scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

Effects of different sleep restriction protocols on sleep architecture and daytime vigilance in healthy men.

01 Jan 2010-Physiological Research (Physiol Res)-Vol. 59, Iss: 5, pp 821-829

TL;DR: The study showed that cumulative declines in daytime vigilance resulted from loss of total sleep time, rather than from specific stages, and underscored the reversibility of SR effects with greater amounts of sleep.

AbstractSleep is regulated by complex biological systems and environmental influences, neither of which is fully clarified. This study demonstrates differential effects of partial sleep deprivation (SD) on sleep architecture and psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) performance using two different protocols (sequentially) that each restricted daily sleep to 3 hours in healthy adult men. The protocols differed only in the period of sleep restriction; in one, sleep was restricted to a 3-hour block from 12:00 AM to 3:00 AM, and in the other, sleep was restricted to a block from 3:00 AM to 6:00 AM. Subjects in the earlier sleep restriction period showed a significantly lower percentage of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep after 4 days (17.0 vs. 25.7 %) and a longer latency to the onset of REM sleep (L-REM) after 1 day (78.8 vs. 45.5 min) than they did in the later sleep restriction period. Reaction times on PVT performance were also better (i.e. shorter) in the earlier SR period on day 4 (249.8 vs. 272 ms). These data support the view that earlier-night sleep may be more beneficial for daytime vigilance than later-night sleep. The study also showed that cumulative declines in daytime vigilance resulted from loss of total sleep time, rather than from specific stages, and underscored the reversibility of SR effects with greater amounts of sleep.

Topics: Non-rapid eye movement sleep (76%), Sleep deprivation (75%), Sleep debt (75%), Polysomnography (73%), Sleep restriction (71%)

...read more

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

Citations
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The current meta‐analysis is the first comprehensive review to provide evidence that short‐term sleep restriction significantly impairs waking neurocognitive functioning.
Abstract: The current meta-analytic review evaluated the effects of experimentally manipulated sleep restriction on neurocognitive functioning. Random-effects models were employed to estimate the overall effect size and the differential effect size across cognitive domains. Age, time of day, age-adjusted sleep deficit, cumulative days of restricted sleep, sleep latency, subjective sleepiness, and biological sex were examined as potential moderators of the effect. Based on a sample of 61 studies, from 71 different populations, findings revealed a significant negative effect of sleep restriction on cognitive processing across cognitive domains (g=-0.383, p<0.001). This effect held for executive functioning (g=-0.324, p<0.001), sustained attention (g=-0.409, p<0.001), and long-term memory (g=-0.192, p=0.002). There was insufficient evidence to detect an effect within the domains of attention, multitask, impulsive decision-making or intelligence. Age group, time of day, cumulative days of restricted sleep, sleep latency, subjective sleepiness, and biological sex were all significant moderators of the overall effect. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis is the first comprehensive review to provide evidence that short-term sleep restriction significantly impairs waking neurocognitive functioning.

159 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Investigation of the relationship between sleep deprivation and occupational and patient care errors among staff nurses who work the night shift found improved sleep among night shift nurses will reduce the impact of sleep deprivation on patient Care errors.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between sleep deprivation and occupational and patient care errors among staff nurses who work the night shift.BACKGROUND:Whereas the aviation and trucking industries report that sleep deprivation increases errors, few studies have

100 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A reduced sleep duration, quality sleep and rapid‐eye movement sleep affect substrate oxidation, leptin and ghrelin concentrations, sleeping metabolic rate, appetite, food reward, hypothalamic‐pituitary‐adrenal (HPA)‐axis activity, and gut‐peptide concentrations, enhancing a positive energy balance.
Abstract: Energy- and food-reward homeostasis is the essential component for maintaining energy balance and its disruption may lead to metabolic disorders, including obesity and diabetes. Circadian alignment, quality sleep and sleep architecture in relation to energy- and food-reward homeostasis are crucial. A reduced sleep duration, quality sleep and rapid-eye movement sleep affect substrate oxidation, leptin and ghrelin concentrations, sleeping metabolic rate, appetite, food reward, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity, and gut-peptide concentrations, enhancing a positive energy balance. Circadian misalignment affects sleep architecture and the glucose-insulin metabolism, substrate oxidation, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, leptin concentrations and HPA-axis activity. Mood disorders such as depression occur; reduced dopaminergic neuronal signaling shows decreased food reward. A good sleep hygiene, together with circadian alignment of food intake, a regular meal frequency, and attention for protein intake or diets, contributes in curing sleep abnormalities and overweight/obesity features by preventing overeating; normalizing substrate oxidation, stress, insulin and glucose metabolism including HOMA-IR index, and leptin, GLP-1 concentrations, lipid metabolism, appetite, energy expenditure and substrate oxidation; and normalizing food reward. Synchrony between circadian and metabolic processes including meal patterns plays an important role in the regulation of energy balance and body-weight control. Additive effects of circadian alignment including meal patterns, sleep restoration, and protein diets in the treatment of overweight and obesity are suggested.

75 citations


Cites background from "Effects of different sleep restrict..."

  • ...during the circadian nadir, is important in protecting normal physiological rhythms and function of the HPA axis (76)....

    [...]

  • ...Increased REM sleep during both a phase advance and a phase delay is not favourable (24,28,69–74), because this results in a relatively shorter REM sleep duration during the second part of the night, associated with higher cortisol concentrations, higher fasting insulin concentrations and a higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index (48,50,75,76)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
08 Aug 2013-PLOS ONE
TL;DR: Circadian misalignment, both a phase advance and a phase delay, significantly changed sleep architecture and resulted in a shift in rem sleep, which was associated with dysregulation of the HPA-axis and reduced insulin sensitivity.
Abstract: Circadian misalignment affects total sleep time, but it may also affect sleep architecture. The objectives of this study were to examine intra-individual effects of circadian misalignment on sleep architecture and inter-individual relationships between sleep stages, cortisol levels and insulin sensitivity. Thirteen subjects (7 men, 6 women, age: 24.3±2.5 y; BMI: 23.6±1.7 kg/m2) stayed in a time blinded respiration chamber during three light-entrained circadian cycles (3x21h and 3x27h) resulting in a phase advance and a phase delay. Sleep was polysomnographically recorded. Blood and salivary samples were collected to determine glucose, insulin and cortisol concentrations. Intra-individually, a phase advance decreased rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and slow-wave sleep (SWS), increased time awake, decreased sleep and REM sleep latency compared to the 24h cycle. A phase delay increased REM sleep, decreased stage 2 sleep, increased time awake, decreased sleep and REM sleep latency compared to the 24h cycle. Moreover, circadian misalignment changed REM sleep distribution with a relatively shorter REM sleep during the second part of the night. Inter-individually, REM sleep was inversely associated with cortisol levels and HOMA-IR index. Circadian misalignment, both a phase advance and a phase delay, significantly changed sleep architecture and resulted in a shift in rem sleep. Inter-individually, shorter REM sleep during the second part of the night was associated with dysregulation of the HPA-axis and reduced insulin sensitivity. Trial Registration: International Clinical Trials Registry Platform NTR2926 http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/

34 citations


Cites background from "Effects of different sleep restrict..."

  • ...Moreover, inter-individual relationships between different sleep stages and cortisol concentrations, as an indicator of HPA-axis activity, and the fasted HOMA-IR index, as an indicator of insulin sensitivity, were investigated....

    [...]

  • ...Wu et al. already showed that sleep at the 03:00-06:00 period, during the circadian nadir, is important in protecting normal physiological rhythms and function of the HPA-axis [30]....

    [...]

  • ...Inter-individually, shorter REM sleep during the second part of the night was associated with dysregulation of the HPA-axis, as indicated by increased cortisol concentrations, and reduced insulin sensitivity....

    [...]

  • ...Inter-individual relationships between sleep architecture, cortisol levels and HOMA-IR index Possible changes in cortisol concentrations, as an indicator of HPA-axis activity were observed as follows....

    [...]

  • ...Inter-individually, shorter REM sleep during the second part of the night was associated with dysregulation of the HPA-axis and reduced insulin sensitivity....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
27 Apr 2016
Abstract: Circadian alignment is crucial for body-weight management, and for metabolic health. In this context, circadian alignment consists of alignment of sleep, meal patterns and physical activity. During puberty a significant reduction in sleep duration occurs, and pubertal status is inversely associated with sleep duration. A consistent inverse association between habitual sleep duration and body-weight development occurs, independent of possible confounders. Research on misalignment reveals that circadian misalignment affects sleep-architecture and subsequently disturbs glucose-insulin metabolism, substrate oxidation, leptin- and ghrelin concentrations, appetite, food reward, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis activity and gut-peptide concentrations enhancing positive energy balance and metabolic disturbance. Not only aligning meals and sleep in a circadian way is crucial, also regular physical activity during the day strongly promotes the stability and amplitude of circadian rhythm, and thus may serve as an instrument to restore poor circadian rhythms. Endogenicity may play a role in interaction of these environmental variables with a genetic predisposition. In conclusion, notwithstanding the separate favourable effects of sufficient daily physical activity, regular meal patterns, sufficient sleep duration and quality sleep on energy balance, the overall effect of the amplitude and stability of the circadian rhythm, perhaps including genetic predisposition, may integrate the separate effects in an additive way.

30 citations


Cites background from "Effects of different sleep restrict..."

  • ...Sleep during the circadian nadir (03.00–06.00 hours), is important in protecting normal physiological rhythms and function of the HPA-axis(74)....

    [...]

  • ...When sleep architecture is affected by circadian misalignment, it affects substrate oxidation, leptin- and ghrelin concentrations, appetite, food reward, HPA-axis activity and gutpeptide concentrations as such, that a positive energy balance is enhanced....

    [...]

  • ...Increased REM sleep during both a phase advance and a phase delay is not favourable, because this results in a relatively shorter REM sleep duration during the second part of the night, associated with higher cortisol concentrations, higher fasting insulin concentrations, and a higher HOMA-IR index((44,64,73,74))....

    [...]

  • ...Taken together, a reduced sleep-duration, and reduced QS affect substrate oxidation, leptin- and ghrelin concentrations, sleeping metabolic rate, appetite, food reward, HPA-axis activity, gut-peptide concentrations as such, that a positive energy balance is enhanced, which increases the risk for overweight....

    [...]

  • ...00 hours), is important in protecting normal physiological rhythms and function of the HPA-axis((74))....

    [...]


References
More filters


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Techniques of recording, scoring, and doubtful records are carefully considered, and Recommendations for abbreviations, types of pictorial representation, order of polygraphic tracings are suggested.
Abstract: With the vast research interest in sleep and dreams that has developed in the past 15 years, there is increasing evidence of noncomparibility of scoring of nocturnal electroencephalograph-electroculograph records from different laboratories. In 1967 a special session on scoring criteria was held at the seventh annual meeting of the Association for the Psychophysiological Study of Sleep. Under the auspices of the UCLA Brain Information, an ad hoc committee composed of some of the most active current researchers was formed in 1967 to develop a terminology and scoring system for universal use. It is the results of the labors of this group that is now published under the imprimatur of the National Institutes of Health. The presentation is beautifully clear. Techniques of recording, scoring, and doubtful records are carefully considered. Recommendations for abbreviations, types of pictorial representation, order of polygraphic tracings are suggested.

7,774 citations


"Effects of different sleep restrict..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...For example, Elmenhorst et al. reported decreased non-REM (NREM) ‘lighter’ sleep stages (defined as NREM stages 1 and 2), but increased ‘deeper’ NREM sleep stages (defined as NREM stages 3 and 4) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in healthy males following reductions of sleep (from 8 to 5 hours)…...

    [...]

  • ...Polysomnographic recordings were analyzed by an experienced researcher following standard scoring criteria (Rechtschaffen and Kales 1968)....

    [...]



Journal ArticleDOI
15 Mar 2003-Sleep
TL;DR: It appears that even relatively moderate sleep restriction can seriously impair waking neurobehavioral functions in healthy adults, and sleep debt is perhaps best understood as resulting in additional wakefulness that has a neurobiological "cost" which accumulates over time.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To inform the debate over whether human sleep can be chronically reduced without consequences, we conducted a dose-response chronic sleep restriction experiment in which waking neurobehavioral and sleep physiological functions were monitored and compared to those for total sleep deprivation. DESIGN: The chronic sleep restriction experiment involved randomization to one of three sleep doses (4 h, 6 h, or 8 h time in bed per night), which were maintained for 14 consecutive days. The total sleep deprivation experiment involved 3 nights without sleep (0 h time in bed). Each study also involved 3 baseline (pre-deprivation) days and 3 recovery days. SETTING: Both experiments were conducted under standardized laboratory conditions with continuous behavioral, physiological and medical monitoring. PARTICIPANTS: A total of n = 48 healthy adults (ages 21-38) participated in the experiments. INTERVENTIONS: Noctumal sleep periods were restricted to 8 h, 6 h or 4 h per day for 14 days, or to 0 h for 3 days. All other sleep was prohibited. RESULTS: Chronic restriction of sleep periods to 4 h or 6 h per night over 14 consecutive days resulted in significant cumulative, dose-dependent deficits in cognitive performance on all tasks. Subjective sleepiness ratings showed an acute response to sleep restriction but only small further increases on subsequent days, and did not significantly differentiate the 6 h and 4 h conditions. Polysomnographic variables and delta power in the non-REM sleep EEG-a putative marker of sleep homeostasis--displayed an acute response to sleep restriction with negligible further changes across the 14 restricted nights. Comparison of chronic sleep restriction to total sleep deprivation showed that the latter resulted in disproportionately large waking neurobehavioral and sleep delta power responses relative to how much sleep was lost. A statistical model revealed that, regardless of the mode of sleep deprivation, lapses in behavioral alertness were near-linearly related to the cumulative duration of wakefulness in excess of 15.84 h (s.e. 0.73 h). CONCLUSIONS: Since chronic restriction of sleep to 6 h or less per night produced cognitive performance deficits equivalent to up to 2 nights of total sleep deprivation, it appears that even relatively moderate sleep restriction can seriously impair waking neurobehavioral functions in healthy adults. Sleepiness ratings suggest that subjects were largely unaware of these increasing cognitive deficits, which may explain why the impact of chronic sleep restriction on waking cognitive functions is often assumed to be benign. Physiological sleep responses to chronic restriction did not mirror waking neurobehavioral responses, but cumulative wakefulness in excess of a 15.84 h predicted performance lapses across all four experimental conditions. This suggests that sleep debt is perhaps best understood as resulting in additional wakefulness that has a neurobiological "cost" which accumulates over time.

2,520 citations


"Effects of different sleep restrict..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Other researchers proposed, however, that even mild sleep deprivation impairs cognition significantly (Banks and Dinges 2007, Belenky et al. 2003, Elmenhorst et al. 2008, Van Dongen et al. 2003)....

    [...]