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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11356-021-13187-Z

Experimental investigation on the performance improvement of tubular solar still using floating black sponge layer

04 Mar 2021-Environmental Science and Pollution Research (Springer Berlin Heidelberg)-Vol. 28, Iss: 26, pp 34968-34978
Abstract: The experimental study in this manuscript aims to enhance the performance of tubular solar distillers. The tubular distillers are characterized by having a large surface area for receiving and condensing compared to a single-slope distiller, and accordingly, the use of floating sponge layers is a good and very effective choice in increasing the rate of evaporation and thus improving the cumulative yield of the tubular distillers. In order to obtain the optimum specifications of the sponge layers that achieve the highest performance of the tubular distillers, four tubular distillers were designed and constructed; the first is a reference distiller without sponge and the other three tubular distillers contain the sponge layers with different specifications. The experimentations were conducted in two stages: in the first stage, three different thicknesses of the sponge layer (20, 30, and 40 mm) were studied. In the second stage, three different densities of the sponge layer (16, 20, and 30 kg/m3) were studied. All test cases were compared with reference distiller under the same climatic conditions of Egypt. The results show that the utilization of a floating sponge improves the tubular distiller performance. The peak improvement in the accumulative yield of tubular distillers was achieved in case of utilizing a sponge layer with a 30-mm thickness and 16-kg/m3 density. The reference distiller gives maximum accumulative yield of 3.72 L/m2 day while the floating sponge layer utilization improves the accumulative yield to 5.92 L/m2 day with 59.2% improvement. Also, the utilization of floating sponge layer reduced the cost of distillate yield by 36.3% compared to reference distiller.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11356-021-17709-7
Pranav Mehta1, Abd Elnaby Kabeel2, Abd Elnaby Kabeel3, Vivek Patel4  +1 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: Water distillation by utilising free energy from the sun is one of the significant techniques for getting freshwater from salty and seawater. For the remote areas and small societies where freshwater is distant, solar distillation is one of the best explanations for freshwater creation. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of the flat plate collector–assisted conventional solar still incorporating mirror wall and heat storage material, which was tested at Anchor institute of solar energy studies, Mehsana (23.5275311° latitude and 72.3881041° longitude), Gujarat. Moreover, the study captures average productivity with and without FPC which was 1.5 L and 1.0 L respectively during the day time for the entire period of experiments. In this study, the water depth is varied from 1 to 5 cm inside the single basin solar still to obtain the optimum depth. It was observed that when mirror augmented still was operated with the FPC, 3.6L/day productivity was achieved with 30% instantaneous efficiency, at solar radiation of 1122 W/m2 and ambient temperature of 24 °C. Also, the maximum productivity was observed at a water depth of 3 cm and 4 cm. Moreover, improvements in daily and yearly productivity were observed to be 51.515% and 56.6474% respectively, which were estimated on the basis of with and without FPC. An experiment was performed at Anchor Institute of Solar Energy, Mehsana located at the north part of Gujarat where the average annual rain was comparatively less compared to other regions, so this type of solar still can provide potable water to daily workers who work on site. Furthermore, economic study reveals 0.577 INR/litre cost of distiller output for conventional set-up and 0.477 INR/litre for the FPC assisted set-up.

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Topics: Solar energy (59%), Solar still (58%), Solar desalination (57%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.RSER.2021.111894
Abstract: Solar energy-driven desalination is one of sustainable means to produce reusable water. Recently, solar distiller formally known as a solar still (SS) has been commonly employed to get freshwater through evaporation and consequent condensation process. However, such passive systems are typically slow on the distillation process, because bulk heating requirement and other energy losses. To increase the fresh water productivity of the passive distillation systems, researchers have usually adopted concentrators, reflecting mirrors, evacuated tube collectors (ETC), energy absorbing-engineered nanoparticles and energy storage (sensible and latent heat) materials. In this manner, water in a distiller can obtain additional heat and speedy evaporation take place immediately. Thus, efficient integration of passive distillation is highly useful to achieve appreciable production rate of fresh water for human daily needs. In this aspect, many researchers continuously tried to develop new innovative technologies for effective solar desalination. The main objective of this assessment is to review the current integration strategies and consequences for improving the productivity of solar distillers. Here, the term integration comprises additional heat sources, including heat confinement to broadband nanoparticles (micro-integration), concentrators, reflecting-mirrors (macro-integration), latent heat storage (LHS), sensible heat storage (SHS), and wicking cloth-based absorbers. This review exclusively focused on the newest results in the year of 2020–2021. In addition, the challenges, limitations, and requirements for future prospects are discussed.

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Topics: Solar desalination (65%), Active solar (59%), Solar still (55%) ... read more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SOLMAT.2021.111482
Abstract: Water and energy scarcity is one of the most important and biggest challenges facing many countries around the world. In rural communities, the traditional energy sources utilized for produce the freshwater may be not available. So, the hemispherical solar distillers are a good choice to produce the freshwater, which characterized by having a large surface area for receive and condensed compared to traditional single-slope solar distillers. The present work aims to achieve the highest freshwater productivity from the hemispherical solar distillers by combining two of the most effective modifications, namely, use of CuO nanoparticles to increase the evaporation rate, and use of glass cover cooling technology to increase the condensation rate. To obtain the influences of combining two effective modifications on the productivity of hemispherical distillers, three hemispherical distillers were constructed and tested at same climate conditions, namely; the conventional hemispherical distiller which represent the reference distiller, modified hemispherical distiller with CuO nanoparticles, and modified hemispherical distiller with CuO nanoparticles and glass cover cooling technology. The results presented that the combination between two effective modifications (CuO nanoparticles with 0.3% concentration and glass cover cooling technology) represents the good option which improving the freshwater productivity to 7.9 L/m2/day compared to 3.85 L/m2/day for reference distiller with an improvement of 105.2%. Also, the utilization of these two combined effective modification with 0.3% CuO nanoparticles concentration improves the daily efficiency by 101.5% compared to reference distiller.

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Topics: Energy source (50%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11356-021-17367-9
Abstract: This paper presents a comprehensive experimental study of the some effective modifications which aim to improve the cumulative productivity of solar distillers, in order to reach the best modification that achieves the highest cumulative productivity of hemispherical distillates. The experimentations were carried on the hemispherical distillers which are characterized by a large area of receiving and condensation. To obtain the best modification that achieves the highest cumulative productivity, the present comprehensive studies were conducted on two experimental scenarios. In the first scenario, the influences of internal reflective (Reflective Mirrors and Reflective Aluminum Foil) on hemispherical distillers performance was studied. In the second scenario, the influences of internal reflective with El-Oued sand grains as the energy store mediums on hemispherical distiller performances was studied. To achieve this goal, we designed and fabricated three hemispherical distillers, the first distiller represents the reference case (Conventional Hemispherical Solar Still—CHSS), the second is the Hemispherical Solar Still with Internal Reflective Mirrors (HSS-IRM), and a third is the Hemispherical Solar Still with Internal Reflective Aluminum Foil (HSS-IRAF). In the second experimental scenario, the El-Oued sand grains were added to the basin of the second and third distillers as follows; where the second distiller became a Hemispherical Solar Still with Internal Reflective Mirrors and El-Oued sand grains (HSS-IRM & SG), and a third distiller became a Hemispherical Solar Still with Internal Reflective Aluminum Foil and El-Oued sand grains (HSS-IRAF & SG). The results presented that the cumulative production of reference distiller (CHSS) up to 4750 mL/m2, while use of internal reflective mirrors and El-Oued sand grains (HSS-IRM & SG) increases the production to 9400 mL/m2 day. The maximum improvement in cumulative distillate production, exergy efficiency, and thermal efficiency was recorded for utilization of internal reflective mirrors and El-Oued sand grains (HSS-IRM & SG) which reached 98, 200.9, and 96%, respectively, compared to reference case (CHSS). The economic feasibility indicated that the utilization of HSS-IRM & SG represent the good modification which reduced the cost of freshwater productivity by 49.1% compared to CHSS.

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.RENENE.2021.08.071
01 Dec 2021-Renewable Energy
Abstract: The present study aims to achieve the highest cumulative yield of pyramid solar distillers. To achieve this, a new combination of several effective modifications was made to the design of the pyramid distillers. This novel combination of the effective modifications includes: coated the absorber surface with CuO nano black paint, reflective mirrors, and phase change material with pin fins. To illustrate the influences of this novel combination on a cumulative yield of pyramid distillers. Two pyramid distillers were designed and tested under the same weather conditions, namely; modified pyramid solar distiller (MPSD) with a novel combination of effective modifications and conventional pyramid solar distiller (CPSD) (reference case). The experimental, energy, and exergy analysis are also studied in this work. The experimental results presented that the utilization of this novel combination of effective modifications represents a very effective option to achieve the highest performance. The cumulative yield achieved by CPSD varying between 4085 and 4171 mL/m2/day, while the utilization of this novel combination of effective modifications was improving the cumulative yield to 9885–10015 mL/m2/day with 140.1–142% improvement compared to CPSD. Also, the daily thermal and exergy efficiencies of MPSD were improved by a rate varying between 138.1-140.1% and 243.6–252.9%, respectively compared to CPSD.

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Topics: Pyramid (50%)

References
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43 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.DESAL.2004.06.203
20 Feb 2005-Desalination
Abstract: A single-stage, basin-type solar still and a conventional flat-plate collector were connected together in order to study the effect of augmentation on the still under local conditions. The still inlet was connected to a locally made, fin-tube collector such that its outlet was fed to the still basin instead of the common storage tank. Measurements of various temperatures, solar intensities and distilled water productions were taken for several days at various operating conditions. Several modes of operation were studied: still connected to collector for a 24-h period; still connected only during sunlight hours from 8 am to 5 pm, and still operating alone for a 24-h period. These tests were performed using tap water and saline water as a feed. It was found that the mass of distilled water production using augmentation was increased by 231% in the case of tap water as a feed and by 52% in the case of salt water as a feed.

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Topics: Solar still (62%), Tap water (52%), Distilled water (50%)

188 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SOLENER.2017.01.007
01 Mar 2017-Solar Energy
Abstract: The performance of a cylindrical parabolic concentrator with focal pipe - coupled with a developed solar still with (oil heat exchanger, Phase Change Material (PCM)) have been experimentally investigated to improve the freshwater productivity. The cylindrical parabolic concentrator with focal pipe and oil heat exchanger (serpentine loop) represent the external heat source to increase the temperatures of the basin water and PCM. The PCM used as a heat storage medium. The influences of high heat exchanger oil temperature on the performance of the developed solar still are experimental investigated. A comparison between a developed solar still and the convenstional solar still is carried out to evaluate the enhancement in the freshwater productivity under the same ambient conditions. The experimental results indicated that, the freshwater productivity approximately reached 10.77 L/m 2 day for the developed solar still, while its value is recorded 4.48 L/m 2 day for conventional solar still. The freshwater productivity of the developed solar still is 140.4% higher than that of the conventional solar still in average. Also, the daily efficiency approximately reached 25.73% for the developed solar still, while its value is recorded 46% for conventional solar still. The percentage decrease in the daily efficiency for the developed solar still about 44% compared to the convenstional solar still in average. In the present experimental work the estimated cost of one liter of freshwater productivity reaches approximately 0.1359 LE (0.0174 $) and 0.1378 LE (0.0177 $) for developed solar still and conventional solar still, respectively. This results is obtained during the period from June to August 2015 under the Egyptian conditions.

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116 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.RENENE.2015.11.051
01 Apr 2016-Renewable Energy
Abstract: The performance of compound parabolic concentrator assisted tubular solar still (CPC-TSS) and compound parabolic concentrator-concentric tubular solar still (CPC-CTSS) (to allow cooling water) with different augmentation systems were studied. A rectangular saline water trough of dimension 2 m × 0.03 m × 0.025 m was designed and fabricated. The effective collector area of the still is 2 m × 1 m with five sets of tubular still – CPC collectors placed horizontally with north-south orientation. Hot water taken from the CPC-CTSS was integrated to a pyramid type and single slope solar still. Diurnal variations of water temperature, air temperature, cover temperature and distillate yield were recorded. The results showed that, the productivity of the un-augmented CPC-TSS and CPC-CTSS were 3710 ml/day and 4960 ml/day, respectively. With the heat extraction technique, the productivity of CPC-CTSS with a single slope solar still and CPC-CTSS with a pyramid solar still were found as 6460 ml/day and 7770 ml/day, respectively. The process integration with different systems cost was found slightly higher but the overall efficiency and the produced distilled water yield was found augmented.

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Topics: Solar still (61%)

112 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SOLENER.2018.01.043
15 Mar 2018-Solar Energy
Abstract: The performance of coupling parabolic trough collector (PTC) with double slope solar still is investigated experimentally. The incident solar energy on the PTC is transferred to the solar still by oil pipes connected with finned-piped loop heat exchanger imbedded in the solar still. The experiments are conducted at summer and winter times for three systems; conventional solar still, solar still with fixed PTC and with tracked PTC and for two cases of saline water depth in the basin 20 and 30 mm. The results illustrate that the solar still with PTC has higher sill temperature and productivity compared with conventional solar still. The freshwater productivity of solar still with tracked PTC is higher than that of fixed PTC by about 28.1% and for conventional solar still by about 142.3% at saline water depth 20 mm in summer. Freshwater productivity is about 8.53 kg/m2/ day and 4.03 kg/m2/day for solar still coupled with fixed PTC in the summer and winter respectively. The results also illustrate that the performance of solar still in winter is smaller than summer for all studied cases and systems. In summer and at saline water depth 20 mm, the daily efficiency of the conventional solar still, solar still with fixed PTC and solar still with tracked PTC are 36.87, 23.26 and 29.81% respectively.

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Topics: Solar energy (63%), Solar still (63%), Parabolic trough (59%)

106 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JCLEPRO.2017.05.195
Abstract: A modified pyramid solar still with both v-corrugated absorbers plate and PCM, and the conventional pyramid solar still was designed, constructed and fabricated under the same ambient conditions of Tanta city, Egypt. The performance of the modified pyramid still with both v-corrugated absorbers plate and PCM (modified pyramid still with PCM) are compared to the conventional pyramid still, to describe the improvement in the performance of the modified pyramid still with PCM. The experimental results showed that the accumulated distillate yield for modified pyramid still with PCM is higher than that of conventional pyramid still. The accumulated distillate yield reached approximately 6.6 L m −2 d −1 for modified pyramid still with PCM while its value was 3.5 L m −2 d −1 for conventional pyramid still. The use of v-corrugated absorbers plate and PCM under basin improved the accumulated distillate yield of a modified pyramid still with PCM by 87.4% compared to the conventional pyramid still. Moreover, the modified pyramid still with PCM is superior in daily efficiency (86.41%–88% improvement) compared to the conventional pyramid still in the period from September to October 2016 under the Egyptian conditions. The estimated cost of 1 L of distillate water productivity reached approximately 0.0236 $ L −1 for modified pyramid still with PCM while its value was 0.0262 $ L −1 for conventional pyramid still.

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Topics: Pyramid (62%), Solar still (50%)

95 Citations