scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Journal ArticleDOI

Fabrication of Aromatic Polyimide Membrane to Study the Pervaporative Separation of Phenanthrene/n-tetradecane Mixtures (Model Diesel) and Process Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology

02 Jan 2017-Chemical Engineering Communications (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 204, Iss: 1, pp 64-78
TL;DR: In this paper, an aromatic polyimide membrane is fabricated and explored for the separation of a polyaromatic hydrocarbon (phenanthrene) from a model diesel composition (n-tetradecane) via pervaporation.
Abstract: To meet stringent fuel specifications, separation of aromatics from aliphatics is an everyday challenge for a refiner. In the present investigation, an aromatic polyimide membrane is fabricated and explored for the separation of a polyaromatic hydrocarbon (phenanthrene) from a model diesel composition (n-tetradecane) via pervaporation. The pervaporative membrane is prepared by casting a solution of polyamic acid, N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc), and phenanthrene using a simple and low-cost procedure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), and swelling in feed solution of the synthesized membrane have been conducted for its characterization. The membrane allows preferential permeation of phenanthrene. The influence of different physico-chemical parameters, on permeation flux and enrichment factor for n-tetradecane/phenanthrene mixtures, has been studied. Statistical software Design Expert 7.1.4 is used to derive the regression equation, which describes the effect o...
Citations
More filters
Journal Article
TL;DR: This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for "experimenters") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment.
Abstract: THE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTS. By Oscar Kempthorne. New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1952. 631 pp. $8.50. This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for \"experimenters\") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment. It is necessary to have some facility with algebraic notation and manipulation to be able to use the volume intelligently. The problems are presented from the theoretical point of view, without such practical examples as would be helpful for those not acquainted with mathematics. The mathematical justification for the techniques is given. As a somewhat advanced treatment of the design and analysis of experiments, this volume will be interesting and helpful for many who approach statistics theoretically as well as practically. With emphasis on the \"why,\" and with description given broadly, the author relates the subject matter to the general theory of statistics and to the general problem of experimental inference. MARGARET J. ROBERTSON

13,333 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide an overview on the advances in studying membrane materials for the pervaporation separation of aromatic/aliphatic mixtures over the past decade and highlight their nature and separation performance.

56 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The objective of this work was to investigate the modification of soil contaminated with phenanthrene (PHE) by electro-kinetic remediation (EKR) process using response surface methodology (RSM), and results showed that in values of pH 3, time of 168 h, voltage of 3 V, and electrolyte concentration of 4 mg/L, the removal efficiency of PHE reached 96.6%.
Abstract: The objective of this work was to investigate the modification of soil contaminated with phenanthrene (PHE) by electro-kinetic remediation (EKR) process using response surface methodology (RSM). The soil sample was obtained from the subgrades (0–30 cm) of an area close to Shahroud City, Northeast of Iran. The effect of variables such as initial pH, voltage, electrolyte concentration, and reaction time on PHE removal was studied. Based on the results obtained from the central composite design (CCD) experiment, the highest and lowest amount of PHE removal was 97 and 20%, respectively. In this study, the variables A, B, C, AB, AC, and C2 with a p value < 0.05 were significant model terms and the parameter of the lack of fit was not significant (p value = 0.0745). Findings indicated that the “predicted R-squared” of 0.9670 was in reasonable agreement with the “adj R-squared” of 0.9857 and the plot of residual followed a normal distribution and approximately linear. Also, the kinetic rates of the removal PHE by the EKR process best fitted with a first-order kinetic model (R2: 0.926). Results of the investigation of the effective variables showed that in values of pH 3, time of 168 h, voltage of 3 V, and electrolyte concentration of 4 mg/L, the removal efficiency of PHE reached 96.6%.

12 citations

01 Jan 2012
TL;DR: In this paper, a modified Maxwell-Stefan model was proposed for the separation of phenol from water using a polyurethane membrane by pervaporation by applying the Modified Maxwell-S tephen model.
Abstract: Pervaporation has the potential to be an alternativ e to the other traditional separation processes such as distillation, adsorption, reverse osmosis and extraction. This st udy investigates the separation of phenol from water using a polyure thane membrane by pervaporation by applying the modified Maxwell-S tephen model. The modified Maxwell-Stefan model takes into accoun t the non-ideal multi-component solubility effect, nonideal diffusi vity of all permeating components, concentration dependent dens ity of the membrane and diffusion coupling to predict various fluxes. Four cases has been developed to investigate the process parameters effects on the flux and weight fraction of phenol i n the permeate values namely feed concentration, membrane thicknes s, operating temperature and operating downstream pressure. The model could describe semi-quantitatively the performance of the pervaporation membrane for the given system as a very good agreem ent between the observed and theoretical fluxes was observed. Keywords—Pervaporation, Phenol, Polyurethane, Modified Maxwell-Stefan equation, Solution Diffusion

6 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

4 citations


Cites background or methods or result from "Fabrication of Aromatic Polyimide M..."

  • ...Such type of behavior was reported in our previous study [34] and for pervaporative separation of aqueous phenol [56]....

    [...]

  • ...The details of membrane preparation method adopted for the fabrication of the aromatic polyamide membrane was cited in a recent publication [34]....

    [...]

  • ...PAHs present in the feed interact with the polyaromatic present in the membrane as is evident from our previous study [34]....

    [...]

  • ...From our previous studies [25,34], permeability of components, present in prepared model diesel (phenanthrene in ntetradecane) through fabricated API membrane reveals successful separation of desired PAH via pervaporation (PV)....

    [...]

  • ...The results and discussion are published elsewhere in detail [34]....

    [...]

References
More filters
Journal Article
TL;DR: This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for "experimenters") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment.
Abstract: THE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTS. By Oscar Kempthorne. New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1952. 631 pp. $8.50. This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for \"experimenters\") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment. It is necessary to have some facility with algebraic notation and manipulation to be able to use the volume intelligently. The problems are presented from the theoretical point of view, without such practical examples as would be helpful for those not acquainted with mathematics. The mathematical justification for the techniques is given. As a somewhat advanced treatment of the design and analysis of experiments, this volume will be interesting and helpful for many who approach statistics theoretically as well as practically. With emphasis on the \"why,\" and with description given broadly, the author relates the subject matter to the general theory of statistics and to the general problem of experimental inference. MARGARET J. ROBERTSON

13,333 citations


"Fabrication of Aromatic Polyimide M..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Such planning and conducting experiments and finally analyzing the data result in obtaining valid and objective conclusions (Montgomery, 2009)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The carcinogenicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is associated with the complexity of the molecule, and with metabolic activation to reactive diol epoxide intermediates and their subsequent covalent binding to critical targets in DNA.
Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are formed during incomplete combustion. Domestic wood burning and road traffic are the major sources of PAHs in Sweden. In Stockholm, the sum of 14 different PAHs is 100-200 ng/m(3) at the street-level site, the most abundant being phenanthrene. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) varies between 1 and 2 ng/m(3). Exposure to PAH-containing substances increases the risk of cancer in humans. The carcinogenicity of PAHs is associated with the complexity of the molecule, i.e., increasing number of benzenoid rings, and with metabolic activation to reactive diol epoxide intermediates and their subsequent covalent binding to critical targets in DNA. B[a]P is the main indicator of carcinogenic PAHs. Fluoranthene is an important volatile PAH because it occurs at high concentrations in ambient air and because it is an experimental carcinogen in certain test systems. Thus, fluoranthene is suggested as a complementary indicator to B[a]P. The most carcinogenic PAH identified, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, is also suggested as an indicator, although it occurs at very low concentrations. Quantitative cancer risk estimates of PAHs as air pollutants are very uncertain because of the lack of useful, good-quality data. According to the World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines for Europe, the unit risk is 9 X 10(-5) per ng/m(3) of B[a]P as indicator of the total PAH content, namely, lifetime exposure to 0.1 ng/m(3) would theoretically lead to one extra cancer case in 100,000 exposed individuals. This concentration of 0.1 ng/m(3) of B[a]P is suggested as a health-based guideline. Because the carcinogenic potency of fluoranthene has been estimated to be approximately 20 times less than that of B[a]P, a tentative guideline value of 2 ng/m(3) is suggested for fluoranthene. Other significant PAHs are phenanthrene, methylated phenanthrenes/anthracenes and pyrene (high air concentrations), and large-molecule PAHs such as dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (high carcinogenicity). Additional source-specific indicators are benzo[ghi]perylene for gasoline vehicles, retene for wood combustion, and dibenzothiophene and benzonaphthothiophene for sulfur-containing fuels.

1,433 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a modified high-volume sampling method (PS-1 sampler) was employed to collect airborne polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in both the particulate and gas phases.

1,218 citations


"Fabrication of Aromatic Polyimide M..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Phenanthrene has been chosen as the target PAH because it has been identified as a categorical pollutant present in diesel engine emissions (Khalili, 1995)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an analytical overview of the potential of pervaporation for separating liquid mixtures in terms of the solubility parameter and the kinetic parameter of solvents is provided.

778 citations


"Fabrication of Aromatic Polyimide M..." refers background in this paper

  • ...…Group, LLC ISSN: 0098-6445 print/1563-5201 online DOI: 10.1080/00986445.2016.1235563 For pervaporative separation of aromatic=aliphatic mixtures (Shao and Huang, 2007; Pithan et al., 2002), aromatic polyimides can serve as prospective candidates of membrane material, which is evident from…...

    [...]

  • ...For pervaporative separation of aromatic=aliphatic mixtures (Shao and Huang, 2007; Pithan et al., 2002), aromatic polyimides can serve as prospective candidates of membrane material, which is evident from substantial research in the recent past (Kuang et al....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide a comprehensive overview on the current state-of-the-art technologies for polyimides membranes in pervaporation, from polymer synthesis, modification to membrane formation.

338 citations


"Fabrication of Aromatic Polyimide M..." refers background in this paper

  • ..., 2002), aromatic polyimides can serve as prospective candidates of membrane material, which is evident from substantial research in the recent past (Kuang et al., 2010; Salehian et al., 2015; Jiang et al., 2009; Katarzynski and Staudt, 2006; Katarzynski and Staudt, 2010)....

    [...]

  • ...…Huang, 2007; Pithan et al., 2002), aromatic polyimides can serve as prospective candidates of membrane material, which is evident from substantial research in the recent past (Kuang et al., 2010; Salehian et al., 2015; Jiang et al., 2009; Katarzynski and Staudt, 2006; Katarzynski and Staudt, 2010)....

    [...]