Effects of copper on mammalian cell components
01 Jan 1989-Chemico-Biological Interactions (Elsevier)-Vol. 69, Iss: 1, pp 1-16
TL;DR: The ability to chelate Cu(II) ions is seen to be of the order: purine > purine ribonucleotides, purine nucleoside > pyrimidine ribon nucleotides.
Abstract: Both deficiency and excess of copper induce toxic effects on mammalian cell systems in vivo and in vitro. The effects can be related to the affinities of Cu(II) ions for specific cell components. The nucleus is a potential site for temporary Cu storage while primary targets for free Cu(II) ions are the thiol groups which reduce the ions to Cu(I). Cu(II) ions show a high affinity for nucleic acids, binding with DNA both at intrastrand and interstrand levels, possibly through intercalation between GC pairs. The ability to chelate Cu(II) ions is seen to be of the order: purine > purine ribonucleotides > purine ribonucleoside > pyrimidine ribonucleotides. Copper is an integral part of enzyme activation and enters into the molecular structure of several proteins, like ceruloplasmin. Cu(II) ion is a potential mutagenic agent as seen by its property of inducing infidelity in DNA synthesis in vitro. Teratogenic activities of copper have been reported but carcinogenicity is not yet confirmed. Copper is an essential component of chromatin and is known to accumulate preferentially in the heterochromatic regions. External application of higher doses, however, induces both clastogenic effects and spindle disturbances. In certain forms, inorganic copper enhances the clastogenic activity of other agents. The most widely studied human genetic maladies linked with copper metabolism are Menkes' and Wilson's diseases. Several mutations are known which influence Cu homeostasis in mammals. Such mutations in mice have been used extensively for biochemical studies.
TL;DR: Results obtained from available animal studies suggest that the compound is protective, and further studies are needed to better understand the cellular effects of this essential, but potentially toxic, trace mineral and its functional interaction with other nutrients.
Abstract: Copper (Cu) is an integral part of many important enzymes involved in a number of vital biological processes. Although normally bound to proteins, Cu may be released and become free to catalyze the formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. Data obtained from in vitro and cell culture studies are largely supportive of Cu's capacity to initiate oxidative damage and interfere with important cellular events. Oxidative damage has been linked to chronic Cu-overload and/or exposure to excess Cu caused by accidents, occupational hazards, and environmental contamination. Additionally, Cu-induced oxidative damage has been implicated in disorders associated with abnormal Cu metabolism and neurodegenerative changes. Interestingly, a deficiency in dietary Cu also increases cellular susceptibility to oxidative damage. A number of nutrients have been shown to interact with Cu and alter its cellular effects. Vitamin E is generally protective against Cu-induced oxidative damage. While most in vitro or cell culture studies show that ascorbic acid aggravates Cu-induced oxidative damage, results obtained from available animal studies suggest that the compound is protective. High intakes of ascorbic acid and zinc may provide protection against Cu toxicity by preventing excess Cu uptake. Zinc also removes Cu from its binding site, where it may cause free radical formation. Beta-carotene, alpha-lipoic acid and polyphenols have also been shown to attenuate Cu-induced oxidative damage. Further studies are needed to better understand the cellular effects of this essential, but potentially toxic, trace mineral and its functional interaction with other nutrients.
TL;DR: The present paper is intended to provide the reader up-to-date information on the antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of resveratrol and its clinical implications and proposed mechanism for anticancer and chemopreventive properties of plant polyphenols.
Abstract: Resveratrol (3,4′,5-trihydroxystilbene) is found in various plants, including grapes, berries and peanuts. It is also present in wines, especially red wines. During the last years, it has been the focus of numerous in vitro and in vivo studies investigating its biological attributes, which include mainly antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, anti-platelet aggregation effect, anti-atherogenic property, oestrogen-like growth-promoting effect, growth-inhibiting activity, immunomodulation and chemoprevention. In fact, recently, it has been demonstrated that the stilbene blocks the multistep process of carcinogenesis at various stages: tumour initiation, promotion and progression. More recent results provide interesting insights into the effect of this compound on the life span of yeasts and flies, implicating the potential of resveratrol as an anti-aging agent in treating age-related human diseases. Nevertheless, depending on the concentration of the phytoalexin and the cell type, it has also been shown that resveratrol can exhibit pro-oxidant properties, leading to oxidative breakage of cellular DNA in the presence of transition metal ions such as copper. Recently, it has been proposed that such a pro-oxidant action could be a common mechanism for anticancer and chemopreventive properties of plant polyphenols. The present paper is intended to provide the reader up-to-date information on the antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of resveratrol and its clinical implications.
TL;DR: The examples demonstrate that the parent compounds and their metabolites cause both nongenotoxic cell proliferative effects as well as direct and indirect genotoxic effects, which illustrates the complex nature of estrogen carcinogenesis.
Abstract: In western society, the causes of several cancers--including breast, endometrium, ovary, liver, and prostate--have been linked to inappropriate and/or prolonged exposure to synthetic or endogenous steroidal hormones. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of estrogen carcinogenesis with a focus on estrogen metabolism to 16 alpha-hydroxy estrone and 2- and 4-hydroxy catechol estrogens and the potential effects of these metabolites in vitro and in vivo on hamster liver and kidney and rat liver carcinogenesis models. The examples demonstrate that the parent compounds and their metabolites cause both nongenotoxic cell proliferative effects as well as direct and indirect genotoxic effects, which illustrates the complex nature of estrogen carcinogenesis. These effects, in combination with the metabolic state of the tissue and the timing of its exposure, may determine the cell type (organ) of tumor development and the severity of disease.
TL;DR: This review summarized current data on resveratrol pharmacological effects and confirmed its anticancer properties, as well as other bioactive effects, namely as anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, cardioprotective, vasorelaxant, phytoestrogenic and neuroprotective.
Abstract: Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) belongs to polyphenols’ stilbenoids group, possessing two phenol rings linked to each other by an ethylene bridge. This natural polyphenol has been detected in more than 70 plant species, especially in grapes’ skin and seeds, and was found in discrete amounts in red wines and various human foods. It is a phytoalexin that acts against pathogens, including bacteria and fungi. As a natural food ingredient, numerous studies have demonstrated that resveratrol possesses a very high antioxidant potential. Resveratrol also exhibit antitumor activity, and is considered a potential candidate for prevention and treatment of several types of cancer. Indeed, resveratrol anticancer properties have been confirmed by many in vitro and in vivo studies, which shows that resveratrol is able to inhibit all carcinogenesis stages (e.g., initiation, promotion and progression). Even more, other bioactive effects, namely as anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, cardioprotective, vasorelaxant, phytoestrogenic and neuroprotective have also been reported. Nonetheless, resveratrol application is still being a major challenge for pharmaceutical industry, due to its poor solubility and bioavailability, as well as adverse effects. In this sense, this review summarized current data on resveratrol pharmacological effects.
Cites background from "Effects of copper on mammalian cell..."
...Resveratrol is closely linked with DNA bases, particularly guanine ....
TL;DR: Examination of PCB metabolites to induce free radical-mediated oxidative DNA damage using a newly developed, highly sensitive, 32P-postlabeling assay for 8-oxode-oxyguanosine demonstrates that free radicals and oxidative DNADamage are produced during oxidation of lower chlorinated biphenyls.
Abstract: We have previously reported that mono- and dichlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can be metabolized to dihydroxy compounds and further oxidized to reactive metabolites which form adducts with nitrogen and sulfur nucleophiles including DNA [Amaro et al. (1996) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 9, 623−629; Oakley et al. (1996) Carcinogenesis 17, 109−114]. The former studies also demonstrated that during the metabolism of PCBs superoxide may be produced. We have therefore examined the abilities of PCB metabolites to induce free radical-mediated oxidative DNA damage using a newly developed, highly sensitive, 32P-postlabeling assay for 8-oxodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) [Devanaboyina, U., and Gupta, R. (1996) Carcinogenesis 17, 917−924]. The incubation of 3,4-dichloro-2‘,5‘-dihydroxybiphenyl (100 μM) with calf thymus DNA (300 μg/mL) in the presence of the breast tissue and milk-associated enzyme, lactoperoxidase (10 mU/mL), and H2O2 (0.5 mM) resulted in a significant increase in free radical-induced DNA damage (253 8-oxodG/106 nucleoti...
TL;DR: A hypothetical model is presented for the metabolism of aluminum, based on documented direct observations of Al3+ and analogies from other ions, and it is proposed that an accumulation may take place at a subcellular level without any significant increase in the corresponding tissue concentration.
Abstract: Literature regarding the biochemistry of aluminum and eight similar ions is reviewed. Close and hitherto unknown similarities were found. A hypothetical model is presented for the metabolism, based on documented direct observations of Al3+ and analogies from other ions. Main characteristics are low intestinal absorption, rapid urinary excretion, and slow tissue uptake, mostly in skeleton and reticuloendothelial cells. Intracellular Al3+ is probably first confined in the lysosomes but then slowly accumulates in the cell nucleus and chromatin. Large, long-lived cells, e.g., neurons, may be the most liable to this accumulation. In heterochromatin, Al3+ levels can be found comparable to those used in leather tannage. It is proposed that an accumulation may take place at a subcellular level without any significant increase in the corresponding tissue concentration. The possible effects of this accumulation are discussed. As Al3+ is neurotoxic, the brain metabolism is most interesting. The normal and the lethally toxic brain levels of Al3+ are well documented and differ only by a factor of 3-10. The normal brain uptake of Al3+ is estimated from data on intestinal uptake of Al3+ and brain uptake of radionuclides of similar ions administered intravenously. The uptake is very slow, 1 mg in 36 years, and is consistent with an assumption that Al3+ taken up by the brain cannot be eliminated and is therefore accumulated. The possibility that Al3+ may cause or contribute to some specific diseases, most of them related to aging, is discussed with the proposed metabolic picture in mind.
TL;DR: All ten salts of metal carcinogens decreased the fidelity of DNA synthesis, and 17 noncarcinogenic metal salts did not affect fidelity even when present at concentrations that were clearly inhibitory.
Abstract: Thirty-one metal salts have been tested for their ability to affect the accuracy of DNA synthesis in vitro. All ten salts of metal carcinogens decreased the fidelity of DNA synthesis. Of the three metals which beforehand were considered to be possible mutagens or carcinogens, only one decreased fidelity. In contrast, 17 noncarcinogenic metal salts did not affect fidelity even when present at concentrations that were clearly inhibitory.
TL;DR: Gross changes in free sulphydryl groups in hair keratin probably explain the kinky hair, and treatment of Menkes' syndrome may become possible as a result of these findings.
Abstract: Copper deficiency has been demonstrated in seven babies with Menkes' kinky-hair syndrome. Gross changes in free sulphydryl groups in hair keratin, consistent with copper deficiency, probably explain the kinky hair. Copper deficiency also explains the important changes in the elastic fibres in the arterial walls, the scorbutic bone changes, and the hypothermia observed in these babies. Evidence for a defect in the intestinal absorption of copper is given. Treatment of Menkes' syndrome may become possible as a result of these findings.