Author

# Swaroop Darbha

Other affiliations: Air Force Research Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley

Bio: Swaroop Darbha is an academic researcher from Texas A&M University. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Travelling salesman problem & Air brake. The author has an hindex of 28, co-authored 162 publication(s) receiving 3767 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Swaroop Darbha include Air Force Research Laboratory & University of California, Berkeley.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present the first calculations of the optical transients from compact object mergers that self-consistently determine the radioactive heating by means of a nuclear reaction network; using this heating rate, they model the light curve with a one-dimensional Monte Carlo radiation transfer calculation.

Abstract: The most promising astrophysical sources of kHz gravitational waves (GWs) are the inspiral and merger of binary neutron star(NS)/black hole systems. Maximizing the scientific return of a GW detection will require identifying a coincident electromagnetic (EM) counterpart. One of the most likely sources of isotropic EM emission from compact object mergers is a supernova-like transient powered by the radioactive decay of heavy elements synthesized in ejecta from the merger. We present the first calculations of the optical transients from compact object mergers that self-consistently determine the radioactive heating by means of a nuclear reaction network; using this heating rate, we model the light curve with a one-dimensional Monte Carlo radiation transfer calculation. For an ejecta mass ~ 10 -2 M ⊙ (10 -3 M ⊙ ) the resulting light-curve peaks on a time-scale ~1 d at a V-band luminosity vL v ~ 3 x 10 41 (10 41 )erg s -1 [M V = -15(-14)]; this corresponds to an effective 'f' parameter ~3 × 10- 6 in the Li-Paczynski toy model. We argue that these results are relatively insensitive to uncertainties in the relevant nuclear physics and to the precise early-time dynamics and ejecta composition. Since NS merger transients peak at a luminosity that is a factor of ~10 3 higher than a typical nova, we propose naming these events 'kilo-novae'. Because of the rapid evolution and low luminosity of NS merger transients, EM counterpart searches triggered by GW detections will require close collaboration between the GW and astronomical communities. NS merger transients may also be detectable following a short-duration gamma-ray burst or 'blindly' with present or upcoming optical transient surveys. Because the emission produced by NS merger ejecta is powered by the formation of rare r-process elements, current optical transient surveys can directly constrain the unknown origin of the heaviest elements in the Universe.

894 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors make a clear distinction between traffic flow stability and string stability, and such a dis-tinction has not been recognized in the literature, thus far, thus they make their analysis without adding vehicles to or removing vehicles from the traffic.

Abstract: In analogy to the flow of fluids, it is expected that the aggregate density and the velocity of vehicles in a section of a freeway adequately describe the traffic flow dynamics. The conservation of mass equation together with the aggregation of the vehicle following dynamics of controlled vehicles describes the evolution of the traffic density and the aggregate speed of a traffic flow. There are two kinds of stability associated with traffic flow problems - string stability (or car-following stability) and traffic flow stability. We make a clear distinction between traffic flow stability and string stability, and such a dis- tinction has not been recognized in the literature, thus far. String stability is stability with respect to intervehicular spacing; intuitively, it ensures the knowledge of the position and velocity of every vehicle in the traffic, within reasonable bounds of error, from the knowledge of the position and velocity of a vehicle in the traffic. String stability is analyzed without adding vehicles to or removing vehicles from the traffic. On the other hand, traffic flow stability deals with the evolution of traffic velocity and density in response to the ad- dition and/or removal of vehicles from the flow. Traffic flow stability can be guaranteed only if the velocity and density solutions of the coupled set of equa- tions is stable, i.e., only if stability with respect to automatic vehicle following and stability with respect to density evolution is guaranteed. Therefore, the ow stability and critical capacity of any section of a highway is dependent not only on the vehicle following control laws and the information used in their synthesis, but also on the spacing policy employed by the control system. Such a dependence has practical consequences in the choice of a spacing policy for adaptive cruise control laws and on the stability of the traffic ow consisting of vehicles equipped with adaptive cruise control features on the existing and future highways. This critical dependence is the subject of investigation in this paper. This problem is analyzed in two steps: The first step is to understand the effect of spacing policy employed by the Intelligent Cruise Control (ICC) systems on traffic flow stability. The second step is to understand how the dynamics of ICC system affects traffic flow stability. Using such an analysis, it is shown that cruise control systems that employ a constant time headway policy lead to unacceptable characteristics for the traffic flows. Key Words: Intelligent Cruise Control Systems, Traffic Flow Stability, String Stability, Advanced Vehicle Control Systems, Advanced Traffic Management Systems.

256 citations

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TL;DR: This paper analyses the effect of spacing policy employed by the Intelligent Cruise Control (ICC) systems on traffic flow stability and shows that cruise control systems that employ a constant time headway policy lead to unacceptable characteristics for the traffic flows.

Abstract: There are two kinds of stability associated with traffic flow problems – string stability (or car-following stability) and traffic flow stability. We provide a clear distinction between traffic flow stability and string stability, and such a distinction has not been recognized in the literature, thus far. String stability is stability with respect to intervehicular spacing; intuitively, it ensures the knowledge of the position and velocity of every vehicle in the traffic, within reasonable bounds of error, from the knowledge of the position and velocity of a vehicle in the traffic. String stability is analyzed without adding vehicles to or removing vehicles from the traffic. On the other hand, traffic flow stability deals with the evolution of traffic velocity and density in response to the addition and/or removal of vehicles from the flow. Traffic flow stability can be guaranteed only if the velocity and density solutions of the coupled set of equations is stable, i.e., only if stability with respect to automatic vehicle following and stability with respect to density evolution is guaranteed. Therefore, the flow stability and critical capacity of any section of a highway is dependent not only on the vehicle following control laws and the information used in their synthesis, but also on the spacing policy employed by the control system. Such a dependence has practical consequences in the choice of a spacing policy for adaptive cruise control laws and on the stability of the traffic flow consisting of vehicles equipped with adaptive cruise control features on the existing and future highways. This critical dependence is the subject of investigation here.

220 citations

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TL;DR: This paper addresses the constraint that captures the inability of a fixed wing aircraft to turn at any arbitrary yaw rate and gives an algorithm to solve this problem by combining ideas from the traveling salesman problem and the path planning literature.

Abstract: This paper is about the allocation of tours of m targets to n vehicles. The motion of the vehicles satisfies a nonholonomic constraint (i.e., the yaw rate of the vehicle is bounded). Each target is to be visited by one and only one vehicle. Given a set of targets and the yaw rate constraints on the vehicles, the problem addressed in this paper is 1) to assign each vehicle a sequence of targets to visit, and 2) to find a feasible path for each vehicle that passes through the assigned targets with a requirement that the vehicle returns to its initial position. The heading angle at each target location may not be specified. The objective function is to minimize the sum of the distances traveled by all vehicles. A constant factor approximation algorithm is presented for the above resource allocation problem for both the single and the multiple vehicle case. Note to Practitioners-The motivation for this paper stems from the need to develop resource allocation algorithms for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Small autonomous UAVs are seen as ideal platforms for many applications, such as searching for targets, mapping a given area, traffic surveillance, fire monitoring, etc. The main advantage of using these small autonomous vehicles is that they can be used in situations where a manned mission is dangerous or not possible. Resource allocation problems naturally arise in these applications where one would want to optimally assign a given set of vehicles to the tasks at hand. The feature that differentiates these resource allocation problems from similar problems previously studied in the literature is that there are constraints on the motion of the vehicle. This paper addresses the constraint that captures the inability of a fixed wing aircraft to turn at any arbitrary yaw rate. The basic problem addressed in this paper is as follows: Given n vehicles and m targets, find a path for each vehicle satisfying yaw rate contraints such that each target is visited exactly once by a vehicle and the total distance traveled by all vehicles is minimized. We assume that the targets are at least 2r apart, where r is the minimum turning radius of the vehicle. This is a reasonable assumption because the sensors on these vehicles can map or see an area whose width is at least 2r. We give an algorithm to solve this problem by combining ideas from the traveling salesman problem and the path planning literature. We also show how these algorithms perform in the worst-case scenario

172 citations

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TL;DR: Using methods from operations research to address a fundamental routing problem involving heterogeneous UAVs and using the well-known Lin-Kernighan-Helsgaun heuristic was applied to the transformed ATSP.

Abstract: Heterogeneous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are being developed for several civil and military applications. These vehicles can differ either in their motion constraints or sensing/attack capabilities. This article uses methods from operations research to address a fundamental routing problem involving heterogeneous UAVs. The approach is to transform the routing problem into a relatively better understood single, asymmetric, traveling salesman problem (ATSP) and use the algorithms available for the ATSP to address the routing problem. To test the effectiveness of the transformation, the well-known Lin-Kernighan-Helsgaun heuristic was applied to the transformed ATSP. Computational results on the transformed ATSP show that solutions whose costs are within 16% of the optimum can be obtained relatively fast [within 40 s of central processing unit (CPU)] for the routing problem involving ten heterogeneous UAVs and 40 targets.

88 citations

##### Cited by

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University of Geneva

^{1}, Ioffe Institute^{2}, University of California, Santa Cruz^{3}, University of Mississippi^{4}, Curtin University^{5}, University of California, Santa Barbara^{6}, Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network^{7}, University of Warwick^{8}, Spanish National Research Council^{9}, University of Colorado Boulder^{10}, University of Hawaii^{11}, Aoyama Gakuin University^{12}, Queen's University Belfast^{13}, Max Planck Society^{14}, Nagoya University^{15}, University of Warsaw^{16}TL;DR: A binary neutron star coalescence candidate (later designated GW170817) with merger time 12:41:04 UTC was observed through gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors.

Abstract: On 2017 August 17 a binary neutron star coalescence candidate (later designated GW170817) with merger time 12:41:04 UTC was observed through gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor independently detected a gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) with a time delay of $\sim 1.7\,{\rm{s}}$ with respect to the merger time. From the gravitational-wave signal, the source was initially localized to a sky region of 31 deg2 at a luminosity distance of ${40}_{-8}^{+8}$ Mpc and with component masses consistent with neutron stars. The component masses were later measured to be in the range 0.86 to 2.26 $\,{M}_{\odot }$. An extensive observing campaign was launched across the electromagnetic spectrum leading to the discovery of a bright optical transient (SSS17a, now with the IAU identification of AT 2017gfo) in NGC 4993 (at $\sim 40\,{\rm{Mpc}}$) less than 11 hours after the merger by the One-Meter, Two Hemisphere (1M2H) team using the 1 m Swope Telescope. The optical transient was independently detected by multiple teams within an hour. Subsequent observations targeted the object and its environment. Early ultraviolet observations revealed a blue transient that faded within 48 hours. Optical and infrared observations showed a redward evolution over ~10 days. Following early non-detections, X-ray and radio emission were discovered at the transient's position $\sim 9$ and $\sim 16$ days, respectively, after the merger. Both the X-ray and radio emission likely arise from a physical process that is distinct from the one that generates the UV/optical/near-infrared emission. No ultra-high-energy gamma-rays and no neutrino candidates consistent with the source were found in follow-up searches. These observations support the hypothesis that GW170817 was produced by the merger of two neutron stars in NGC 4993 followed by a short gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) and a kilonova/macronova powered by the radioactive decay of r-process nuclei synthesized in the ejecta.

2,310 citations

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26 Jul 2009

TL;DR: This self-contained introduction to the distributed control of robotic networks offers a broad set of tools for understanding coordination algorithms, determining their correctness, and assessing their complexity; and it analyzes various cooperative strategies for tasks such as consensus, rendezvous, connectivity maintenance, deployment, and boundary estimation.

Abstract: This self-contained introduction to the distributed control of robotic networks offers a distinctive blend of computer science and control theory. The book presents a broad set of tools for understanding coordination algorithms, determining their correctness, and assessing their complexity; and it analyzes various cooperative strategies for tasks such as consensus, rendezvous, connectivity maintenance, deployment, and boundary estimation. The unifying theme is a formal model for robotic networks that explicitly incorporates their communication, sensing, control, and processing capabilities--a model that in turn leads to a common formal language to describe and analyze coordination algorithms.Written for first- and second-year graduate students in control and robotics, the book will also be useful to researchers in control theory, robotics, distributed algorithms, and automata theory. The book provides explanations of the basic concepts and main results, as well as numerous examples and exercises.Self-contained exposition of graph-theoretic concepts, distributed algorithms, and complexity measures for processor networks with fixed interconnection topology and for robotic networks with position-dependent interconnection topology Detailed treatment of averaging and consensus algorithms interpreted as linear iterations on synchronous networks Introduction of geometric notions such as partitions, proximity graphs, and multicenter functions Detailed treatment of motion coordination algorithms for deployment, rendezvous, connectivity maintenance, and boundary estimation

1,043 citations

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TL;DR: A review of nearly a decade of short gamma-ray bursts and their afterglow and host-galaxy observations is presented in this article, where the authors use this information to shed light on the nature and properties of their progenitors, the energy scale and collimation of the relativistic outflow, and the properties of the circumburst environments.

Abstract: Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) display a bimodal duration distribution with a separation between the short- and long-duration bursts at about 2 s. The progenitors of long GRBs have been identified as massive stars based on their association with Type Ic core-collapse supernovae (SNe), their exclusive location in star-forming galaxies, and their strong correlation with bright UV regions within their host galaxies. Short GRBs have long been suspected on theoretical grounds to arise from compact object binary mergers (neutron star–neutron star or neutron star–black hole). The discovery of short GRB afterglows in 2005 provided the first insight into their energy scale and environments, as well as established a cosmological origin, a mix of host-galaxy types, and an absence of associated SNe. In this review, I summarize nearly a decade of short GRB afterglow and host-galaxy observations and use this information to shed light on the nature and properties of their progenitors, the energy scale and collimation of the relativistic outflow, and the properties of the circumburst environments. The preponderance of the evidence points to compact object binary progenitors, although some open questions remain. On the basis of this association, observations of short GRBs and their afterglows can shed light on the on- and off-axis electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave sources from the Advanced LIGO/Virgo experiments.

988 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors summarize the current knowledge of neutron-star masses and radii and show that the distribution of neutron star masses is much wider than previously thought, with three known pulsars now firmly in the 1.9-2.0-M⊙ mass range.

Abstract: We summarize our current knowledge of neutron-star masses and radii. Recent instrumentation and computational advances have resulted in a rapid increase in the discovery rate and precise timing of radio pulsars in binaries in the past few years, leading to a large number of mass measurements. These discoveries show that the neutron-star mass distribution is much wider than previously thought, with three known pulsars now firmly in the 1.9–2.0-M⊙ mass range. For radii, large, high-quality data sets from X-ray satellites as well as significant progress in theoretical modeling led to considerable progress in the measurements, placing them in the 10–11.5-km range and shrinking their uncertainties, owing to a better understanding of the sources of systematic errors. The combination of the massive-neutron-star discoveries, the tighter radius measurements, and improved laboratory constraints of the properties of dense matter has already made a substantial impact on our understanding of the composition and bulk p...

906 citations

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TL;DR: It is shown that the individuals (autonomous agents or biological creatures) will form a cohesive swarm in a finite time and an explicit bound on the swarm size is obtained, which depends only on the parameters of the swarm model.

Abstract: In this note, we specify an "individual-based" continuous-time model for swarm aggregation in n-dimensional space and study its stability properties. We show that the individuals (autonomous agents or biological creatures) will form a cohesive swarm in a finite time. Moreover, we obtain an explicit bound on the swarm size, which depends only on the parameters of the swarm model.

899 citations