila Aghanim^{2}, Monique Arnaud^{3}, M. Ashdown^{4}+334 more•Institutions (82)TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a cosmological analysis based on full-mission Planck observations of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation.

Abstract: This paper presents cosmological results based on full-mission Planck observations of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Our results are in very good agreement with the 2013 analysis of the Planck nominal-mission temperature data, but with increased precision. The temperature and polarization power spectra are consistent with the standard spatially-flat 6-parameter ΛCDM cosmology with a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations (denoted “base ΛCDM” in this paper). From the Planck temperature data combined with Planck lensing, for this cosmology we find a Hubble constant, H0 = (67.8 ± 0.9) km s-1Mpc-1, a matter density parameter Ωm = 0.308 ± 0.012, and a tilted scalar spectral index with ns = 0.968 ± 0.006, consistent with the 2013 analysis. Note that in this abstract we quote 68% confidence limits on measured parameters and 95% upper limits on other parameters. We present the first results of polarization measurements with the Low Frequency Instrument at large angular scales. Combined with the Planck temperature and lensing data, these measurements give a reionization optical depth of τ = 0.066 ± 0.016, corresponding to a reionization redshift of . These results are consistent with those from WMAP polarization measurements cleaned for dust emission using 353-GHz polarization maps from the High Frequency Instrument. We find no evidence for any departure from base ΛCDM in the neutrino sector of the theory; for example, combining Planck observations with other astrophysical data we find Neff = 3.15 ± 0.23 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom, consistent with the value Neff = 3.046 of the Standard Model of particle physics. The sum of neutrino masses is constrained to ∑ mν < 0.23 eV. The spatial curvature of our Universe is found to be very close to zero, with | ΩK | < 0.005. Adding a tensor component as a single-parameter extension to base ΛCDM we find an upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r0.002< 0.11, consistent with the Planck 2013 results and consistent with the B-mode polarization constraints from a joint analysis of BICEP2, Keck Array, and Planck (BKP) data. Adding the BKP B-mode data to our analysis leads to a tighter constraint of r0.002 < 0.09 and disfavours inflationarymodels with a V(φ) ∝ φ2 potential. The addition of Planck polarization data leads to strong constraints on deviations from a purely adiabatic spectrum of fluctuations. We find no evidence for any contribution from isocurvature perturbations or from cosmic defects. Combining Planck data with other astrophysical data, including Type Ia supernovae, the equation of state of dark energy is constrained to w = −1.006 ± 0.045, consistent with the expected value for a cosmological constant. The standard big bang nucleosynthesis predictions for the helium and deuterium abundances for the best-fit Planck base ΛCDM cosmology are in excellent agreement with observations. We also constraints on annihilating dark matter and on possible deviations from the standard recombination history. In neither case do we find no evidence for new physics. The Planck results for base ΛCDM are in good agreement with baryon acoustic oscillation data and with the JLA sample of Type Ia supernovae. However, as in the 2013 analysis, the amplitude of the fluctuation spectrum is found to be higher than inferred from some analyses of rich cluster counts and weak gravitational lensing. We show that these tensions cannot easily be resolved with simple modifications of the base ΛCDM cosmology. Apart from these tensions, the base ΛCDM cosmology provides an excellent description of the Planck CMB observations and many other astrophysical data sets.

10,334 citations

01 Jan 1998

TL;DR: The spectral and photometric observations of 10 type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the redshift range 0.16 � z � 0.62 were presented in this paper.

Abstract: We present spectral and photometric observations of 10 type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the redshift range 0.16 � z � 0.62. The luminosity distances of these objects are determined by methods that employ relations between SN Ia luminosity and light curve shape. Combined with previous data from our High-Z Supernova Search Team (Garnavich et al. 1998; Schmidt et al. 1998) and Riess et al. (1998a), this expanded set of 16 high-redshift supernovae and a set of 34 nearby supernovae are used to place constraints on the following cosmological parameters: the Hubble constant (H0), the mass density (M), the cosmological constant (i.e., the vacuum energy density, �), the deceleration parameter (q0), and the dynamical age of the Universe (t0). The distances of the high-redshift SNe Ia are, on average, 10% to 15% farther than expected in a low mass density (M = 0.2) Universe without a cosmological constant. Different light curve fitting methods, SN Ia subsamples, and prior constraints unanimously favor eternally expanding models with positive cosmological constant (i.e., � > 0) and a current acceleration of the expansion (i.e., q0 < 0). With no prior constraint on mass density other than M � 0, the spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia are statistically consistent with q0 < 0 at the 2.8�

10,279 citations