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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/S21051759

A Blockchain-Based Trust Model for the Internet of Things Supply Chain Management

04 Mar 2021-Sensors (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)-Vol. 21, Iss: 5, pp 1759
Abstract: Accurate data and strategic business processes are crucial to all parties in a supply chain system. However, the absence of mutual trust can create a barrier to implementation. Several studies have shown that supply chains face challenges arising from a lack of trust with respect to the sharing of data. How well each party trusts the data they receive can have a profound influence on management decisions. Blockchain technology has been widely used to process cryptocurrency transactions. Recently, it has also proved to be effective in creating trust in the Internet of things (IoT) domain. Blockchain technology can facilitate mutual trust between parties who would otherwise have been doubtful of each other's data, allowing for more effective and secure sharing of data. However, if the blockchain is not IoT-optimized, companies can experience significant delays and the need for extensive computational capacity. Moreover, there are still some limitations regarding the consensus between the nodes in the traditional consensus approaches. Here, we propose an alternative approach to creating trust in supply chains with diverse IoT elements. Our streamlined trust model simplifies data sharing and reduces computational, storage, and latency requirements while increasing the security of the IoT-based supply chain management. We evaluate the suggested model using simulations and highlight its viability.

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Topics: Supply chain management (56%), Supply chain (56%), Cryptocurrency (55%) ... show more
Citations
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8 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/S21093119
30 Apr 2021-Sensors
Abstract: Non-fungible tokens (NFTs) are widely used in blockchain to represent unique and non-interchangeable assets. Current NFTs allow representing assets by a unique identifier, as a possession of an owner. The novelty introduced in this paper is the proposal of smart NFTs to represent IoT devices, which are physical smart assets. Hence, they are also identified as the utility of a user, they have a blockchain account (BCA) address to participate actively in the blockchain transactions, they can establish secure communication channels with owners and users, and they operate dynamically with several modes associated with their token states. A smart NFT is physically bound to its IoT device thanks to the use of a physical unclonable function (PUF) that allows recovering its private key and, then, its BCA address. The link between tokens and devices is difficult to break and can be traced during their lifetime, because devices execute a secure boot and carry out mutual authentication processes with new owners and users that could add new software. Hence, devices prove their trusted hardware and software. A whole demonstration of the proposal developed with ESP32-based IoT devices and Ethereum blockchain is presented, using the SRAM of the ESP32 microcontroller as the PUF.

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Topics: Physical unclonable function (54%), Security token (53%), Secure communication (51%) ... show more

5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/FOODS10051069
12 May 2021-Foods
Abstract: The sudden breakout of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) rapidly spread across the globe, leaving no country behind in being affected by the global pandemic in the year 2019–20. As COVID-19 commenced, within months two major Asian giants initiated the norms of social distancing and lockdowns in their societies. The indiscriminate nature of the current pandemic has not only impacted the health and quality of life of people but has also disrupted the global economy, supply chains, and countries all over the world. In food and beverage manufacturing industries, the unanticipated disruption has encumbered its lock on the global food supply chain and service sector as major cities shut down for several months in China and India. Human existence is dependent upon food, which renders energy for activity, growth, and all functions of the body. Although both China and India have shown eminent response to tackle the ongoing pandemic, the food supply chain remains vastly exposed to significant COVID-19 risks. This research primarily investigates the ongoing COVID-19 scenario in two major economies (China and India), delivering insight into the pandemic’s impact within the food and beverage manufacturing sectors, and explores the policies adopted and strategies undertaken for sustainability in food supply chains.

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Topics: Supply chain (52%)

4 Citations


Book ChapterDOI: 10.1007/978-981-16-5854-9_51
01 Jan 2022-
Abstract: With the development of cloud computing, cloud computing provides more and more computing services. In today's fiercely competitive environment, the service flexibility and choice provided by this highly scalable technology are becoming more and more attractive to enterprises. However, behind the rapid development of cloud computing, its security and trust issues have become increasingly unignorable. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the key technologies of cloud computing security based on the trust model (TM). This paper first proposes a subjective and objective TM based on the ideal point method for the trust problem in the cloud environment, and verifies the performance of the model through experiments. This paper proposes a decentralized TM based on blockchain, and verifies the effectiveness of the model through experiments. This paper starts from the current problems of cloud computing, and on the basis of understanding the shortcomings of traditional security technologies, proposes a key technology of cloud computing security based on the TM. The solution proposed in this paper has a minimum average time consumption of 0.12 ms in the copy + label generation stage, while the minimum average time consumption of a traditional PDP is 16.3 ms. It is obvious that this solution has great advantages.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SU131810467
20 Sep 2021-Sustainability
Abstract: Accurate information plays an important role for the circulation of materials and products. It influences the economically and ecologically successful execution of processes such as reconditioning and the corresponding supply chain management. Digitization concepts, such as digital twins, enable the relevant information to be made available to the right actor at the right time in a decentralized manner. It is assumed that digital twins will play an important role in the future and can contribute, among other things, to the successful implementation of circular economy strategies. However, there is no uniform definition of the term digital twin yet and the exploration and use of digital twins in the context of circular economy products and supply chains is still in its infancy. This article presents potential contributions of digital twins to the circularity of products and the management of circular supply chains. To this end, the derivation and validation of a definition for the term digital twin is described. A stakeholder analysis with a special focus on the processes of the individual stakeholders results in an overview of potentials and information requirements of circular supply chains for a digital twin. The paper concludes that circular supply chains can benefit from digital twins, but that there is still a need for research and development, particularly regarding product and use case-specific implementations of the concept.

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Topics: Supply chain (55%), Supply chain management (52%), Circular economy (51%) ... show more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1155/2021/4680049
Qingyun Zhu, Ying Cai1Institutions (1)
31 Oct 2021-Journal of Sensors
Abstract: Based on the fusion of wireless sensor modules and UHF RFID readers, this paper develops a UHF RFID reading and writing system based on wireless sensing technology and designs a communication interface circuit that integrates wireless sensing and RFID technology. The financial supervision mechanism of the Internet of Things compatible with these two technologies improves the communication distance limitation of the RFID system and improves the flexibility of the RFID reading and writing system. Secondly, in view of the security issues of WSN small and medium data distribution, this paper proposes a lightweight small data supply chain financial supervision program. The solution adopts two-way authentication technology based on the improvement of the Internet of Things supply chain, the negotiation of the Internet of Things supply chain, and a lightweight encryption algorithm, which realizes the secure communication between ordinary nodes and gateway nodes, and can more effectively solve the problem of small and medium data distribution in WSN to resist the deficiencies of the financial supervision mechanism; compared with existing solutions of the same magnitude, it has higher security and efficiency. Experimental simulation shows that an important problem in the converged network is the imbalance of node energy consumption. In order to reduce the negative impact of the imbalance of energy consumption on the network, this article compares the two for direct transmission protocol and minimum energy multihop routing protocol. From the perspective of supply chain process performance, based on the proposed technical impact framework, it analyzes how companies actually carry out ID application work, making the research from general to individual, from theory to practice. The network energy consumption calculation method under this protocol improves an improved network architecture model that increases the communication scale. The test results show that the technical impact analysis framework established in this article based on the theory of the Internet of Things and the advantages of RFID technology can analyze the automation benefits, information benefits, and transformative benefits brought by automatic identification technology to the supply chain and introduce complementary resources and potential factors. It provides a theoretical basis and operation method for measuring the impact of RFID on the performance of the financial supervision process based on the Internet of Things supply chain in practical applications.

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Topics: Supply chain (57%), Network architecture (56%), Wireless sensor network (55%) ... show more

References
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28 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.FUTURE.2017.08.020
Xiaoqi Li1, Peng Jiang1, Ting Chen2, Xiapu Luo1  +1 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Since its inception, the blockchain technology has shown promising application prospects. From the initial cryptocurrency to the current smart contract, blockchain has been applied to many fields. Although there are some studies on the security and privacy issues of blockchain, there lacks a systematic examination on the security of blockchain systems. In this paper, we conduct a systematic study on the security threats to blockchain and survey the corresponding real attacks by examining popular blockchain systems. We also review the security enhancement solutions for blockchain, which could be used in the development of various blockchain systems, and suggest some future directions to stir research efforts into this area.

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Topics: Blockchain (69%), Cryptocurrency (59%), Smart contract (55%)

739 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/00207543.2018.1533261
Abstract: Globalisation of supply chains makes their management and control more difficult. Blockchain technology, as a distributed digital ledger technology which ensures transparency, traceability, and sec...

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Topics: Supply chain (56%), Supply chain management (55%), Blockchain (54%) ... show more

738 Citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/ICSSSM.2016.7538424
Feng Tian1Institutions (1)
24 Jun 2016-
Abstract: For the past few years, food safety has become an outstanding problem in China. Since traditional agri-food logistics pattern can not match the demands of the market anymore, building an agri-food supply chain traceability system is becoming more and more urgent. In this paper, we study the utilization and development situation of RFID (Radio-Frequency IDentification) and blockchain technology first, and then we analyze the advantages and disadvantages of using RFID and blockchain technology in building the agri-food supply chain traceability system; finally, we demonstrate the building process of this system. It can realize the traceability with trusted information in the entire agri-food supply chain, which would effectively guarantee the food safety, by gathering, transferring and sharing the authentic data of agri-food in production, processing, warehousing, distribution and selling links.

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Topics: Traceability (62%), Supply chain (59%), Supply chain management (58%)

711 Citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/ICSA.2017.33
Xiwei Xu1, Ingo Weber1, Mark Staples1, Liming Zhu1  +4 moreInstitutions (3)
03 Apr 2017-
Abstract: Blockchain is an emerging technology for decentralised and transactional data sharing across a large network of untrusted participants. It enables new forms of distributed software architectures, where agreement on shared states can be established without trusting a central integration point. A major difficulty for architects designing applications based on blockchain is that thetechnology has many configurations and variants. Since blockchains are at an early stage, there is little product data or reliable technology evaluation available to compare different blockchains. In this paper, we propose how to classify and compare blockchains and blockchain-based systems to assist with the design and assessment of their impact on software architectures. Our taxonomy captures major architectural characteristics of blockchains and the impact of their principal design decisions. This taxonomy is intended to help with important architectural considerations about the performance and quality attributes of blockchain-based systems.

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Topics: Blockchain (52%), Software architecture (52%)

457 Citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/ICSSSM.2017.7996119
Feng Tian1Institutions (1)
16 Jun 2017-
Abstract: In recent times food safety has drawn upsurge of academic and commercial concerns. In supply chain area, with the rapid growth of internet technologies, a lot of emerging technologies have been applied in traceability systems. However, to date, nearly all of these systems are centralized which are monopolistic, asymmetric and opaque that could result in the trust problem, such as fraud, corruption, tampering and falsifying information. Besides, centralized system is vulnerable to collapse, since a single point of breakdown will lead the whole system to be crashed. Today, a new technology called the blockchain which is a ground-breaking innovation in decentralized information technology presents a whole new approach. However, since this technology is still in its early stages, it has some inherent defects, in which scalability become a primary and urgent one when we face the mass data in the real world. In this paper we will build a food supply chain traceability system for real-time food tracing based on HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points), blockchain and Internet of things, which could provide an information platform for all the supply chain members with openness, transparency, neutrality, reliability and security. Furthermore, we introduce a new concept BigchainDB to fill the gap in the decentralized systems at scale. The paper concludes with a description of a use case and the challenges to adopt blockchain technology in the future food supply chain traceability systems are discussed.

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Topics: Supply chain (59%), Traceability (58%), Hazard analysis and critical control points (53%) ... show more

385 Citations


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