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Showing papers in "Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology in 1996"



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The objective of this study was to investigate acute and subacute toxic effects of sublethal glyphosate concentrations in water to carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), one of the commercially most important fish species populating freshwaters of Yugoslavia.
Abstract: Glyphosate, also known by the trade names Roundup and Rodeo for agricultural use, is a broad-spectrum, translocated herbicide, used primarily in agricultural applications, and for vegetation control in non-crop areas. It is used as non-selective herbicide and for aquatic weed control in fish-ponds, lakes, canals, slow running water, etc. (USDA 1984). Glyphosate is perhaps the most important herbicide ever developed. Literature of toxicological and ecotoxicological properties of glyphosate is extremely sparse, considering its importance as herbicide. Generally, glyphosate is slightly toxic to mammals and fish, but it may have an impact on the aquatic environment and also on the other aquatic organisms (USDA 1984). Due to this, its toxicity investigation is very important. The study of sublethal effects is of special importance for toxicological evaluation of compound. The objective of this study was to investigate acute and subacute toxic effects of sublethal glyphosate concentrations in water to carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), one of the commercially most important fish species populating freshwaters of Yugoslavia.

143 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In recent years, aquatic herbicides are widely used for controlling undesirable weeds (Maroni and Bersani 1994), and the application of herbicides has hazard effects on the fish beside the change of available plankton food (Mason 1991).
Abstract: In recent years, aquatic herbicides are widely used for controlling undesirable weeds (Maroni and Bersani 1994). The use of herbicides to control aquatic weeds has applied in fish management where they used in aquatic habitats especially rice fields and some fish farms (Wu et al 1980). Atrazine (2-chlor-4-ethylamino-6-isopropyl-amino-S-triazine) is considered the main aquatic herbicide used (Brusick 1994). It enters the aquatic system through run-off from agricultural fields or directly through careless application. It has been found display in different sources: up to 3.5 μg/L in rainwater, up to 1.25 μg/L in surface waters, more than 0.5 μg/L in ground water, exceeding of 0.1 μg/L for drinking water in Germany while in USA was 88.4 μg/L, and up to 69.4 μg/L in surface water. Moreover, the high concentrations normally occur in the environment for a short period after accidents (Fischer-Scherl et al 1991). Third world countries have the problem of adverse effects of these chemical compounds in ecosystem on fish production (Parkinson and Agius 1988). The application of herbicides has hazard effects on the fish beside the change of available plankton food (Mason 1991). However, Aaronson (1980) concluded that a fish kill in the ponds were mainly due to atrazine, where the use of 0.01, 10 and 1000 μg/L atrazine produced characteristic amplitude and frequency changes in rainbow trout.

143 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APES) are widely used as components of detergents, paints, herbicides, insecticides and many other formulated products and it is estimated that 60% of APES end up in the aquatic environment as nonyl phenol (NP) and octaphenol.
Abstract: Alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APES) are widely used as components of detergents, paints, herbicides, insecticides and many other formulated products. Recent studies with effluent of sewage-treatment works in England led to the identification of a class of compounds, the alkylphenols, as having estrogenic properties (White et al. 1994, Jobling et al. 1995). Approximately 80 % of APES are nonylphenol polyethoxylates and 20 % , octaphenol polyethoxylates. It is estimated that 60% of APES end up in the aquatic environment as nonylphenol (NP) and octaphenol. Nonylphenol was first reported to have estrogenic action based on its induction of proliferation and up-regulation of the progesterone receptor in human estrogen-sensitive breast tumor cells (Soto et al. 1991, White et al. 1994). A majority of these studies involved in vitro systems with few reports on whole animals. In rainbow trout, administration of nonylphenol was shown to up-regulate vitellogenin expression (Ren et al. 1995). In higher vertebrates, except for the reported increase in mitotic index in endometrial epithelium of ovariectomized female rats (Soto et al. 1991), the in vivo effects of nonylphenol are not known.

130 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This poster presents a poster presenting a probabilistic procedure for estimating the response of the immune system to EMTs to central nervous system injury.
Abstract: Reference ECOL-ARTICLE-1996-014doi:10.1007/s001289900208View record in Web of Science Record created on 2005-07-15, modified on 2016-08-08

109 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: To determine the range of metal adsorptive capabilities by water milfoil under different pH conditions, five metals, cadmium, zinc, nickel, lead and copper, were used.
Abstract: Due to the increasing awareness of toxic heavy metals contamination to the environment, studies of metal accumulation from the view point of metal removal from contaminated water have been performed. Conventional methods including precipitation, oxidation, reduction, ion exchange, filtration, electrochemical treatment, membrane technologies and evaporation recovery are expensive or ineffective, especially when the metal concentrations are very low in the order of 1 to 100 mg/L. The use of biological systems for removing metals from low metal solution has the potential to achieve greater performance at lower cost. Water milfoil, a rooted aquatic higher plants, has been identified as a potential plant for bioremoval process. The goal of this study was to determine the range of metal adsorptive capabilities by water milfoil under different pH conditions. Five metals, cadmium, zinc, nickel, lead and copper, were used. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

82 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The imidacloprid soil metabolism was studied in a new organic fertilizer trial made on another field at Lubbeek in 1993 and in a sugar beet trial located at Remicourt, one part of the field had not been treated with organic fertilizers for 18 years, but its soil contained a high concentration of soil organic matter.
Abstract: Imidacloprid (1-[(6-chloro-3-pyridinyl)methyl]-4,5-dihydro-N-nitro-1H-imidazol-2-amine, 1) is a new insecticide which is useful for the protection of sugar beet from soil insects (Atomaria, Blaniulus, Agriotes and Pegomya) and leaf insects (aphids). It is applied in pelleted seed dressing. It is a systemic compound which is absorbed by the plant. In the leaves, it gives a long lasting (3 to 4 months) protection against aphids and the virus yellows infections. The metabolism of 14C-imidacloprid was investigated in plant cell suspension cultures (Koester 1992). The main metabolites corresponded to imidacloprid hydroxylation (l-[(6-chloro-3-pyridinyl)methyl]-5-hydroxy-4,5-dihydro-N-nitro-lH-imidazol-2-amine) or dehydrogenation (1-[(6-chloro-3-pyridinyl)methyl] -N-nitro-lH-imidazol-2-amine) of the imidazolidine ring, and to 6-chloronicotinic acid. The nitroso derivative of imidacloprid (1-[(6-chloro-3-pyridinyl)methyl]-4,5-dihydro-N-nitroso-1H-imidazol-2-amine) corresponded to only 0.1% of the total recovered 14C. The imidacloprid soil metabolism has been studied by incubation in laboratory conditions (Scholz and Spiteller 1992). The metabolites observed in plant cell cultures did not accumulate in soil; their total amount was less than 4% of the total recovered radioactivity during 14C-imidacloprid soil biodegradation. 14CO2 was the main product of 14C-imidacloprid soil biodegradation. We previously studied the disappearance of imidacloprid in the soil of a sugar beet, organic fertilizers trial made at Lubbeek in 1992 (Rouchaud et al. 1994). Also, in a sugar beet trial located at Remicourt, one part of the field had not been treated with organic fertilizers for 18 years, but its soil contained a high concentration (4.3%) of soil organic matter. Another part of the field had been treated every 3 years with cow manure for 18 years, but its soil contained a normal concentration (2.4%) of organic matter. In the present work, we studied the imidacloprid soil metabolism in a new organic fertilizers trial made on another field at Lubbeek in 1993. We also searched for the imidacloprid soil metabolites in the trial made in 1992 at Remicourt.

76 citations






Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The effect of sublethal concentration of commonly used organochlorine pesticide aldrin, a member of toxaphene group of insecticides, on blood glucose, plasma calcium, magnesium, and inorganic phosphate concentrations alongwith the liver and muscle glycogen and protein content of freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis was observed.
Abstract: Organochlorine (OC) pesticides are potential environmental contaminants which create major health hazard in aquatic system. The nervous system is primary target of OC pesticides but many metabolic processes are also influenced. The consensus is that intoxication deranges intermediary metabolism primary to ATP production resulting in depletion of energy sources (Gill et al. 1991). Moreover, the divalent cations, calcium and magnesium, play a vital role in several body functions-neuromuscular excitability, enzymatic reactions, and retention of membrane permeability. The inorganic phosphate acts as a major cytoplasmic buffer and is the basis of energy exchange (Aurbach et al. 1985) . The liver is a site of metabolic detoxification (Saxena et al. 1989) whereas the gills (Verbost et al. 1987) and the kidney (Rashatwar and Ilyas 1984) are involved in regulatory mechanisms. This study was undertaken to observe the effect of sublethal concentration (0.085 mg/L) of commonly used organochlorine pesticide aldrin (1,2,3,4,10,10 hexachloro -1,4,4a,5,8,8a, hexahydro1,4,5,8, dimethanonaphthalene), a member of toxaphene group of insecticides, on blood glucose, plasma calcium, magnesium, and inorganic phosphate concentrations alongwith the liver and muscle glycogen and protein content of freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis. Behavior of the fish was also observed.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study looks at both the biosorption of aluminum, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in native fungal pellets of a wood-rotting basidiomycete and the stress response of the fugus to high concentrations of Cadmium ions.
Abstract: The ability of fungi to accumulate metals is a known phenomenon that is studied from both the industrial and ecological point of views The biosorption and removal of various cations could be useful in recovery of precious or strategic metals as well as in the removal of toxic heavy metals from contaminated water The most frequently used group of organisms are filamentous fungi, which are widely used in fermentation industries to produce varied metabilites The application of mycelial wastes as adsorbents or ion-exchangers for the removal of heavy metals represent a possibility for further utilization of these biotechnological by-products So far, little attention has been paid to interactions of heavy metals with higher fungi Most of the work deals with metal translocation and uptake from various substrates or with the heavy metal content in fruiting bodies collected in different areas In several cases this content seems to reflect the concentrations of atmospheric heavy metal This study looks at both the biosorption of aluminum, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in native fungal pellets of a wood-rotting basidiomycete and the stress response of the fugus to high concentrations of cadmium ions 14 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The purpose of this study is to compare the inhibitory effects of the authors' solvents used in pesticide bioassays towards the growth of two green algae.
Abstract: Organic solvents can make their way into the environment as industrial wastes and components of pesticide formulations. In laboratory bioassays, the use of organic solvents is unavoidable since many pesticides and organic pollutants have low water solubilities and need to be dissolved in organic solvents prior to addition into experimental systems. So, one area of concern with laboratory bioassays is the stress imposed on test organisms by organic solvents. Most reports on the comparative toxicity of solvents towards test organisms deals with the effects of solvents on fish and aquatic invertebrates with some data available for blue-green algae and green algae. The US Environmental Protection Agency recommends maximum allowable limits of 0.05% solvent for acute tests and 0.01% for chronic tests but, in the literature, the nature of the solvent and the final concentration used vary among the different authors and are often higher than EPA limits due to problems associated with the use of small test volumes and toxicant solubility. Organic solvents can cause toxic effects on their own, but it has been also reported that they can interact with pesticides to alter toxicity. The first step in choosing a solvent for use in bioassays should be a detailedmore » screening to identify solvents with inherently low toxicity to the test organism, followed by an interaction study (pesticide and solvent interactions) to choose the best concentration to use. The purpose of this study is to compare the inhibitory effects of our solvents used in pesticide bioassays towards the growth of two green algae. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tabs.« less

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study examines the accumulation pattern of copper, cadmium, and zinc in individual organs (muscle, liver and gonad) of fishes to establish a baseline of heavy metal concentrations on fishes from the coast of Sfax.
Abstract: Considerable information has been reported on trace metal concentrations of various fishes in the Mediterranean area, but there is a lack of data in the concentrations of trace metals in fishes from the southern Mediterranean. For this reason, work was done to establish a baseline of heavy metal concentrations on fishes from the coast of Sfax (middle eastern coast of Tunisia). This coast has been industrialized for many years. Nevertheless, touristic activities have been developing for the last years. This study examines the accumulation pattern of copper, cadmium, and zinc in individual organs (muscle, liver and gonad) of fishes. 18 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study investigated whether blue mussels in the Bergen Harbor area were contaminated with the heavy metals zinc, copper, lead, cadmium, and mercury, evaluating whether humans could eat them.
Abstract: Heavy metal discharges to the marine environment are of great concern all over the world. Both essential (e.g., Fe, Zn, Cu) and non essential (e.g., Hg, Cd, Pb) metals are toxic to living organism when subjected to high concentration. Many heavy metals accumulate in organisms and some also accumulate in the food chain. The anthropogenic heavy metal outlets can in this way both reduce marine species diversity and ecosystem. Further, by consuming seafood, humans will be exposed to the metals with a potential danger to human health. Goldberg proposed to use marine mussels to monitor contamination levels of coastal waters. Since then marine mussels, especially the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), has been used widely as a surveillance organism. The blue mussel is regarded a suitable species for this purpose because it accumulates metals, it sessile, has a relatively long life span, is large enough for individual analysis, can tolerate a relatively wide range of temperature and salinity regimes, and can also synthesize the metal-binding protein, metallothionein, for metal detoxification. Furthermore, the blue mussel is a popular and tasteful food source and is suitable for culturing. The world-wide annual yield of mussels during the period 1988 to 1992 was about 1.3more » million tons, of which about 0.5 million tons was Mytilus edulis. In Norway, the annual production was 77 tons in 1990. The interest of culturing mussels has increased in recent years, but the consumption of mussels has been hampered both by toxic algae and high levels of heavy metals. The latter is of special concern to those close to urban or industrial areas. This study investigated whether blue mussels in the Bergen Harbor area were contaminated with the heavy metals zinc, copper, lead, cadmium, and mercury, evaluating whether humans could eat them. 21 refs., 6 figs.« less


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The AS and FP protocols in assessing toxicity of cadminum to L. terrestris and E. fetida are compared using LC50s andLC50s.
Abstract: Earthworms are ideal soil organisms for use in terrestrial ecotoxicology. As such, several earthworm protocols have been developed for testing toxic potential of chemicals and contaminated soils. Of these, the 48-h filter paper contact (FP) and the 14-d artificial soil exposure (AS) protocols, using mortality (LC50) as the toxic endpoint and Eisenia fetida as the test species, have received the most attention, with the latter being adopted by both OECD and EEC in Europe and the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in the United States. Although the FP technique, adopted by EEC, provides for inexpensive reproducible toxicity screening for chemicals (i.e. establishing relative toxicities), it has been criticized for lacking the ecotoxicological relevance of the AS protocol. Choice of earthworm species for laboratory testing also has been controversial. The manure worm, E. fetida, is criticized for not being sufficiently sensitive to chemicals or representative of {open_quotes}typical{close_quotes} earthworms. Lumbricus terrestris and Apporectodea caliginosa have been suggested as more sensitive and ecologically relevant earthworms by Dean-Ross and Martin, respectively. This paper compares the AS and FP protocols in assessing toxicity of cadminum to L. terrestris and E. fetida using LC50s and LC50s. 19 refs., 2 tabs.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) is an important freshwater aquacultural fish in Taiwan; thus, it is important to know the accumulation and elimination of cadmium in the Japanese eels due to cadmum-polluted water at various temperatures in order to protect eel resources as well as human health.
Abstract: There is no evidence that cadmium is biologically essential, but its toxicity to organisms is well known The so-called Itai-Itai disease in Japan, characterized by osteomalacia and renal tubular malfunction, has been attributed to cadmium poisoning in irrigation water The degree of contamination in aquatic environments is frequently assessed by comparing contaminant concentrations in associated biota Bioaccumulation, however, is influenced by environmental factors other than the degree of contamination, environmental factors such as salinity, temperature and pH The use of cadmium in the electroplating industry in Taiwan is intensive, but the wastewater used in this industry is seldom treated and has been a serious problem The Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) is an important freshwater aquacultural fish in Taiwan; thus, it is important to know the accumulation and elimination of cadmium in the Japanese eel due to cadmium-polluted water at various temperatures in order to protect eel resources as well as human health 18 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study compared the impact of these pollutants on the hormonal regulation of blood glucose in Uca pugilator to determine whether cadmium and naphthalenemore induce hyperglycemia, and whether CH has a role, if naphthaene and Cadmium do induce hyper Glycemic hormone, and the effects, if any, of cad mium andnaphthalene on CHH activity in the eyestalk neuroendocrine complex.
Abstract: Hyperglycemia is a typical response of aquatic organisms to heavy metals. In crustaceans, the medulla terminalis X-organ-sinus gland neuroendocrine complex in the eyestalk is the source of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH). The role of CHH in pollutant-induced b1ood glucose changes has only recently begun to be studied. Reddy provided evidence that CHH mediates cadmium-induced hyperglycemia in the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii. In a study of another hormonally-regulated function, color changes, cadmium exposure resulted in pigment in the melanophores of the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator, becoming less dispersed than in unexposed crabs. Earlier studies showed that, like cadmium, both a PCB, Aroclor 1242, and naphthalene induced black pigment aggregation in Uca poor. In general, when crabs are exposed to a pollutant, hydrocarbon or cadmium, they aggregate the pigment in their melanophores, but apparently by different mechanisms. Hydrocarbons appear to inhibit release of black pigment-dispersing hormone (BDPH), whereas cadmium appears to inhibit its synthesis. These apparent different modes of action of cadmium and naphthalene on the color change mechanism led us to compare the impact of these pollutants on the hormonal regulation of blood glucose in Uca pugilator. The present study was performed to determine (1) whether cadmium and naphthalenemore » induce hyperglycemia in Uca pugilator, (2) whether CH has a role, if naphthalene and cadmium do induce hyperglycemia, and (3) the effects, if any, of cadmium and naphthalene on CHH activity in the eyestalk neuroendocrine complex.« less

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact on PbB of relocation of two families from their source of lead, in this case from the Broken Hill mining community, to gauge the impact of relocation.
Abstract: The goal of hazard abatement is the identification and systematic elimination of lead hazards in the community, which should ultimately result in lowering of blood lead (PbB), especially in children. Such a goal is a daunting task in mining or smelting communities such as Broken Hill in Australia where industrial activities operating for more than 100 years and natural weathering over millennia have resulted in widespread contamination. {open_quotes}The single most important factor in managing of childhood lead poisoning is reducing the child`s exposure to lead{hor_ellipsis}{close_quotes}. Luke reviewed the remediation programs in seven large smelter operations outside Australia using environmental and biological indices, before and after intervention, to gauge the success. He concluded that outcomes varied from temporary improvements in Kellog, Idaho to apparently more successful outcomes in El Paso and Dallas, Texas. At Port Pirie, Luke identified that the most significant predictor of a reduction in PbB levels was permanent relocation out of the high risk areas, whereas in a later assessment Maynard identified, in addition to permanent relocation, level of expenditure on house dedusting and refurbishment, improved dust hygiene practices, and improved early morning diet as likely to reduce PbB levels. The aim of this study was to evaluatemore » the impact on PbB of relocation of two families from their source of lead, in this case from the Broken Hill mining community. To gauge the impact of relocation, the results are compared with twenty seven children who relocated within the Broken Hill community from high to low risk areas. 24 refs., 1 tab.« less


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The ability to mineralize organic pollutants in vitro is generally enhanced under culture conditions favorable to the mineralization of the lignin model compounds which suggests that the lIGNin-degrading system may be involved in the transformation of anthropogenic compounds.
Abstract: White rot fungi, which are capable of degrading lignin present in wood, are able to degrade many structurally diverse organic pollutants. The organism often used as a model is Phanerochaete chrysosporium, although the ability of Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor to degrade xenobiotic chemicals has also been investigated. The ability to mineralize organic pollutants in vitro is generally enhanced under culture conditions favorable to the mineralization of the lignin model compounds which suggests that the lignin-degrading system may be involved in the transformation of anthropogenic compounds (Bumpus and Aust 1986).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The discovery that an element likemore selenium counteracts the toxicity, chemical carcinogenesis and reduces the plant uptake of other toxic metals, highlights the possibility of existence of a Se-metal interaction mechanism in soil plant systems.
Abstract: Selenium has been reported to confer tolerance to toxicity of heavy metals including cadmium, a highly toxic and non essential heavy metal, which enters the food chain via plant uptake from soils. Selenium reduces availability of cadmium to plants along with other aspects of its toxicokinetics. When plants are supplied with selenite, selenium concentrations in the xylem exudate are lower than selenate. Most of the selenate was transported as selenate and unidentified organic Se compounds. In contrast, Se distribution among various Se fractions within plants does not depend significantly on whether selenite or selenate was used. Selenium has a strong tendency to form complexes with heavy metals like Cd, Hg, Ag and Tl. It has been suggested that the protective effects of selenium are due to the formation of non toxic Se-metal complexes, although the mechanism by which this protective effect is exerted remains unclear. Studies on the effect of selenium (selenite) and cadmium additions to the soil on their concentrations in lettuce and wheat has indicated the role of selenite in reduction of cadmium uptake. The cletoxifying effect of sodium selenite on cadmium ion in the freshwater fish Potyacuthus cupanus has been reported. The discovery that an element likemore » selenium counteracts the toxicity, chemical carcinogenesis and reduces the plant uptake of other toxic metals, highlights the possibility of existence of a Se-metal interaction mechanism in soil plant systems. The uptake and translocation of root-absorbed chromium supplied through irrigation in the trivalent and hexavalant states in various parts of the onion plant (Allium cepa) grown in soil and sand culture has been recently reported by us. In continuation of that, this preliminary report describes the effect of selenite and selenate pretreatment on the uptake of cadmium in the maize plant (Zea mays).« less

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The main objective of the present investigation was to study the removal efficiency of lead under continuous and discontinuous illumination using Lemna gibba L.
Abstract: In recent years heavy metals have become ubiquitous in the environment due to rapid industrialization and urbanization. Among the heavy metals, lead (Pb) content in water and soil are closely linked with leaded gasoline, lead-based paint, sewage sludges used as fertilizer or land disposal of sewage as well as industrial wastes. The toxicity of lead to aquatic organisms is dependent on pH, water hardness, dissolved oxygen and its ionic form. Several authors reported trace metal concentrations in aquatic points. Submerged macrophytes, algae and bacteria are capable of biomagnifying metal ions several fold over the environment. Removal of nutrients and certain heavy metals from waste water by Lemna gibba L. has been reported by Staves and Knaus, Kwan and Smith and Buckley. The main objective of the present investigation was to study the removal efficiency of lead under continuous and discontinuous illumination using Lemna gibba L. 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.