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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/0269881121992676

Dose–response relationships of psilocybin-induced subjective experiences in humans:

04 Mar 2021-Journal of Psychopharmacology (SAGE Publications)-Vol. 35, Iss: 4, pp 384-397
Abstract: Background:Psilocybin is the psychoactive component in Psilocybe mushrooms (‘magic mushrooms’). Whether and how the quality of the psilocybin-induced experience might mediate beneficial health outc...

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Topics: Psilocybin (60%), Psilocybe (59%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S40429-021-00385-5
Abstract: With the continuous emergence of new psychoactive substances, drug checking (DC) services are challenged by an increasingly complex drug market. Considering the resumed scientific and public interest in serotonergic psychedelics (SPs) like LSD, psilocybin, and 2C-B, we present the results of a literature search investigating the presence and proportion of SPs in DC samples. In 15 identified reports, submission and detection rates of SPs were comparably low, but increasing. Samples contained considerable amounts of adulterations or analogues, mostly novel SPs with unknown toxicological profiles and in some cases potentially life-threatening effects. The detection of SPs, however, requires advanced analysis techniques currently not available to most DC services. Given the substantial proportion of novel SPs in DC samples and the associated risks, DC can be a valuable harm reduction and monitoring tool for SPs if analysis techniques with high sensitivity are employed.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPSYT.2021.706017
Mihai Avram1, Helena Rogg1, Alexandra Korda1, Christina Andreou1  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Psychiatry has a well-established tradition of comparing drug-induced experiences to psychotic symptoms, based on shared phenomena such as altered perceptions. The present review focuses on experiences induced by classic psychedelics, which are substances capable of eliciting powerful psychoactive effects, characterized by distortions/alterations of several neurocognitive processes (e.g., hallucinations). Herein we refer to such experiences as psychedelic states. Psychosis is a clinical syndrome defined by impaired reality testing, also characterized by impaired neurocognitive processes (e.g., hallucinations and delusions). In this review we refer to acute phases of psychotic disorders as psychotic states. Neuropharmacological investigations have begun to characterize the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning the shared and distinct neurophysiological changes observed in psychedelic and psychotic states. Mounting evidence indicates changes in thalamic filtering, along with disturbances in cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical (CSPTC)-circuitry, in both altered states. Notably, alterations in thalamocortical functional connectivity were reported by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. Thalamocortical dysconnectivity and its clinical relevance are well-characterized in psychotic states, particularly in schizophrenia research. Specifically, studies report hyperconnectivity between the thalamus and sensorimotor cortices and hypoconnectivity between the thalamus and prefrontal cortices, associated with patients' psychotic symptoms and cognitive disturbances, respectively. Intriguingly, studies also report hyperconnectivity between the thalamus and sensorimotor cortices in psychedelic states, correlating with altered visual and auditory perceptions. Taken together, the two altered states appear to share clinically and functionally relevant dysconnectivity patterns. In this review we discuss recent findings of thalamocortical dysconnectivity, its putative extension to CSPTC circuitry, along with its clinical implications and future directions.

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Topics: Psychosis (51%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/7854_2021_270
Abstract: Classic psychedelics, including psilocybin, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), dimethyltryptamine, and mescaline, and entactogens/empathogens, especially 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, have received renewed attention in psychiatric research and may be developed into medications for such indications as anxiety, depression, cluster headache, and posttraumatic stress disorder, among others. However, identifying proper doses is crucial. Controlled study data on dosing using well-characterized pharmaceutical formulations of the substances are scarce. The dose equivalence of different substances, dose-response effects, and subjective effects of different doses are of great interest and practically important for their clinical use in psychotherapy. Furthermore, the so-called microdosing of psychedelics has recently gained popularity, and the first placebo-controlled studies of LSD have been published. This chapter discusses different aspects of psychedelic dosing, including pharmaceutical aspects, definitions and characteristics of different doses, including microdoses, aspects of personalized dosing, and non-pharmacological factors, that can influence the response to psychedelics.

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Topics: Mescaline (55%), Dimethyltryptamine (54%), Psilocybin (53%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/02698811211003495
James Rucker1, Pallab Seth2Institutions (2)
Topics: TRIPS architecture (54%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0253779
01 Jul 2021-PLOS ONE
Abstract: Flicker light stimulation can induce short-term alterations in consciousness including hallucinatory color perception and geometric patterns. In the study at hand, the subjective experiences during 3 Hz and 10 Hz stroboscopic light stimulation of the closed eyes were assessed. In a within-subjects design (N = 24), we applied the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (mood state), time perception ratings, the Altered State of Consciousness Rating Scale, and the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory. Furthermore, we tested for effects of personality traits (NEO Five-Factor Inventory-2 and Tellegen Absorption Scale) on subjective experiences. Such systematic quantification improves replicability, facilitates comparisons between pharmacological and non-pharmacological techniques to induce altered states of consciousness, and is the prerequisite to study their underlying neuronal mechanisms. The resulting data showed that flicker light stimulation-induced states were characterized by vivid visual hallucinations of simple types, with effects strongest in the 10 Hz condition. Additionally, participants' personality trait of Absorption scores highly correlated with the experienced alterations in consciousness. Our data demonstrate that flicker light stimulation is capable of inducing visual effects with an intensity rated to be similar in strength to effects induced by psychedelic substances and thereby support the investigation of potentially shared underlying neuronal mechanisms.

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83 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/SIM.1186
Abstract: The extent of heterogeneity in a meta-analysis partly determines the difficulty in drawing overall conclusions. This extent may be measured by estimating a between-study variance, but interpretation is then specific to a particular treatment effect metric. A test for the existence of heterogeneity exists, but depends on the number of studies in the meta-analysis. We develop measures of the impact of heterogeneity on a meta-analysis, from mathematical criteria, that are independent of the number of studies and the treatment effect metric. We derive and propose three suitable statistics: H is the square root of the chi2 heterogeneity statistic divided by its degrees of freedom; R is the ratio of the standard error of the underlying mean from a random effects meta-analysis to the standard error of a fixed effect meta-analytic estimate, and I2 is a transformation of (H) that describes the proportion of total variation in study estimates that is due to heterogeneity. We discuss interpretation, interval estimates and other properties of these measures and examine them in five example data sets showing different amounts of heterogeneity. We conclude that H and I2, which can usually be calculated for published meta-analyses, are particularly useful summaries of the impact of heterogeneity. One or both should be presented in published meta-analyses in preference to the test for heterogeneity.

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Topics: Study heterogeneity (75%), Random effects model (54%), Funnel plot (51%) ... read more

21,054 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/JRSM.5
Abstract: Conventional meta-analytic techniques rely on the assumption that effect size estimates from different studies are independent and have sampling distributions with known conditional variances. The independence assumption is violated when studies produce several estimates based on the same individuals or there are clusters of studies that are not independent (such as those carried out by the same investigator or laboratory). This paper provides an estimator of the covariance matrix of meta-regression coefficients that are applicable when there are clusters of internally correlated estimates. It makes no assumptions about the specific form of the sampling distributions of the effect sizes, nor does it require knowledge of the covariance structure of the dependent estimates. Moreover, this paper demonstrates that the meta-regression coefficients are consistent and asymptotically normally distributed and that the robust variance estimator is valid even when the covariates are random. The theory is asymptotic in the number of studies, but simulations suggest that the theory may yield accurate results with as few as 20-40 studies. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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Topics: Covariance (57%), Covariance matrix (57%), Estimator (55%) ... read more

918 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S00213-006-0457-5
07 Jul 2006-Psychopharmacology
Abstract: Rationale Although psilocybin has been used for centuries for religious purposes, little is known scientifically about its acute and persisting effects. Objectives This double-blind study evaluated the acute and longer-term psychological effects of a high dose of psilocybin relative to a comparison compound administered under comfortable, supportive conditions. Materials and methods The participants were hallucinogennaive adults reporting regular participation in religious or spiritual activities. Two or three sessions were conducted at 2-month intervals. Thirty volunteers received orally administered psilocybin (30 mg/70 kg) and methylphenidate hydrochloride (40 mg/70 kg) in counterbalanced order. To obscure the study design, six additional volunteers received methylphenidate in the first two sessions and unblinded psilocybin in a third session. The 8-h sessions were conducted individually. Volunteers were encouraged to close their eyes and direct their attention inward. Study monitors rated volunteers’ behavior during sessions. Volunteers completed questionnaires assessing drug effects and mystical experience immediately after and 2 months after sessions. Community observers rated changes in the volunteer’s attitudes and behavior. Results Psilocybin produced a range of acute perceptual changes, subjective experiences, and labile moods including anxiety. Psilocybin also increased measures of mystical experience. At 2 months, the volunteers rated the psilocybin experience as having substantial personal meaning and spiritual significance and attributed to the experience sustained positive changes in attitudes and behavior consistent with changes rated by community observers. Conclusions When administered under supportive conditions, psilocybin occasioned experiences similar to spontaneously occurring mystical experiences. The ability to occasion such experiences prospectively will allow rigorous scientific investigations of their causes and consequences.

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Topics: Entheogen (59%), Psilocybin (56%), Psychedelic therapy (54%)

765 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/0269881116675513
Abstract: Cancer patients often develop chronic, clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety. Previous studies suggest that psilocybin may decrease depression and anxiety in cancer patients. Th...

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582 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1097/00001756-199812010-00024
01 Dec 1998-Neuroreport
Abstract: Psilocybin, an indoleamine hallucinogen, produces a psychosis-like syndrome in humans that resembles first episodes of schizophrenia. In healthy human volunteers, the psychotomimetic effects of psilocybin were blocked dose-dependently by the serotonin-2A antagonist ketanserin or the atypical antipsychotic risperidone, but were increased by the dopamine antagonist and typical antipsychotic haloperidol. These data are consistent with animal studies and provide the first evidence in humans that psilocybin-induced psychosis is due to serotonin-2A receptor activation, independently of dopamine stimulation. Thus, serotonin-2A overactivity may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and serotonin-2A antagonism may contribute to therapeutic effects of antipsychotics. Language: en

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Topics: Dopamine antagonist (60%), Atypical antipsychotic (59%), Typical antipsychotic (59%) ... read more

570 Citations


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