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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/09540121.2020.1722311

Loneliness among older adults living with HIV: the "older old" may be less lonely than the "younger old".

04 Mar 2021-Aids Care-psychological and Socio-medical Aspects of Aids\/hiv (AIDS Care)-Vol. 33, Iss: 3, pp 375-382
Abstract: Loneliness is common among older (age 50+) people living with HIV (PLWH). However, little is known about the prevalence of loneliness across subgroups of older PLWH, and the factors that impact lon...

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Topics: Loneliness (64%), Social isolation (53%)

6 results found

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1097/COH.0000000000000659
Abstract: Purpose of review We examine the interplay between the HIV and COVID-19 epidemics, including the impact of HIV on COVID-19 susceptibility and severe disease, the effect of the COVID-19 epidemic on HIV prevention and treatment, and the influence of the HIV epidemic on responses to COVID-19. Recent findings Evidence to date does not suggest that people living with HIV (PLWH) have a markedly higher susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection, with disparities in the social determinants of health and comorbidities likely having a greater influence. The majority of literature has not supported a higher risk for severe disease among PLWH in Europe and the United States, although a large, population-based study in South Africa reported a higher rate of death due to COVID-19. Higher rates of comorbidities associated with COVID-19 disease severity among PLWH is an urgent concern. COVID-19 is leading to decreased access to HIV prevention services and HIV testing, and worsening HIV treatment access and virologic suppression, which could lead to worsening HIV epidemic control. Conclusion COVID-19 is threatening gains against the HIV epidemic, including the U.S. Ending the HIV Epidemic goals. The ongoing collision of these two global pandemics will continue to need both study and interventions to mitigate the effects of COVID-19 on HIV efforts worldwide.

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Topics: Pandemic (52%), Population (52%)

24 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SOCSCIMED.2021.113711
Maria De Jesus1, Deanna Ware2, Andre L. Brown3, James E. Egan3  +5 moreInstitutions (6)
Abstract: Rationale Loneliness is associated with negative health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, dementia, physical functional decline, depression, and increased mortality risk, among HIV- positive and HIV-negative older men who have sex with men (MSM). Given these negative health outcomes, it is imperative to identify factors that minimize loneliness in these vulnerable groups. Objective We sought to examine whether social-environmental resiliencies—defined as an individual's level of support, social bonding, and psychological sense of community among gay men—buffer against symptoms of loneliness. Method We analyzed longitudinal data from 1,255 older MSM with and without HIV infection, all of whom were enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Using longitudinal latent class analysis (LLCA), we identified three underlying classes (Social Connectors, Non-community Connectors, and Social Isolates) in the social environment of the sample. We assessed the prevalence of loneliness by these latent classes. By lagging social environmental factors over time, we were able to examine the temporal relationships between latent classes and subsequent loneliness. Results Consistent with our hypothesis, multivariate associations revealed that compared to Social Connectors with high levels of social support and social bonding and a strong perceived sense of community among gay men, Social Isolates (Prevalence Ratio (PR): 1.42; 95% CI: 1.08–1.88; p = 0.0120) and Non-community Connectors (PR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.03–1.75; p = 0.0322) were more likely to experience loneliness after adjustment for covariates and baseline loneliness. There were no differences by HIV status. Conclusions These longitudinal data allowed us to make causal inferences related to the social environmental resiliencies lowering the odds of loneliness among HIV-positive and HIV-negative older MSM. Developing individual- and community-level tailored interventions for these populations by leveraging social environmental resiliencies is key to reducing loneliness and promoting health.

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Topics: Loneliness (68%), Social support (56%), Social environment (56%) ... read more

2 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000002596
Abstract: Background Even in the era of suppressive antiretroviral therapy, people with HIV (PWH) suffer greater exposure to inflammation than their uninfected peers. Although poor social support and social isolation have been linked to systemic inflammation in the general population, it is not known whether this is true also among PWH. Methods People with and without HIV infection were enrolled in a community-based, single-center study. Primary predictors were the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey, and outcomes were a panel of inflammatory biomarkers (ICAM-1, MCP-1, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, C-reactive protein, D-dimer, VEGF, sCD14, and uPAR) in blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Results PWH had worse positive social support (P = 0.0138) and affectionate support (P = 0.0078) than did HIV- individuals. A factor analysis was used to group the biomarkers into related categories separately for each fluid. Levels of 3 of the 4 plasma factors were significantly higher in PWH than HIV- (ps = 0.007, 0.001, and 0.0005, respectively). Levels of 1 of the 3 CSF factors also were significantly higher in PWH than HIV- (P = 0.0194). In the combined PWH and HIV- cohort, poorer social support was associated with higher levels of a factor in plasma loading on MCP-1, IL-8, and VEGF (P = 0.020) and with a CSF factor loading on MCP-1 and IL-6 (P = 0.006). Conclusion These results suggest that enhancing social support might be an intervention to reduce inflammation and its associated adverse outcomes among PWH.

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Topics: Population (52%)

2 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/13691058.2020.1795722
Abstract: The negative effects of stigma on men living with HIV within gay communities are well-documented. However, few studies have examined the experience of intimacy for men living with HIV as a conseque...

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Topics: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (56%)

2 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S12955-020-01643-2
Kelly K O'Brien1, Mendwas Dzingina2, Richard Harding2, Wei Gao2  +3 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Disability is an increasingly important health-related outcome to consider as more individuals are now aging with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and multimorbidity. The HIV Disability Questionnaire (HDQ) is a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM), developed to measure the presence, severity and episodic nature of disability among adults living with HIV. The 69-item HDQ includes six domains: physical, cognitive, mental-emotional symptoms and impairments, uncertainty and worrying about the future, difficulties with day-to-day activities, and challenges to social inclusion. Our aim was to develop a short-form version of the HIV Disability Questionnaire (SF-HDQ) to facilitate use in clinical and community-based practice among adults living with HIV. We used Rasch analysis to inform item reduction using an existing dataset of adults living with HIV in Canada (n = 941) and Ireland (n = 96) who completed the HDQ (n = 1037). We evaluated overall model fit with Cronbach’s alpha and Person Separation Indices (PSIs) (≥ 0.70 acceptable). Individual items were evaluated for item threshold ordering, fit residuals, differential item functioning (DIF) and unidimensionality. For item threshold ordering, we examined item characteristic curves and threshold maps merging response options of items with disordered thresholds to obtain order. Items with fit residuals > 2.5 or less than − 2.5 and statistically significant after Bonferroni-adjustment were considered for removal. For DIF, we considered removing items with response patterns that varied according to country, age group (≥ 50 years versus < 50 years), and gender. Subscales were considered unidimensional if ≤ 5% of t-tests comparing possible patterns in residuals were significant. We removed 34 items, resulting in a 35-item SF-HDQ with domain structure: physical (10 items); cognitive (3 items); mental-emotional (5 items); uncertainty (5 items); difficulties with day-to-day activities (5 items) and challenges to social inclusion (7 items). Overall models’ fit: Cronbach’s alphas ranged from 0.78 (cognitive) to 0.85 (physical and mental-emotional) and PSIs from 0.69 (day-to-day activities) to 0.79 (physical and mental-emotional). Three items were rescored to achieve ordered thresholds. All domains demonstrated unidimensionality. Three items with DIF were retained because of their clinical importance. The 35-item SF-HDQ offers a brief, comprehensive disability PROM for use in clinical and community-based practice with adults living with HIV.

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Topics: Item analysis (60%), Differential item functioning (59%), Item response theory (56%) ... read more

1 Citations


33 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PMED.1000316
27 Jul 2010-PLOS Medicine
Abstract: Background The quality and quantity of individuals' social relationships has been linked not only to mental health but also to both morbidity and mortality. Objectives This meta-analytic review was conducted to determine the extent to which social relationships influence risk for mortality, which aspects of social relationships are most highly predictive, and which factors may moderate the risk. Data Extraction Data were extracted on several participant characteristics, including cause of mortality, initial health status, and pre-existing health conditions, as well as on study characteristics, including length of follow-up and type of assessment of social relationships. Results Across 148 studies (308,849 participants), the random effects weighted average effect size was OR = 1.50 (95% CI 1.42 to 1.59), indicating a 50% increased likelihood of survival for participants with stronger social relationships. This finding remained consistent across age, sex, initial health status, cause of death, and follow-up period. Significant differences were found across the type of social measurement evaluated (p<0.001); the association was strongest for complex measures of social integration (OR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.63 to 2.23) and lowest for binary indicators of residential status (living alone versus with others) (OR = 1.19; 95% CI 0.99 to 1.44). Conclusions The influence of social relationships on risk for mortality is comparable with well-established risk factors for mortality. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

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Topics: Social support (57%), Mortality rate (53%), Social integration (52%) ... read more

4,109 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.280.19.1690
Jun Zhang1, Kai F. YuInstitutions (1)
18 Nov 1998-JAMA
Abstract: Logistic regression is used frequently in cohort studies and clinical trials. When the incidence of an outcome of interest is common in the study population (>10%), the adjusted odds ratio derived from the logistic regression can no longer approximate the risk ratio. The more frequent the outcome, the more the odds ratio overestimates the risk ratio when it is more than 1 or underestimates it when it is less than 1. We propose a simple method to approximate a risk ratio from the adjusted odds ratio and derive an estimate of an association or treatment effect that better represents the true relative risk.

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Topics: Odds ratio (68%), Relative risk (67%), Diagnostic odds ratio (63%) ... read more

3,224 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/1745691614568352
Abstract: Actual and perceived social isolation are both associated with increased risk for early mortality. In this meta-analytic review, our objective is to establish the overall and relative magnitude of social isolation and loneliness and to examine possible moderators. We conducted a literature search of studies (January 1980 to February 2014) using MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Social Work Abstracts, and Google Scholar. The included studies provided quantitative data on mortality as affected by loneliness, social isolation, or living alone. Across studies in which several possible confounds were statistically controlled for, the weighted average effect sizes were as follows: social isolation odds ratio (OR) = 1.29, loneliness OR = 1.26, and living alone OR = 1.32, corresponding to an average of 29%, 26%, and 32% increased likelihood of mortality, respectively. We found no differences between measures of objective and subjective social isolation. Results remain consistent across gender, length of follow-up, and world region, but initial health status has an influence on the findings. Results also differ across participant age, with social deficits being more predictive of death in samples with an average age younger than 65 years. Overall, the influence of both objective and subjective social isolation on risk for mortality is comparable with well-established risk factors for mortality.

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Topics: Social isolation (65%), Loneliness (63%), Odds ratio (50%)

2,133 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2105/AJPH.79.3.340
Sander Greenland1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This paper provides an overview of problems in multivariate modeling of epidemiologic data, and examines some proposed solutions. Special attention is given to the task of model selection, which involves selection of the model form, selection of the variables to enter the model, and selection of the form of these variables in the model. Several conclusions are drawn, among them: a) model and variable forms should be selected based on regression diagnostic procedures, in addition to goodness-of-fit tests; b) variable-selection algorithms in current packaged programs, such as conventional stepwise regression, can easily lead to invalid estimates and tests of effect; and c) variable selection is better approached by direct estimation of the degree of confounding produced by each variable than by significance-testing algorithms. As a general rule, before using a model to estimate effects, one should evaluate the assumptions implied by the model against both the data and prior information.

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Topics: Model selection (63%), Regression diagnostic (61%), Regression analysis (60%) ... read more

1,984 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/0164027504268574
01 Nov 2004-Research on Aging
Abstract: Most studies of social relationships in later life focus on the amount of social contact, not on individuals' perceptions of social isolation. However, loneliness is likely to be an important aspect of aging. A major limiting factor in studying loneliness has been the lack of a measure suitable for large-scale social surveys. This article describes a short loneliness scale developed specifically for use on a telephone survey. The scale has three items and a simplified set of response categories but appears to measure overall loneliness quite well. The authors also document the relationship between loneliness and several commonly used measures of objective social isolation. As expected, they find that objective and subjective isolation are related. However, the relationship is relatively modest, indicating that the quantitative and qualitative aspects of social relationships are distinct. This result suggests the importance of studying both dimensions of social relationships in the aging process.

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Topics: Loneliness (72%), Social isolation (62%), Social relation (56%)

1,611 Citations

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